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Everybody's business. Strengthening health systems to improve health outcomes: WHO’s framework for action.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2007.  p.The primary aim of this Framework for Action is to clarify and strengthen WHO’s role in health systems in a changing world. There is continuity in the values that underpin it from its constitution, the Alma Ata Declaration of Health For All, and the principles of Primary Health Care. Consultations over the last year have emphasized the importance of WHO’s institutional role in relationship to health systems. The General Programme of Work (2006-2015) and Medium-term Strategic Plan 2008-2013 (MTSP) focus on what needs to be done. While reaffirming the technical agenda, this Framework concentrates more on how the WHO secretariat can provide more effective support to Member States and partners in this domain. (Excerpt)
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública / Pan American Journal of Public Health. 2006; 20(1):54-59.The Pan American Health Organization traces its origin back to the First General International Sanitary Convention of the American Republics, which was held in Washington, D. C., in December 1902. At the top of the agenda of the meeting were the complex public health issues involved in fighting yellow fever and other epidemic infectious diseases. The final resolution of the first convention stated, "It shall be the duty of the International Sanitary Bureau to lend its best aid and experience toward the widest possible protection of the public health of each of the said Republics, in order that disease may be eliminated and that commerce between said Republics may be facilitated." In the 19th century, efforts at inter-American cooperation had been limited almost exclusively to assisting commerce, and had had almost nothing to do with health. In 1923 the International Sanitary Bureau changed its name to the Pan American Sanitary Bureau, which would eventually become known as the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) (1). Pan-Americanism is the guiding principle upon which PAHO was founded. That principle is expressed in the PAHO Member States' commitment to working together to improve the health of their citizens and to support the countries facing the greatest need. This principle recognizes that many health problems require a collective effort. The PAHO Member States acknowledge that the health and public health of one's neighbors is a shared responsibility of all. Pan-Americanism is grounded in values aimed at breaking down the barriers of health inequities. This principle is perhaps even more relevant today in a world of free trade and vast movements of people. (excerpt)
Guttmacher Report on Public Policy. 2003 Aug; 6(3):4-5, 14.In the United States and other developed countries, where Pap tests are widely available and easily accessible, deaths from cervical cancer have plunged in recent decades, even in the presence of high HPV rates. Death rates remain high in developing countries because women lack access to Pap tests or other effective screening programs. The evidence strongly suggests, then, that while keeping the focus on HPV and its sexual transmission may be politically useful in advancing a morality-based, abstinence-until- marriage agenda, a more realistic campaign against cervical cancer deaths would focus on increasing access to cervical cancer screening among women around the world. (excerpt)