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  1. 1

    Report: Second Conference of Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development, 23-25 September 1987, Beijing, China.

    Conference of Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (2nd: 1987: Beijing)

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1987. [3], 72 p.

    The formal proceedings of the 1987 Asian (AFPPD) Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (FPPD) are provided in some detail. 23 countries participated. The Asian Forum Beijing Declaration preamble, program of action, call to action, and rededication are presented. Background information indicates that these conferences have been ongoing since 1984 to exchange information and experience, to promote cooperation, and to sustain involvement of Parliamentarians in population and development issues. Official delegations represented Australia, Bangladesh, China, Korea, India, Iraq, Japan, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, north and south Korea, Sri Lanka, Syria, Thailand, and Vietnam. Observers were from Bhutan, Cyprus, Indonesia, Kiribati, and Tonga. The UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) was involved as Conference Secretariat as well as the Preparatory Committee of China. Other UN and nongovernmental organizations and Parliamentary Councils of the World, Africa, and Europe were involved. Summaries were made of opening conference addresses of Mr. Takashi Sato, Mr. Zhou Gucheng, Chinese Premier Zhao Zivang, Japanese Prime Minister Takeo Fukuda, Dr. Nafis Sadik from the UNFPA, Mrs. Rahman Othman for Mr. Sat Paul Mittal of AFPPD, Australian Prime Minister R.J.L. Hawke, India Prime Minister Rajiv Ghandi, Sri Lankan Prime Minister R. Premedasa, Philippine President Corazon Aquino, Pakistan President Mohammad Zia-ul-Hag, and Bangladesh President Hussain Muhammad Ershad. Election of officers was discussed. The plenary sessions reported on the present situation and prospects for Asian population and development, basic health services and family planning (FP), urbanization, population and food, and aging. Reports were also provided of an exchange among Parliamentarians, the adoption of conference documents and the AFPPD constitution, election of officers, and the closing speakers. Appendices provide a complete list of participants, the constitution which was adopted, and the addresses of Mr. Zhou Gucheng from China's National People's Congress; Mr. Zhao Ziyang, Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China; Mr. Takeo Fukuda of the Global Committee of FPPD, Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director, UNFPA; and Mr. Sat Paul Mittal, Secretary General, AFPPD.
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  2. 2

    Implementation of the global strategy for Health for All by the Year 2000, second evaluation; and eighth report on the world health situation.

    World Health Organization [WHO].

    [Unpublished] 1992 Mar 6. 171 p. (A45/3)

    This 2nd evaluation of the global strategy for health for all (HFA) by 2000/8th report on the world health situation indicates a need for a new approach for sustainable health development which includes mobilizing resources for high priority populations and health needs, more effective and intersectoral health promotion and protection, and improving access to primary health care (PHC) via higher quality services and integrating health services into all social services. The data cover 96% of the world's population and the years 1985-90. The 1st chapter looks at the interaction among political, economic, demographic, and social development trends and their effects on health. It mentions the health development trend of increased involvement of individuals, communities, professional groups, and development agencies. The 2nd chapter centers on the progress of countries towards reaching HFA by examining the differences between the haves and the have nots. The 3rd chapter examines improvement and obstacles in health care coverage, PHC coverage, and quality of care. Chapter 4 reviews health resources including financial and human resources and health technology. The next chapter focuses on trends in mortality, morbidity, and disability and life style factors of health such as smoking. Chapter 6 examines policies and programs of environmental health, evaluation, and monitoring of environmental health hazards and risks, and environmental resources management. The 7th chapter brings together highlights and implications expressed in the previous chapters and states that health improvements have indeed occurred such as increased life expectancy. The last chapter uses the information in the preceding chapters to project future trends and mentions 5 challenges facing the world today.
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  3. 3

    Toward the well-being of the elderly.

    Pan American Health Organization

    Washington, D.C., Pan American Health Organization, 1985. 172 p. (PAHO Scientific Publication 492.)

    At present, aging is the most salient change affecting global population structure, mainly due to a marked decline in fertility rates. The Pan American Health Organization Secretariat organized a Briefing on Health Care for the Elderly in October 1984. Its purpose was to enable planners and decision-makers from health and planning ministries to exchange information on their health care programs for the elderly. This volume publishes some of the most relevant papers delivered at that meeting. The papers are organized into the following sections: 1) the present situation, 2) services for the elderly, 3) psychosocial and economic implications of aging, 4) training issues, 5) research and planning issues, and 6) governmental and nongovernmental policies and programs.
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  4. 4

    Health research strategy for health for all by the year 2000: report of a subcommittee of the ACHR.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Advisory Committee on Health Research

    World Health Organization, [WHO], Geneva, Switzerland, 1986. 89 p. (WHO/RPD/ACHR(HRS)/86)

    This report is the outcome of a study undertaken to outline for the WHO an approach to health research strategy, which sees health development in a historical and evolutionary perspective. There are 2 approaches to disease problems, 1 through control of disease origins, the other through intervention in disease mechanisms. The research strategy of the WHO should be devised primarily in the light of commitment to substantial progress in health by the year 2000, particularly in countries where the need is greatest. Steps that are likely to lead to rapid advance in health care include: control of diseases associated with poverty, control of communicable and noncommunicable diseases specific to the tropics, control of diseases associated with affluence, treatment and care of the sick, and delivery of health services. Goals must be determined in light of the circumstances and priorities of each country; each country should establish targets related to accomplishments in the following areas: national commitments to policies and programs supportive of health for all; improvements in mortality and morbidity rates; improvements in life-style and related health measures; improvements in coverage and various aspects of the quality of care; and improvements in health status and coverage of disadvantaged and marginal subgroups in the population.
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  5. 5

    Mortality and health policy: highlights of the issues in the context of the World Population Plan of Action.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: Mortality and health policy. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Mortality and Health Policy, Rome, 30 May to 3 June 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 37-79. (International Conference on Population, 1984.; ST/ESA/SER.A/91)

    This paper reviews the major issues that have emerged in the analysis of mortality and health policy since the 1974 World Population Conference. The 1st part summarizes current mortality conditions in the major world regions and evaluates progress toward achieving the goals of the World Population Plan of Action. It is noted that the current mortality situation is characterized by continued wide disparities between the more developed and less developed regions, especially during the 1st year of life. The 2nd part focuses on the synergistic relationship between health and development, including social, economic, and health inequalities. It is asserted that mortality rates in developing countries are a function of the balance governments select between development strategies favoring capital accumulation and concentrated investments on the 1 hand and strategies oriented toward meeting basic needs and reducing inequalities in income and wealth. Data from developed countries suggest that economic development does not necessarily lead to steady gains in life expectancy. Some variations in mortality may reflect changes in family relationships, especially women's status, that are induced by social and economic development, however. The 3rd part of this paper analyzes the effect of health policies on mortality, including curative and preventive programs and primary health care. The lack of community participation is cited as a key factor in the weak performance of primary health care in many developing countries. In addition, there is strong evidence that the concepts and technologies of modern medicine must be adapted to existing systems of disease prevention and care to gain acceptability. The 4th section, on the implementation of health policies, discusses health care management, planning, and financing. It is noted that successful implementation of health policies is often hindered by scarcity, inadequate allocation, and inefficient utilization of health resources. Finally, more effective means to cope with rising costs of health care are needed.
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  6. 6
    Peer Reviewed

    Latin American health policy and additive reform: the case of Guatemala.

    Fiedler JL

    International Journal of Health Services. 1985; 15(2):275-99.

    Until the mid 1960s, Latin American health system reflected the skewed distribution of wealth in the region: most health resources were found in curative care medicine and were concentrated in the capital cities, where they primarily served the needs of the elite. For many countries, however, the 1964 Pan American Health Organization's (PAHO) efforts to introduce health planning, intended as a 1st step in rationalizing the health sector, marked a fundamental turning point in the structural development of their delivery systems. Guatemala, however, was and remains an exception. Its technocrats have proven unable to plan effectively; no single entity is responsible for health sector planning, and the 5-year plans have come to consist of disjointed mini-plans, each reflecting the aims, desires and goals of a particular vested interest group or institution. The Guatemalan oligarchy has proven unwilling to appropriate the resources necessary to effect change. The reforms that have been made have been the products of bilateral and multilateral agencies such as the InterAmerican Development Bank, USAID, UNICEF, Kreditanstaldt and PAHO, which have conceptualized, promoted, designed, built and underwritten them. Those changes have not altered the fundamental structure of the system, but instead have been tacked onto it, and exemplify what may be termed additive reform. The government of Guatemala's own commitment to these outside agency funded projects is reflected in the recurrent shortfall of current or operating funds, and in the rapid depreciation of facilities. Evidence suggests that without the continued sponsorship, support, and guidance of the bilateral and multilateral agencies, even these additive reforms will not last.
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  7. 7

    Protection of children in the context of development and population.

    Grant JP

    [Unpublished] [1982]. Presented at the Western Hemisphere Conference of Parliamentarians, 4 December 1982, Brasilia. 11 p.

    In this address to Western hemisphere parlimentarians, the Executive Director of the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) urged conference participants from Latin American countries to serve as advocates for the children in their countries by 1) promoting national policies to reduce infant and child mortality through the implementation of oral rehydration therapy and nutrition surveillance programs; 2) encouraging their respective countries to implement and maintain the International Code on Marketing of Breastmilk Substitues; and 3) lending their support to UNICEF's newly proposed programs to help abandoned children. UNICEF's mission is to help the millions of children trapped by proverty. In line with this goal, UNICEF urges the Latin American countries to focus attention on 1) the 20 million Latin American children, aged 0-4 years, living in poverty and at high risk of death, malnutrition, and serious mental and physical disability; and 2) on the 30 million Latin American street children who have either no ties or only weak family ties. In reference to the 1st group of children, UNICEF urges countries which have not already done so to implement low cost oral rehydration therapy and nutritional surveillance programs and to adopt policies which will reverse the trend toward bottlefeeding. These activities cost little and involve little or no political risk, however, they can siginificantly reduce infant and child death rates. Reductions in the death rate will not, as some fear, increases the population growth problem; indeed, the opposite is true. Historically it has been demonstrated that in countries with an overall death rate of 14-15/1000 population, for each subsequent decline in the death rate there is a larger decline in the birth rate. For example, in Brazil between 1960-80 a 5 point decline in the death rate was accompanied by a 13 point decline in the birthrate. In reference to the 30 million street children, UNICEF is currently developing special programs aimed at providing care and training for these children. Institutionalizing street children is costly and does not provide the home-like environment these children require. Innovative programs, such as group homes, children's cooperative villages, and other community based approaches are less costly and provide the type of support these children need to become productive and adjusted members of society. UNICEF is undertaking a cost benefit analysis of these alternative strategies. UNICEF expects to present a proposal at the 1983 session of the Executive Board to develop a major regional program in Latin America to assist street children and to prevent child abandonment. The program will require siginificant financial support and government support if it is to achieve its goals.
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