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Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2015. 36 p.Key populations at higher risk of HIV include people who sell sex, men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender people and people who inject drugs. Young people who belong to one or more of these key populations – or who engage in activities associated with these populations – are made especially vulnerable to HIV by factors including widespread discrimination, stigma and violence, combined with the particular vulnerabilities of youth, power imbalances in relationships and, sometimes, alienation from family and friends. These factors increase the risk that they may engage – willingly or not – in behaviours that put them at risk of HIV, such as frequent unprotected sex and the sharing of needles and syringes to inject drugs. This brief aims to inform discussions about how best to provide health services, programmes and support for young transgender people. It offers a concise account of current knowledge concerning the HIV risk and vulnerability of young transgender people; the barriers and constraints they face to appropriate services; examples of programmes that may work well in addressing their needs and rights; and approaches and considerations for providing services that both draw upon and build the strengths, competencies and capacities of these young people.
AIDScience. 2003; 3(10): p..The belief that sex is the primary mode of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission in sub-Saharan Africa is an assertion so widely accepted and has remained unquestioned for so long that it has taken on the status of a received truth. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint U.N. Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) recently convened an expert consultation to review issues raised in a series of papers published in the International Journal of STD & AIDS (1-4) that questioned the validity of that assertion. After examining the papers, WHO and UNAIDS issued a press release announcing that "the vast majority of evidence [supports the view] that unsafe sexual practices continue to be responsible for the overwhelming majority of infections". As co-authors of the controversial articles, and as participants in the Geneva meeting (three of us), we state that WHO's conclusion is premature. It is neither based on those discussions, nor on a more considered review of the relevant literature. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, 2002. 43 p. (WHO/FCH/CAH/02.14)Adolescents represent a positive force in society, now and for the future. They face dangers more complex than previous generations faced, and often with less support. The development needs of adolescents are a matter for the whole of civil society. Health services play a specific role in preventing health problems and responding to them. Many changes are needed in order for health services to become adolescent friendly. (excerpt)
Copenhagen, Denmark, WHO, Regional Office for Europe, Sexuality and Family Planning Unit, 1986 May. 12 p.In 1965, the World Health Assemble gave the World Health Organization (WHO) a mandate to offer advice on family planning to member states and later states that family planning is an important part of basic health services. In 1884 the 33 members of the European region adopted a plan of action for a consolidated health policy. The goal of this plan and strategy, is for people to have access to health services that will make it possible to have socially and economically productive lives. There will be 4 main areas of effort including, promotion of healthy lifestyles, prevention medicine, better primary health care systems, and more effective political, managerial, technical, manpower, and research to ensure the above. There are ongoing studies to consider sexual health in a variety of cultures. These will assess changing sex roles, information interchange on lifestyle factors and demographic trends, ideas on childrearing styles, and recommendations on the development of healthy sexual relationships. There will be assessments of harmful sexual behavior and the reduction of sexually transmitted diseases. To improve basic health care systems, this program will help[ clarify concepts, investigate needs, analyze present services, get client input, compare information, and draw up guidelines. Methods will be examined to improve information exchange and the distribution of research and other pertinent material. There will be guidelines for legislative proposals in relation to lifestyles that promote better health by 1991. The development of ways to integrate family planning programs and services and connect them to key areas of society, is a goal to be reached by 1993. Also training programs to improve the various aspects of family planning and sexuality, including the attitudes of health professionals is needed.
[Unpublished] 1985. 114 p.This document is a practical guide to help those Planned Parenthood Associations which want to establish contraception and counseling services for young people. It draws its examples from the considerable experience of selected European countries in what can be controversial and difficult areas. In the section devoted to adolescent sexuality and contraception, contributors cover culture and subculture, health and sexuality, sexual behavior and contraceptive services, the adolescent experience, the question of opposition to services for adolescents, and statistical indices. 1 section is devoted to examples of contraceptive counseling services for adolescents in Sweden, Italy, France, the UK, and Poland. Another section summarizes service provision examples. The 5th section presents methodology for the establishment of adolescents services and the final section discusses methodology testing of new projects. This report contends that the case for the rapid development of contraceptive/counseling services, tailored to the needs and desires of young people, is justified on moral as well as on sociological, psychological, and health grounds. It rejects totally the argument that any measure which could facilitate the sexual debut of the unmarried or legally dependent adolescent should be resisted. It does recognize public concern about family breakdown and the potential health risks of sexual activity but considers the examples given as measures designed to combat rather than ignore these. Taking into account sociological, psychological, and medical evidence, the contributors to this report challenge the following presumptions: sexual activity among the young is always and necessarily morally unacceptable and socially destructive; adolescents will resort to promiscuous sexual activity in the absence of legal deterrents such as refusal of access to contraceptive/counseling services; the potential health risks of sexual activity and use of contraceptives during adolescence provide sufficient justification for deterrent measures, including refusal of contraceptive/counseling services; and the scale of sexual ignorance and prevalence of unplanned pregnancy among adolescents can only be reduced by disincentives and deterrents to sexual activity itself. The case for the provision of contraceptive/counseling services rests on their potential to help adolescents to recognize and resist repressive forms of sexual activity, which are destructive of humanmanships. Evidence suggests that it is not difficult to attract a large cross-section of an adolescent public to use contraceptive/counseling services, where established.
Progress in Reproductive Health Research. 2002; (58):1.Since the late 1980s, the UN Development Program/UN Population Fund, World Bank Special Program of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction has supported social science research on the needs and perceptions of young people. The initiative aimed to support research that addresses factors that contribute to positive sexual and reproductive health outcomes, especially those that can be influenced by appropriate interventions in developing countries. This editorial introduces issue 58 of “Progress in Reproductive Health Research” is based on research supported under this special research initiative on adolescents and constitutes summaries of papers published in Reproductive Health Matters (May 2001). While focused on the situation of young people in different settings (China, Kenya, Nigeria), these studies highlight that adolescents engage in unsafe sex and are frequently victims of coercion and few use contraceptives. In addition, these studies highlight the need for reliable information, counseling and reproductive health services. There is also a need to identify best practices and develop evidence-based youth friendly policies and programs.
Youth and Reproductive Health in Countries in Transition: report of a European regional meeting, Copenhagen, Denmark, 23-25 June 1997.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1997. vii, 70 p.A report of a European meeting is presented in this document. The youth and reproductive health meeting held in Copenhagen, Denmark, June 23-25, 1997, was one of the regional meetings organized by the UN Population Fund to enhance the active participation of young people in discussing issues and formulating reproductive and sexual health programs. 67 participants attended the meeting, representing the countries of central and eastern Europe, countries in the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Baltic States; government and nongovernmental organizations from the aforementioned areas; and the national youth organization. This document is subdivided into 6 parts: 1) introduction; 2) opening session; 3) summary of presentation, which includes challenges to adolescent reproductive health; 4) key issues in reproductive and sexual health, which includes unprotected sexual relations and their consequences, sexual abuse, exploitation and violence against young women, lack of clear policies and programs, inadequate social support system, lack of knowledge and skills, lack of sound and relevant information services, lack of human and financial resources, and concluding observations; 5) strategies for action, which include the framework, and the proposed interventions; and 6) concluding remarks.
Washington, D.C., Center for Population Options, International Center on Adolescent Fertility, 1994. x, 70 p.This directory of agencies that support adolescent health programs in developing countries is a unique tool for identifying sources of support. The directory allows the identification of funding agencies that precedes the collaboration which is essential for turning the commitment, concern, and new ideas of program developers into reality. Part 1 of the directory lists organizations that fund programs directly (and which constitute the bulk of the listings). Part 2 presents organizations that fund through intermediaries (provide financial support to US-based agencies that work abroad). The best way to obtain support from these foundations is to collaborate with an intermediary organization. Appropriate intermediary organizations can be identified by obtaining the annual report of the foundation to see which organizations received funding recently. Agencies that provide technical assistance (in-kind support such as training, assistance in evaluation methodology, and educational supplied) are identified in Part 3. These organizations do not provide financial assistance. Finally, organizations interested in adolescent health are described in Part 4. These organizations have expressed an interest to be kept informed of activities, but they are not receptive to unsolicited proposals. They may be contacted to receive more information on their adolescent health activities. Information for each listing includes contacts, geographic regions of high priority, general purposes, types of projects supported, concern with adolescent health, descriptions of sample grants for youth work, and the application procedure. Advice on the art of advocacy, fund raising tips, how to write a proposal, and recommended resources is given in the appendices.
Copenhagen, Denmark, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, 1986. 62 p.A Consultation on Sexuality was convened by the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization (WHO) in Copenhagen in November 1983 to examine the sexual dimensions of health problems. Sexuality influences thoughts, feelings, actions, and interactions and thus physical and mental health. Since health is a fundamental human right, so must sexual health also be a basic human right. 3 basic elements of sexual health were identified: 1) a capacity to enjoy and control sexual and reproductive behavior in accordance with social and personal ethics; 2) freedom from fear, shame, guilt, false beliefs, and other psychological factors inhibiting sexual response and impairing sexual relationships; and 3) freedom from organic disorders, diseases, and deficiencies that interfere with sexual and reproductive functions. The purpose of sexual health care should be the enhancement of life and personal relationships, not only counseling or care related to procreation and sexually transmitted diseases. Barriers to sexual health include myths and taboos, sexual stereotypes, and changing social conditions. In addition, sexuality is repressed among groups such as the mentally handicapped, the physically disabled, the elderly, and those in institutions whose sexual needs are not acknowledged. Homosexuals are often stigmatized because their sexual expression is at variance with dominant cultural values. Sex education programs and health workers must broaden their traditional approach to sexual health so they can help people to plan and achieve their own goals. Family planning programs must expand from their traditional goal of avoiding unwanted births and help people balance the need for rational planning on the one hand and the satisfaction of irrational sexual desires on the other hand. Promoting sexual health is an integral part of the promotion of health for all.
In: Sobrero AJ, Lewit S, ed. Advances in planned parenthood. Proceedings of the Third and Fourth Annual Meetings of the American Association of Planned Parenthood Physicians, Chicago, Illinois, May, 1965/Denver, Colorado, April 1966. Amsterdam, Excerpta Medica Foundation, 1967. 227-30. (International Congress Series No. 138)The availability of highly effective methods of contraception provides new opportunities for a broadened approach to family planning in which contraception is part of a course of therapy holistically planned for the welfare of the individual. This approach requires family planners to shift their emphasis from responsible parenthood to responsible sexual functioning. Medical practice must recognize human sexuality as a health entity in and of itself and analyze its functioning through anatomical, physiological, and psychological components. In contrast to men's sexuality, which tends to be pelvic-centered, women's sexuality is constantly shifting in focus, from pelvic-centered to emotion-centered to spiritual-centered and back again. This shifting of emphasis reflects the creative interplay between a woman's reproductive and sexual lives and contraindicates a purely mechanistic approach to contraception. The family planning movement, which in its earlier stages of necessity shifted from a clinical to a public health orientation, is now in a position to move toward renewed consideration of the needs of the individual. The goal at this stage should be not just fewer pregnanvies but also a better quality of life and improved marital relationships.
Concern. 1980 Jul-Sep; (18):1-2.The reproductive health needs and behavior of adolescents have been neglected by many health services until recently. The inclusion of adolescent fertility and sexuality in the East and South East Asian and Oceania regions of IPPF initially prompted uneasiness by workers who considered the inclusion of adolescents to be a sensitive issue given prevailing mores. The Singapore seminar/workshop on adolescent fertility and sexuality helped educate family planning workers and executives to the new realities of adolescent life, and many Family Planning Associations in the region made delivery of services to adolescents a major program emphasis. Family life education strategies have improved and IEC efforts are now geared to particular age and sociocultural groups. FPAs have stressed training of dormitory and hostel matrons and supervisors in counseling, adopted policies to "desensitize" the parents of teenage clients, and supported peer group counseling programs in order to deal with adolescent girls without violating the sociocultural norms of the community. The region's developing countries, particularly Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand, have large proportions of young people, and their governments welcome the initiatives of FPAs in providing programs and services.