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Your search found 25 Results

  1. 1
    340742

    Health in 2015: From MDGs, Millennium Development Goals to SDGs, Sustainable Development Goals.

    Boerma T; Mathers C; AbouZahr C; Chatterji S; Hogan D; Stevens G; Mahanani WR; Ho J; Rusciano F; Humphreys G

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2015. [216] p.

    In 2015 the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) come to the end of their term, and a post-2015 agenda, comprising 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), takes their place. This WHO report looks back 15 years at the trends and positive forces during the MDG era and assesses the main challenges that will affect health in the coming 15 years.
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  2. 2
    303750

    We Care. Around the world.

    United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]. We Care

    New York, New York, UNDP, [2003]. 16 p.

    The 22 country offices where the We Care programme has been rolled out are taking great strides in making their workplaces truly AIDS competent. We are beginning to understand that HIV/AIDS is not 'out there' but among us -- and that if we are to make a difference in the way the world responds to it, WE MUST BEGIN WITH OURSELVES. Today, the We Care initiative is a global programme aiming at creating HIV/AIDS competence in all country offices, regional offices and headquarters by end of 2005. We Care is promoted together with initiatives spearheaded by other UN agencies, including 'Caring for Us' by UNICEF, the joint Access to Treatment and Inter-Organisational Needs (ACTION) programme facilitated by the UN Secretariat and the 'HIV/AIDS in the Workplace' initiative by WFP and ILO. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    299288

    WHO offers health tools for survival - action plan for Horn of Africa - Brief article.

    Rutsch H

    UN Chronicle. 2000 Summer; 37(2):[1] p..

    The World Health Organization (WHO) on 9 June launched an action plan to save 13.4 million people in the drought-ravaged Horn of Africa from plummeting into a major health crisis. WHO said that even if the severe drought lifted, the people in the region, already worn down by natural and man-made disasters, would not be able to save themselves unless health was targeted. According to the agency, an investment of just $25 million would substantially reduce death and illness from preventable diseases and save thousands of lives in the seven affected countries: Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, the Sudan and Uganda. WHO's action plan aims to reduce the countries' vulnerability, improving the population's basic level of health by helping health professionals throughout the region improve the quality of what little water there is, combat severe malnutrition, and crack open essential access to basic health services such as immunization. The new plan includes community-based epidemic surveillance projects, which enlist local networks in reporting on disease out breaks, resulting in rapid diagnosis and response. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    290742
    Peer Reviewed

    The World Health Organization European Health in Prisons project after 10 years: persistent barriers and achievements.

    Gatherer A; Moller L; Hayton P

    American Journal of Public Health. 2005 Oct; 95(10):1696-1700.

    The recognition that good prison health is important to general public health has led 28 countries in the European Region of the World Health Organization (WHO) to join a WHO network dedicated to improving health within prisons. Within the 10 years since that time, vital actions have been taken and important policy documents have been produced. A key factor in making progress is breaking down the isolation of prison health services and bringing them into closer collaboration with the country’s public health services. However, barriers to progress remain. A continuing challenge is how best to move from policy recommendations to implementation, so that the network’s fundamental aim of noticeable improvements in the health and care of prisoners is further achieved. (author's)
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  5. 5
    182047

    Human development report 2003. Millennium Development Goals: a compact among nations to end human poverty.

    United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]

    New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 2003. xv, 367 p.

    The central part of this Report is devoted to assessing where the greatest problems are, analysing what needs to be done to reverse these setbacks and offering concrete proposals on how to accelerate progress everywhere towards achieving all the Goals. In doing so, it provides a persuasive argument for why, even in the poorest countries, there is still hope that the Goals can be met. But though the Goals provide a new framework for development that demands results and increases accountability, they are not a programmatic instrument. The political will and good policy ideas underpinning any attempt to meet the Goals can work only if they are translated into nationally owned, nationally driven development strategies guided by sound science, good economics and transparent, accountable governance. That is why this Report also sets out a Millennium Development Compact. Building on the commitment that world leaders made at the 2002 Monterrey Conference on Financing for Development to forge a “new partnership between developed and developing countries”—a partnership aimed squarely at implementing the Millennium Declaration—the Compact provides a broad framework for how national development strategies and international support from donors, international agencies and others can be both better aligned and commensurate with the scale of the challenge of the Goals. And the Compact puts responsibilities squarely on both sides: requiring bold reforms from poor countries and obliging donor countries to step forward and support those efforts. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    173349

    The WHO Reproductive Health Library (RHL).

    Gulmezoglu AM; Villar J

    In: Making childbirth safer through promoting evidence-based care, [compiled by] Global Health Council. Washington, D.C., Global Health Council, 2002 May. 12-14. (Technical Report)

    The WHO Reproductive Health (RH) Library project was initiated in 1997 with the objective of providing access to the most up-to-date and reliable information about the effectiveness of RH care interventions. The underlying theme was to make Cochrane systematic reviews available to health workers in under-resourced settings with additional contents to make the information easy to understand and apply. (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    172393
    Peer Reviewed

    What's going on at the World Health Organization?

    McCarthy M

    Lancet. 2002 Oct 12; 360(9340):1108-1110.

    This paper reports on the organization and administration of WHO under the management of Director-General Gro Harlem Brundtland. It describes the three broad categories of the work of WHO and the several areas that are considered to be organization-wide priorities for WHO.
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  8. 8
    273275

    Report of the eleventh meeting of the technical advisory group (Geneva, 7-8 March 1990).

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases

    [Unpublished] 1990. 12 p. (WHO/CDD/90.33)

    Findings from the 11th meeting of the Technical Advisory Group (TAG) of the Diarrheal Diseases Control Program are reviewed. Progress made in health services during 1988-1989 include training in supervisory skills for an estimated 17% of the staff and in case management for 11% of the staff, endorsal of breast feeding and rational drug use, 61 countries producing oral rehydration salts (ORS), a 60% access rate to ORS and 34% rate of use of oral rehydration therapy, increased communication activities, and improved assessment for diarrheal management. Major research progress includes determining the effectiveness of rice-based ORS, continued feeding, and breast feeding in diarrheal management. Revisions in research management include the utilization of multi- disciplinary research teams and the replacement of Scientific Working Groups (SWG) with experts to review research priorities, determine study methods, review proposals, and confer with investigators on research design. Research priorities are vaccine development and childhood diarrhea which involves case management research by employing clinical trials, epidemiology and disease prevention, and determining cost effectiveness and optimal delivery of intervention methods. 1995 goals are increased production of ORS, improved supervisory skills training, and improved case management of oral rehydration therapy. During 1988- 1989, the program had access to US$ 20.9 million. US$ 4.7 million carried over at the end of 1989 into 1990. The 1990-1991 overall budget was reduced by 26% because increased contributions were not acquired. Recommendations for the health services component of the program include program implementation which utilizes effective diarrheal assessment tools, focuses on lowering childhood mortality due to diarrhea in 24 countries, and correcting the misuse of antibiotics and antidiarrheal drugs; training for the medical profession in diarrheal management, improved training materials and additional training units; increased accessibility to ORS; improved communication which involves promoting diarrheal treatment in the educational system; and preventing diarrhea by encouraging breast feeding. Recommendations for research includes revised research management guidelines and close collaboration between TAG and investigators.
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  9. 9
    273128

    Interim programme report, 1986.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], [1986]. 40 p. (WHO/CDD/87.26)

    The Diarrheal Diseases Control Program which became operational in 1980 is collaborating with over 110 countries in the implementation of national diarrheal diseases control programs and related research. This report is an interim summary of activities during 1986. Activities in the health services component included support for training courses, organization of diarrhea training units and clinical managment courses, adoption of policies for household approaches to oral rehydration therapy (ORT), assistance for production of ORT, undertaking of diarrheal disease morbidity, mortality, and treatment surveys, and conducting of program reviews. The program continued to support biomedical, epidemiological, and operational research on priority topics such as improved treatment methods, vaccine development, evaluation and implementation of interventions for prevention of diarrheal diseases. The summary includes meetings of the Program's management and review bodies which took place in 1986 and the financial status of the program.
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  10. 10
    041442

    Fifth programme report, 1984-1985.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1986. 130 p. (WHO/CDD/86.16)

    This 5th report of the Diarrheal Diseases Control Program (CDD) describes the activities undertaken by the program during 1984-1985. Primary objectives of the program are to reduce diarrhea associated mortality, malnutrition, and treatment costs. In so doing the program advocates the use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) solutions in the treatment of diarrhea and dehydration, and promotes proper feeding during and after diarrheal illness. 3 major strategy areas are: improved nutrition (such as breastfeeding for the 1st 2 years of life), use of safe water, and good personal and domestic hygiene. Program activities involve planning, training (supervisory, management and technical), increasing the availability of ORT (including household solutions, and production and supply of ORS), promoting health education and communication, and the control of cholera in Africa. Summaries of program activities in different regions are included, and collaborations with other WHO programs and other agencies are described. The program supports biomedical research through its global and regional scientific working groups, which includes 62 new projects for 1984 and 67 new projects for 1985. Scientific Working Groups focus on bacterial enteric infections, viral diarrheas, drug development, and clinical management ofdiarrhea.
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  11. 11
    041441

    Fourth programme report, 1983-1984.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1985. 101 p. (WHO/CDD/85.13)

    The Diarrheal Diseases Control (CDD) Program, initiated in 1978, is a priority program of WHO for attainment of the goal of Health for All by the Year 2000. Its primary objectives are to reduce diarrheal disease mortality and morbidity, particularly in infants and young children. This report describes the activities undertaken by the Program in the 1983-1984 biennium. During this period, the Program collaborated with more than 100 countries in the implementation of national diarrheal disease control and research activities. The biennium has witnessed a growing interest of other international, bilateral, and nongovernmental agencies in diarrheal disease control; their financial support and commitment have contributed in a large measure to furthering the development of CDD programs and related research in many countries. During the biennium, the services component continued to expand both the quantity and scope of its activities at global, regional, and national levels. This is readily seen from the increase in global acess to Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS) packets from less than 5% in 1981 to 21% in 1983. Other significant developments were a substantial increase in the number of countries planning and implementing programs and the initiation of a new management course in supervisory skills. Successful implementation of national primary health care systems was recognized as necessary for the achievement of the Program's objectives. Efforts of both developing and industrialized countries must continue in a joint endeavor to reduce the problem of diarrheal diseases, especially cholera, the most severe diarrheal disease. The following areas are discussed: the health services component; the research component; information services; program review bodies; program resources and obligations; and program publications and documents for 1983-1984.
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  12. 12
    039223

    Report of the fifth meeting of the technical advisory group (Geneva, 12-16 March 1984).

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases

    [Unpublished] 1984. 27 p.

    The current status of the Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases (CDD) Program was reviewed, and activities related to the evaluation of country control programs, the assessment of potential diarrheal disease control interventions, and the program's operational research activities were examined. In the health services component, ciontinued efforts to promote the preparation of plans of operation for national CDD programs is recommended, as is continued use of the national CDD program managers training course. Concern was expressed that the level of use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) appeared to be modest. Case management was endorsed as the major program strategy. The series of studies on interventions for reducing diarrhea's mortality and morbidity were welcomed. For evaluation purposes, it is recommended that the program develop additional criteria for monitoring increased access to and usage of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and the reduction of diarrheal mortality. Continued accumulaton and publication of information yielded by the program's survey of the impact of ORT in hospitals was recommended. In the research component, the growth of research activities is satisfying. While biomedical aspects have developed well, it might be necessary to relate them gradually to specific control interventions in the future. Further studies of improved ORS formulatons were recommended. High priority should also be given to the promotion of breast feeding, immunization, and water supply and sanitation. The underlying mechanisms that cause the intervention to reduce diarrheal morbidity or mortality should be clarified. Research is recommended on the promotion of personal and domestic hygiene, food hygiene, and improved weaning practices. Emphasis on the development and evaluation of vaccines against the causes of diarrhea is supported. Some changes in the balance of research activities should be made. Epidemiological weak.
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  13. 13
    041443

    Interim programme report, 1983.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, [1984] 27 p.

    This is the 1st interim report issued by the Diarrhoeal Diseases Control (CDD) Programme, summarizing progress in its main areas of activity during the previous calendar year. Most of the information is presented in the form of tables, graphs and lists. Other important developments are mentioned briefly in each section. The information is presented according to major program areas; health services; research; and program management. Within the health services component, national program planning, training, the production of Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS), health education and promotion are areas of priority activity. Progress in the rate of development of national programs, participants in the various levelsof training programs, and the countries producing their own ORS packets and developing promotional and educational materials are presented. An evaluation of the health services component, based on a questionnaire survey to determine the impact of Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT), indicates significant decreases in diarrheal admission rates and in overall diarrheal case-fatality rates. Data collected from a total of 45 morbidity and and mortality surveys are shown. Biomedical and operational research projects supported by the program are given. Thhe research areas in which there was the greatest % increase in the number of projects funded were parasite-related diarrheas, drug development and management of diarrheal disease. Research is also in progress on community attitudes and practices in relation to diarrheal disease and on the development of local educational materials. The program's organizational structure is briefly described and its financial status summarized. The report ends with a list of new publications and documents concerning health services, research and management of diarrheal diseases.
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  14. 14
    167934

    Eradication of a disease: keys to success.

    Joyner AM; Rogers M

    [Washington, D.C.], Population Reference Bureau [PRB], 2002. 3 p.

    In its efforts to eradicate polio from the planet, the WHO developed a public health initiative that includes routine immunization coverage, staging annual mass immunization drives, increasing surveillance for cases and wild poliovirus, and conducting door-to-door immunization in high-risk areas. In effect, the number of cases has reduced from 35,251 in 1988 to 5186 by 1997. It was noted that the success to the polio eradication strategy is attributed to: 1) selection of a virus that can be eradicated; 2) support from variety of donors and organizers; 3) global consensus regarding priority; 4) organization and transportation sufficient to reach the most remote places; 5) surveillance; and 6) low vaccine cost. However, the WHO notes that polio eradication efforts still face problems in securing access to all children, obtaining funds, and maintaining political commitment.
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  15. 15
    170217

    Project appraisal document on a proposed International Development Association credit in an amount of US$24 million to the Islamic Republic of Mauritania for a health sector investment project. [Document d'évaluation de projet : proposition de crédit d'un montant de 24 millions de dollars US à l'Association Internationale pour le Développement à la République Islamique de Mauritanie en vue d'un projet d'investissement dans le secteur sanitaire]

    World Bank. Africa Region

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Africa Region, 1998 Feb 24. 24, [86] p. (Report No. 17396-MR)

    This project appraisal document presents the proposed international development association credit in an amount of US$ 24 million to the Islamic Republic of Mauritania for a health sector investment project. The overall objective of the Program is to improve the health status of the population in general (and of underserved groups in particular) through the provision of more accessible and affordable quality health services. Specifically, the Program aimed to improve health services quality and coverage; improve health sector's financing and performance; mitigate the effects of major public health problems; and promote social action and create an environment conducive to health. This document is outlined into nine sections which covers the topics on project development objective; strategic context; project description summary; project rationale; summary project analyses; sustainability and risks; main credit conditions; readiness for implementation; and compliance with bank policies. Several annexes are also included in this document.
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  16. 16
    147147

    Supporting women's empowerment in Djibouti.

    Rasul Z

    UN CHRONICLE. 1999; 36(3):14-5.

    This article reports on the work carried out by the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) in the small island of Djibouti, Africa. The republic's population has been plagued with problems of high levels of unemployment, poverty, malnutrition, an almost non-existent family reproductive health care service, 100% prevalence rate of female genital mutilation and low literacy rate, especially for women. In addition, refugees from Ethiopia and Eritrea have settled in the country increasing the risks of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), HIV/AIDS, prostitution, and other social ills. In 1983, UNFPA started funding family planning and later reproductive health projects aimed at assuring access to services for a majority of Djiboutan women. The first country population program of assistance was started in 1992. This would help the government with health care for its population and to conduct a population census. In addition, the Fund has paid for training of doctors, midwives, and traditional birth assistants in the country and for rehabilitating maternity clinics and information centers. Moreover, it has supported agencies concerned with educating people on STDs, HIV/AIDS, safe motherhood and reproductive health for men and women, and other important issues.
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  17. 17
    091883

    Health for all: how it looks now.

    WORLD HEALTH FORUM. 1993; 14(4):333-44.

    WHO evaluated the implementation of the health-for-all strategy using data from 151 countries. 110 countries still endorsed the strategy. 95 have either completely implemented or further developed community involvement. Just 33 countries had more equitable distribution of resources. The percentage of gross national product (GNP) that the government dedicated to health rose in the least developed countries. Developed countries spent a higher proportion of their GNP on health than did developing countries (3.3% vs. 0.9%, 1991). Maldistribution of health personnel continued to be a major problem. Between 1985 and 1990, the proportion of people in developing countries with access to safe water rose from 68 to 75%. Adequate sewage disposal coverage rose from 46 to 71% (1985-1991). Prenatal care coverage by trained personnel increased from 58 to 67%. Tetanus toxoid coverage of pregnant women only increased from 24 to 34%. Most maternal deaths were a result of inadequate prenatal care, inadequate care during childbirth, pregnancies spaced too closely, multiparity, and poor health and nutritional status before the first pregnancy. Immunization coverage rose considerably in every region (e.g., 47-83% for diphtheria). Nevertheless, substantial differences in coverage existed between countries. A substantial trend towards more integrated primary health care occurred. Child survival rates improved, but the gap in infant mortality rates between developed countries and the least developed countries widened. The gap in health status between the poor and the wealthy had become larger. Developing countries in the process of the epidemiological transition continued to be burdened with both infectious and degenerative diseases. GNP and adult literacy rose, but less so in the least developed countries. These findings suggested that governments must sustain the commitment to reduce inequities, realign health systems, improve health financing systems, improve coordination between health sectors, and improve linkage between health and development.
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  18. 18
    080031

    China. Long-term issues and options in the health transition.

    Bumgarner JR

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1992. xxvii, 133 p. (World Bank Country Study)

    In the early 1990s, the World Bank sent a team of specialists in demography, medicine, hospital administration, health policy, personnel, medical technology, and finance to China to examine the present health status of the population and to protect its future status. Before making any projections, however, they had to learn what demographic and epidemiologic factors would basically determine future health status. The main factors driving China's health transition included aging of the population; increased risk of developing chronic disease caused by changes in life style, dietary, environmental, and occupational risk factors; and changing morbidity and mortality patterns (i.e., shift from infectious to disabling and chronic diseases). The team mapped out specific strategies, which can indeed be achieved, to avert a health care crisis. The strategies revolved around a sustained effort of primary prevention of chronic diseases, especially circulatory diseases, which caused considerable premature mortality. The team illustrated how different formulas of total health expenditures would affect epidemiologic outcomes. The team learned that health care costs would probably increase due to unavoidable demographic trends (especially demographic aging), epidemiologic forces, and utilization and unit cost changes. Suggested primary prevention strategies alone would not be enough to control health expenditures to a level where feasible equity can be maintained. China must also greatly improve efficiency of hospital services, personnel, and technologies. The evaluation team concluded that the government needs to reassess policies for financing primary and preventive health services, the basis and conditions of insurance, and the role of prices and incentives in directing use and provision of services.
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  19. 19
    069835

    Chile: update on teen reproductive health project.

    POPULATION. 1991 Dec; 17(12):3.

    This article describes the recent activities of the Centre for Adolescent Reproductive Medicine at the University of Chile, which receives UNFPA support under a project aimed at establishing a center for training in adolescent reproductive health. The project, a collaboration of the government and UNFPA, focuses on biological and social issues related to adolescents' reproductive problems, as well as on family relationships. The project is also designed to train health personnel in adolescent reproductive health and support university research into adolescent health and fertility. The Centre used UNFPA funds to improve its facilities, provide training, and increase research and education on teen health. A university bulletin reports that last year, the Centre provided 6936 consultations for teens and increased its outreach activities through the use of educational courses and mass media. The Center also recruited 17 professional trainers in adolescent reproductive medicine, built an annex to its main building, and established a library that specializes on adolescence. Furthermore, UNFPA provided the Centre with medical equipment such as a fetal heartbeat monitor, the necessary paraphernalia to perform vaginal endoscopy for adolescents, and other specialized diagnostic instruments for child and adolescent gynecology. The article explains that teenage pregnancy is common problem in Latin America. According to a 1988 study, 1/3 of all women aged 15-17 living in Santiago (which contains about a 1/3 of Chile's population) had been pregnant at least once.
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  20. 20
    046823

    The state of the world's children 1988.

    Grant JP

    Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1988. [9], 86 p.

    The 1988 UNICEF report on the world's children contains chapters describing the multi-sectorial alliance to support child health, the current emphasis on ORT and immunization, the effect of recession on vulnerable children, family rights to knowledge of basic health facts, and support for women in the developing world. Each chapter is illustrated by graphs. There are side panels on programs in specific countries, including Senegal, Syria, Colombia, Bangladesh, Turkey, India, Honduras, Japan and Southern Africa, and highlighted programs including immunization, AIDS, ORT, breast-feeding and tobacco as a test of health. The SAARC is a new regional organization of southern Asian countries committed to immunization and other health goals. Tables of health statistics of the world's nations, divided into 4 groups by "Under 5 Mortality Rate" present basic indicators, nutrition/malnutrition data, health information, education, literacy and media data, demographic indicators, economic indicators and data pertaining to women. The absolute numbers of child deaths had fallen to 16 million in 1980, from 25 million in 1950. Saving children's lives will not exacerbate the population problem because, realizing that their children will survive, families will have fewer children. Furthermore, the methods used to reduce mortality, such as breast feeding and empowerment of families to control their lives, are known to reduce fertility.
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  21. 21
    270308

    Partners in health.

    Gunby J

    WORLD HEALTH. 1988 Jan-Feb; 12-3.

    The 40th anniversary of WHO marks 40 years of working actively with non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in a multiplicity of ways in a wide variety of WHO programs. NGOs themselves will share in marking the anniversary with special health promotion events connected to their own activities all over the world. WHO in its turn is happy to pay tribute to their valuable work and to further encourage their sterling support for the mix of national, regional and global action which will lead to a healthier world. A growing partnership between governments and NGOs is a clear necessity for the attainment of Health For All. Dialogue and interaction between governments, NGOs and WHO as partners in health can be a vital key for turning health strategies into action. Experiments in partnership, promoted and supported by WHO, were carried out between 1982 and 1985 in several countries with greatly differing cultural backgrounds, geographical settings and health problems. In this article are presented a few examples of the many different partnerships which are developing and which illustrate how this international call for cooperation has been taken up; the Board of Recognized Medical Institutions of Rwanda (BUFMAR), the SEWA-Rural in Gujarat, India, and Rotary International.
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  22. 22
    091136
    Peer Reviewed

    The United Nations convention on the rights of women: opportunities for family planning providers.

    Cook RJ; Haws JM

    International Family Planning Perspectives. 1986 Jun; 12(2):49-53.

    The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women was adoptedin in 1979 by the UN Gereral Assembly and came into force in 1981. By May 1986, 87 countries had ratified and in so doing become states parties to it. The Forward looking Strategies for implementing the goals of the UN decade for women outline measures that countries must take by the year 2000 to achieve equality between men and women. The Strategies was adopted by over 150 countries in 1985 in Nairobi and endorsed subsequently by UN General. This article discussedes how the Convention and the strategies can be used to promote family planning (FP), reproductive rights, and maternal health. The covention requires states parties to ensure equal access of men and women to health and FP services. The article outlines the many practices and policies that enhigbit equal access to FP services. For example, in some nations, husbands but not wives are allowed to obtain contraceptives without spousal authorization; in others unmarried men but not unmarried women may obtain contraceptives. The strategies recognize that adolescent pregnancy has adverse effects on the morbidity and mortality of mothers and children and requires nations to provide contraceptives on an equal basis to adolescent men and women. The article concludes by explanining that states parties to the convention must report to the committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, established by the convention, on steps they have taken to eliminate discriminatory practices in health care and FP specifically and other fields generally, and outlines what FP organizations can do to assist in that reporting process. (author's modified)
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  23. 23
    268274

    The World Health Organization's Expanded Programme on Immunization: a global overview. Le Programme Elargi de Vaccination de L'Organization Mondiale de la Sante: apercu mondial.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Expanded Programme on Immunization [EPI]

    World Health Statistics Quarterly. Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales. 1985; 38(2):232-52.

    In recognition that immunization is an essential element of primary health care, the World Health Organization (WHO), with other agencies, is sponsoring the Global Program on Immunization whose goal is to reduce morbidity and mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases by providing immunization for all children of the world by 1990. A global advisory group of experts meets yearly to review the program. This paper summarizes the most salient features of the 1984 meeting. The major event for the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in 1984 was the Bellagio Conference on protecting the world's children. Activities undertaken as a result of this conference are discussed. 1 outcome was the formation of the Task Force for Child Survival whose main objective is to promote the reduction of childhood morbidity and mortality through acceleration of key primary health care activities. Focus is on supporting Colombia, India and Senegal in accelerating the expansion of their immunization programs and strengthening other elements of primary health care, such as diarrheal diseases control, family planning and improved nutrition. The 5-point action program consists of the following components: promoting EPI within the context of primary health care; investing adequate human resources in EPI; ensuring that programs are continuously evaluated and adapted so as to achieve high immunization coverage and maximum reduction in target-disease deaths and cases; and pursuing research efforts as part of program operations. EPI has continued to collaborate with other programs to help assure that immunization services are provided to support delivery of other services. Integration of EPI in Africa, the Americas, the Eastern Mediterranean Region, Europe, the South-East Asia Region, and the Western Pacific Region is examined.
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  24. 24
    267051

    What population changes portend.

    Salas RM

    Atlas World Press Review. 1978 Dec; 25(12):15-8.

    This article is excerpted from the UNFPA's Annual Report. It discusses the history of population control, fertility transitions occuring all over the world, the effectiveness of family planning programs, increased literacy programs, improvement of the status of women, international migration, food supply and the Green Revolution, and health services delivery promoting lower infant mortality rates. Also stressed is the urgent need for the recognition of national programs to control the population growth that is expected for the next 2 decades. Several concerns, such as the aging of children and adults in both developed and developing countries, will require special social needs such as education and employment. The changing family structure needs further investigation and will affect the formulation of future policies. It is emphasized that it is more useful to assist governments in realizing their aspirations than to try to change them.
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  25. 25
    273084

    Gambian Primary Health Care Resource Group (First meeting, Banjul, 7 - 9 June 1982).

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Health Resource Group for Primary Health Care

    [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 1982. 17 p. (HRG/CRU.1/Rev.1/Mtg.1)

    In 1979, a WHO team collaborated with national personnel in The Gambia in developing a comprehensive primary health care (PHC) plan of action for the period 1980/81 - 1985/86. In his address to the legislature in August, 1980, the president declared that the plan involved the active participation of local communities and emphasized programs for health promotion and disease prevention. This monograph reports on a meeting of the Gambian Ministries of Economic Planning and Industrial Development and of Health, Labor and Social Welfare in June 1982. Improvements in rural health are a basic need. In order to provide PHC, it was fully realized that a strong supportive infrastructure was essential. The village sensitization program was considered as vital for success. Not 1 village has rejected PHC or its responsibilities. The training program for community health nurses, village health workers and traditional birth attendants was proceeding according to plan for the various levels. Recognizaing that an efficient drug supply was essential, concomitant action had been taken to reorganize the central store. Another essential element without which success could not be achieved related to provision of transport and facilities for their maintenance, so that communications could be assured with rural areas. The need for a radio network to link 6 staions and 26 sub-stations was stresses. The list of participants and the agenda are attached as are the requirements for external support for the planned provision of PHC which were considered by the participants of the meeting.
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