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Project appraisal document on a proposed loan of US $10.0 million and a proposed credit of SDR 36.8 million to the People's Republic of China for a Health Nine project.
Washington, D.C., East Asia and Pacific Region, Human Development Sector Unit, 1999 Apr 14. , 63 p. (Report No. 19141-CHA)This project appraisal document of the World Bank details the proposed loan of US $10 million and a proposed credit of special drawing right for nine health projects in the People's Republic of China.
Report on the evaluation of various family life education projects with particular emphasis on youth in the English-speaking Caribbean: country reports.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Nov. xiv, 89 p.UNFPA has provided funding for various family life education (FLE) projects with particular emphasis on youth in the English-speaking Caribbean since the mid-1970s; this report is an independent evaluation of the projects in Antigua, Barbados, Dominica, Jamaica, St. Lucia, and St. Christopher and Nevis. Although birth rates are relatively low in the English-speaking Caribbean, the incidence of adolescent pregnancy and the number of births to women under the age of 20 is an important problem in the region. The Mission concluded overall that the projects have contributed to pioneering and groundbreaking efforts demonstrating that it is possible to initiate and make considerable progress in the implementation of FLE/FP programs for adolescents even when adolescent pregnancy and births are still highly sensitive and controversial issues and when there are no official policies in favor of such programs. The Mission concluded also that project design had improved over the years and projects have moved from addressing a wide variety of broad issues to a more focused consideration of adolescent fertility. All the projects included in the evaluation have contributed to the training in FLE/FP of a large number of family life educators, teachers, and nurses and, as a result, have significantly strengthened professional national capability. The projects have shown that despite the lack of official policy approving FLE in schools and generally overcrowded curricula, FLE can be introduced into schools. In the area of FP service delivery, the projects included in the evaluation have contributed to making FP services generally available through integration with the government maternal and child health services. The main management issues across the projects were similar and included staffing, coordination, supervision, monitoring and evaluation. There is a need to adjust project design so that gender separation is minimized and that the FLE content deals better with issues such as self-awareness, sex roles, and self-esteem. The wider impact of the projects included in this evaluation, to be reflected, for example, in reduced incidence of teenage pregnancy, reduced maternal and infant/child morbidity and mortality, and more generally in the life patterns of women, cannot yet be measured.
Washington, D.C., SOMARC, .  p.This document contains briefing materials for the participants of an upcoming meeting of the advisory council and working groups of Social Marketing for Change (SOMARC), an organizational network, funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and composed of 5 firms which work together in helping agencies, organizations, and governments develop contraceptive social marketing programs. Social marketing is the use of commercial marketing techniques and management procedures to promote social change. The briefing materials include 3 background and 18 issue papers. The background papers provide brief summaries of USAID's population activities and of the history of social marketing programs, an overview of USAID sponsored contraceptive social marketing programs in 14 countries and of 3 major non-USAID programs, and a listing of the skills and resources needed to develop effective contraceptive social marketing programs. The issue papers provide a focus for the discussion sessions which are scheduled for SOMARC's working groups on marketing communication, management, and research. USAID's objective is to promote the development of family planning programs which are completely voluntary and which increase the reproductive freedom of couples. Contraceptive social marketing programs are consistent with this objective. USAID provides direct funding for family planning programs as well as commodity, technical, and training support. USAID's involvement in social marketing began in 1971, and USAID is currently sponsoring programs in Jamaica, Bangladesh, Nepal, El Salvador, Egypt, Honduras, Ecuador, the Caribbean Region, Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Peru. In the past, USAID provided support for programs in Mexico, Tunisia, and Ghana. The Mexican project is now functioning without USAID support, and the projects in Tunisia and Ghana are no longer operating. Major non-USAID contraceptive social marketing programs operate in India, Sri Lanka, and Colombia. These programs received only limited technical support from USAID. To ensure the success of social marketing programs, social marketers must have access to the knowledge and skills of commercial marketers in the areas of management, analysis and planning, communications, and research. Social marketers must also have expertise in social development and social research. In reference to the issue papers, the working groups and the advisory council were asked to develop suggestions for 1) overcoming social marketing program management problems, 2) motivating health professionals toward greater involvement in social marketing programs, 3) improving the media planning component of the programs, 4) improving management stability and training for management personnel, and 5) improving program evaluation. Areas addressed by the issue papers were 1) whether social marketing programs should be involved in creating a demand for contraceptives or only in meeting the existing demand, 2) the development of a methodology for assessing why some programs fail and others succeed, 3) the feasibility of using anthropological and questionnaire modules for conducting social marketing research, 4) techniques for overcoming the high level of nonsampling error characteristic of survey data collected in developing countries, 5) techniques for identifying contraceptive price elasticity, 6) the feasibility of using content analysis in social marketing communications, 7) the applicability of global marketing strategies for social marketing, and 8) how to select an an appropriate advertising agency to publicize social marketing programs.
Bangkok, Thailand, ESCAP, 1984 Apr. 175 p. (ESCAP Programme on Health and Development Technical Paper No. 65/BCS 12; ST/ESCAP/291)The recognition of the necessity of involving the community in development efforts has been a turning point in the evolution of development thinking in recent years. Since 1978, the UNICEF Regional Office for East Asia and Pakistan and ESCAP have been conducting a series of training seminars where local development, basic services and primary health care are discussed as part of village reality. This volume reviews this experience, generalizing it to enhance adaptation. The seminars are a learning by doing and experience-sharing process. Group discussion and reflection on relevant issues are focused on. The seminars are oriented to community life as a whole, considering primary heatlh care as an entry point for coummunity development which involves generation of services within the community, supplemented by delivery of services from other institutional levels. This report describes the overall framework, including the organization of the 1983 seminar and the training approach, and the syllabus and evaluates the seminars. The goal of the seminar is the promotion of basic community health care in the countries of the region to improve the quality of life of the poor. Each participant discusses his/her work experience. Basic needs, basic services and primary health care are examined and a field-study phase at village-level is organized. Planning capabilities are developed by a phase of planning for basic and community services and primary health care. A module on national development, basic needs approach and production-oriented development is introduced. Finally, each participant prepares a draft project proposal for training for his/her own country situation. The evaluation of a program includes both its delivery system component and its eventual impact. The seminars used questionnaires, special group discussions and interviewing of the participants. The aim was to scrutinize the relevance and potential for modification of knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) rather that the actual impact actual impact achieved. Behavioral change should be evaluated on at least 2 levels: the individual and the collective. The structure, clustering and frequency of response to a given question in an evaluation questionnaire and the average level of awareness about a particular issue are 2 important measures to analyze. Seminar participants were mainly middle level personnel, but included some junior and senior officials from ministries of health, interior or home affairs and agriculture; training institutes; rural development institutes; planning commissions and universities.