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  1. 1

    Evaluation of the UNFPA support to family planning 2008-2013. Evaluation Brief.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, Evaluation Office, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2016. 24 p.

    This evaluation focuses on how UNFPA performed in the area of family planning during the period covered by the UNFPA Strategic Plan 2008-2013. It provides valuable insights and learning which can be used to inform the current UNFPA family planning strategy as well as other relevant programmes, including UNFPA Supplies (2013-2020). All the countries where UNFPA works in family planning were included, but the evaluation focuses on the 69 priority countries identified in the 2012 London Summit on Family Planning as having low rates of contraceptive use and high unmet needs. The evaluation took place in 2014-2016 and was conducted by Euro Health Group in collaboration with the Royal Tropical Institute Netherlands. It involved a multidisciplinary team of senior evaluators and family planning and sexual and reproductive health and rights specialists, which was supervised and guided by the Evaluation Office in consultation with the Evaluation Reference Group. The outputs include a thematic evaluation report, an evaluation brief and country case study notes for Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Ethiopia and Zimbabwe.
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Global health governance and the World Bank.

    Ruger JP

    Lancet. 2007 Oct 27; 370(9597):1471-1474.

    With the Paul Wolfowitz era behind it and new appointee Robert Zoellick at the helm, it is time for the World Bank to better define its role in an increasingly crowded and complex global health architecture, says Jennifer Prah Ruger, health economist and former World Bank speechwriter. Just 2 years after taking office as president of the World Bank, Paul Wolfowitz resigned amid allegations of favouritism, and is now succeeded by Robert Zoellick. Many shortcomings marked Wolfowitz's presidency, not the least of which were a tumultuous battle over family planning and reproductive health policy, significant reductions in spending and staffing, and poor performance in implementing health, nutrition, and population programmes. Wolfowitz did little to advance the bank's role in the health sector. With the Wolfowitz era behind it and heightened scrutiny in the aftermath, the World Bank needs to better define its role and seize the initiative in health at both the global and country levels. Can the bank have an effect in an increasingly plural and complex global health architecture? What crucial role can the bank play in global health governance in the years ahead? (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Voluntary counseling and testing: operational guidelines, 2004.

    India. National AIDS Control Organization [NACO]

    [New Delhi], India, NACO, 2004. [84] p.

    Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) is the process by which an individual undergoes confidential counseling to learn about his/her HIV status and to exercise informed choices in testing for HIV followed by further appropriate action. A key underlying principle of the VCT intervention is the voluntary participation. HIV counseling and testing are initiated by the client's free will. Counseling in VCT consists of pre-test and post-test counseling. During pre-test counseling, the counselor provides to the individual / couple an opportunity to explore and analyze their situation, and consider being tested for HIV. It facilitates more informed decisions about HIV testing. After the individual / couple has received accurate and complete information they reach an understanding about all that is involved. In the event that, after counseling, the individual decides to take the HIV test, VCT enables confidential HIV testing. Counseling is client-centered. This promotes trust between the counselor and the client. The client is helped to identify and understand the implications of a negative or a positive result. They are helped to think through the practical strategies for coping with the results of the HIV test. Post-test counseling further reinforces the understanding of all implications of a test result. Counseling also helps clients to decide who they should share the HIV test result with, and how to approach that aspect. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    Helping public sector health systems innovate: the strategic approach to strengthening reproductive health policies and programs.

    Fajans P; Simmons R; Ghiron L

    American Journal of Public Health. 2006 Mar; 96(3):435-440.

    Public sector health systems that provide services to poor and marginalized populations in developing countries face great challenges. Change associated with health sector reform and structural adjustment often leaves these already-strained institutions with fewer resources and insufficient capacity to relieve health burdens. The Strategic Approach to Strengthening Reproductive Health Policies and Programs is a methodological innovation developed by the World Health Organization and its partners to help countries identify and prioritize their reproductive health service needs, test appropriate interventions, and scale up successful innovations to a subnational or national level. The participatory, interdisciplinary, and country-owned process can set in motion much-needed change. We describe key features of this approach, provide illustrations from country experiences, and use insights from the diffusion of innovation literature to explain the approach's dissemination and sustainability. (author's)
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  5. 5

    Significance of foreign funding in developing health programmes in India - the case study of RNTCP in the overall context of North-South co-operation.

    Singh V; Mittal O

    Health Administrator. 2003; 15(1-2):52-60.

    External assistance on disease containment and health policy has been a global phenomenon ever since the advent of modern medicine. The technically and resource advanced countries have been contributing to health programs of the resource constrained nations particularly with an objective of disease containment and eradication. India has its own history of receiving external assistance for its health programs since 1950s. Eradication of Small Pox, control of Malaria in 1970s, Family Planning Program, Universal Immunization Program (UIP), Pulse Polio and more recently campaigns against Human Immune-deficiency Virus (HIV) and Tuberculosis Programme had been supported by bilateral or multilateral aids. External assistance in India is small in terms of its proportion to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). In health, it has never been more than 1-3 % of the total public health spending in any given year. Yet external assistance has had a profound impact on health, as technical support obtained from such assistance has made a significant contribution to hastening India’s demographic and epidemiological transition. The present paper reviews the issue of foreign funding in health programmes and specifically highlights its impact of TB Programme development in India. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    34 Million Friends campaign passes $1 million mark.

    Population 2005. 2003 Jun; 5(2):16.

    The founders of the grassroots campaign “34 Million Friends of UNFPA” announced May 1 that it had raised $1 million to support the United Nations Population Fund, mostly in small donations. More than 100,000 Americans have contributed to the campaign to help replace funds withheld by the United States Administration last July. “This campaign highlights the power of individuals to make a difference,” said Thoraya Ahmed Obaid, UNFPA executive director. “It also shows that the American people support the right of all women to have quality health care and to be able to plan their families.” UNFPA will use the campaign’s first million dollars to make pregnancy and childbirth safer for women; reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS; equip hospitals with essential supplies; support adolescents and youth; and prevent and treat obstetric fistula, a debilitating condition that results from obstructed labor. (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    The role of the World Bank.

    Claeson M; Wagstaff A

    Global HealthLink. 2003 May-Jun; (121):14-15.

    In 2000, roughly 11 million children died before their fifth birthday, almost all of them in the developing world. An estimated 140 million children under the age of five were underweight, almost half of them living in South Asia. In 1995, 515,000 women died during pregnancy or childbirth, only 1,000 of whom died in the industrialized world. Tuberculosis claimed another 2 million lives. As these numbers might well suggest, death and illness act as a brake on economic growth, and contribute to income poverty: health and demographic variables account for as much as half of the difference in growth rates between Africa and the rest of the world over the period 1965-1990. Nearly half of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) concern, directly or indirectly, health, nutrition and population issues. But based on present trends, relatively few low-income countries will achieve these goals. Only 17 percent of countries are on target for the under-five mortality goal (a two-thirds reduction between 1990 and 2015). Also, on present trends, sub-Saharan African as a whole will take 100 years to achieve the under-five mortality MDG. In all regions other than the Europe and Central Asia region, the under-five mortality rate declined faster during the 1980s than it did during the 1990s. The slowdown was particularly pronounced in Africa and the Middle East. In many countries, improvements in child mortality and malnutrition have been smallest among the poor. (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    Effectively using hotlines for BCC in population and RH.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Technical Support Division

    New York, New York, UNFPA, Technical Support Division, 2002 Jul. 10 p. (Communication / Behaviour Change Tools. Programme Briefs No. 2)

    Hotlines (also known as help lines) are telephone lines established to provide information to a caller, serve as an entry point for first time counselling or act as a referral service. Telephone counselling involves a special form of interpersonal communication in which a counsellor seeks to guide and encourage another person to address a specific problem. Telephone counselling differs from face to face counselling, as the telephone counsellor has to depend on his/her voice as the only means of communication. (excerpt)
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  9. 9

    Adolescents: planning contraceptive and counselling services.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Central Council

    [Unpublished] 1985. 114 p.

    This document is a practical guide to help those Planned Parenthood Associations which want to establish contraception and counseling services for young people. It draws its examples from the considerable experience of selected European countries in what can be controversial and difficult areas. In the section devoted to adolescent sexuality and contraception, contributors cover culture and subculture, health and sexuality, sexual behavior and contraceptive services, the adolescent experience, the question of opposition to services for adolescents, and statistical indices. 1 section is devoted to examples of contraceptive counseling services for adolescents in Sweden, Italy, France, the UK, and Poland. Another section summarizes service provision examples. The 5th section presents methodology for the establishment of adolescents services and the final section discusses methodology testing of new projects. This report contends that the case for the rapid development of contraceptive/counseling services, tailored to the needs and desires of young people, is justified on moral as well as on sociological, psychological, and health grounds. It rejects totally the argument that any measure which could facilitate the sexual debut of the unmarried or legally dependent adolescent should be resisted. It does recognize public concern about family breakdown and the potential health risks of sexual activity but considers the examples given as measures designed to combat rather than ignore these. Taking into account sociological, psychological, and medical evidence, the contributors to this report challenge the following presumptions: sexual activity among the young is always and necessarily morally unacceptable and socially destructive; adolescents will resort to promiscuous sexual activity in the absence of legal deterrents such as refusal of access to contraceptive/counseling services; the potential health risks of sexual activity and use of contraceptives during adolescence provide sufficient justification for deterrent measures, including refusal of contraceptive/counseling services; and the scale of sexual ignorance and prevalence of unplanned pregnancy among adolescents can only be reduced by disincentives and deterrents to sexual activity itself. The case for the provision of contraceptive/counseling services rests on their potential to help adolescents to recognize and resist repressive forms of sexual activity, which are destructive of humanmanships. Evidence suggests that it is not difficult to attract a large cross-section of an adolescent public to use contraceptive/counseling services, where established.
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  10. 10

    Project appraisal document on a proposed International Development Association credit in an amount of US$24 million to the Islamic Republic of Mauritania for a health sector investment project. [Document d'évaluation de projet : proposition de crédit d'un montant de 24 millions de dollars US à l'Association Internationale pour le Développement à la République Islamique de Mauritanie en vue d'un projet d'investissement dans le secteur sanitaire]

    World Bank. Africa Region

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Africa Region, 1998 Feb 24. 24, [86] p. (Report No. 17396-MR)

    This project appraisal document presents the proposed international development association credit in an amount of US$ 24 million to the Islamic Republic of Mauritania for a health sector investment project. The overall objective of the Program is to improve the health status of the population in general (and of underserved groups in particular) through the provision of more accessible and affordable quality health services. Specifically, the Program aimed to improve health services quality and coverage; improve health sector's financing and performance; mitigate the effects of major public health problems; and promote social action and create an environment conducive to health. This document is outlined into nine sections which covers the topics on project development objective; strategic context; project description summary; project rationale; summary project analyses; sustainability and risks; main credit conditions; readiness for implementation; and compliance with bank policies. Several annexes are also included in this document.
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  11. 11
    Peer Reviewed

    In the shadow of the temple: cross-cultural sensitivity in international health program development.

    Neill KG

    Ethnicity and Health. 2000; 5(2):161-71.

    Many authorities recognize the concept that sensitivity to a recipient people's culture during the formulation and implementation of international health programs is a basic component to the success of those programs. Nevertheless, international health agencies have consistently failed in realizing truly successful projects in recipient countries by their neglect to fully take culture into account. The reasons are complex, and their comprehension involves an understanding of who is involved in international health programs, the history of those programs, and the conflicts that arise when outside agencies fail to understand--or be understood by--those who are on the receiving end of programs. This paper will scrutinize international health care assistance and development from the points of view of both donor agencies and recipient countries. Examples are presented from countries and regions worldwide. The challenges in maintaining cultural sensitivity will be described, analyzed, and potential solutions will be offered. (author's)
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  12. 12

    Violence against women (VAW): a key reproductive health concern.

    Tharan C

    FEEDBACK. 1999; 25(1-2):1-4.

    This article discusses violence against women (VAW) as a major reproductive health issue. VAW is now recognized as a violation of human rights and considered a priority public health problem. Serious physical and psychological complications have been attributed to such violence which include unwanted pregnancies, gynecological disorders, disabilities, depression, suicide attempts and other similar patterns. In response to this issue, WHO seeks to establish effective strategies together with other organizations, for preventing violence and decreasing the harm done on abused women. Moreover, a number of actions were recommended at a planning exercise in India, which include sensitizing the medical community to the problem of VAW and training them to recognize it, conducting sensitive action research, and adopting collective strategies such as campaigns against rape and against alcoholism. An outstanding example of a government health sector response is the One Stop Crisis Center: Inter-Agency Management of Battered Women, Rape Survivors and Child Abuse, which was implemented in hospitals in Malaysia. Although the center has been acknowledged as an innovative approach, it has yet to undergo a systematic evaluation and needs to address some pressing issues such as the lack of trained social workers and forensic medical officers.
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  13. 13

    International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children: technical statements and selected presentations. Jointly organized by the Government of France and the World Health Organization, Paris, 27-30 November 1989.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS

    [Unpublished] 1991. [2], 64 p.

    The International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children was organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) in cooperation with the French Government. Co-sponsors included the United Nations organizations UNDP, UNICEF, and UNESCO, along with the International Labor Organization (ILO), the World Bank, and the Council of Europe. Following assorted introductory addresses, statements by chairmen of the conference's technical working groups are presented in the paper. Working group discussion topics include virology; immunology; epidemiology; clinical management; HIV and pregnancy; diagnoses; implications for health, education, community, and social welfare systems; and economic and demographic impact. Chairman statements include an introduction, discussion of the state of current knowledge, research priorities, implications for policies and programs, and recommendations. The Paris Declaration on Women, Children and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome concluded the conference.
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  14. 14

    Annual report of the Director 1987.

    Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]

    Washington, D.C., PAHO, 1988 Jul. v, 117 p. (Official Document No. 221)

    The global economy continued to adversely affect member countries' health programs and activities in 1987. For example, Latin American and Caribbean countries lost >$US28 billion in 1987 and from 1982-1987 they lost $US130 billion. At the same time, the percentage of adolescents and elderly in the total population increased tremendously, the numbers of people experiencing chronic and disabling diseases also increased while infectious and parasitic diseases still posed challenges for the health community, and the number of urban poor continued to grow. In 1987, to help member countries deal with the everchanging health needs of their populations, PAHO focused on population groups and geographic regions and within these defined areas concentrated on specific diseases. For example, PAHO worked with member governments to formulate, implement, and evaluate policies and programs on the health of adults. Specifically, diseases and conditions emphasized in adult health included cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes mellitus, accident prevention, and the prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of alcoholism and drug abuse. Other emphases were maternal and child health and family planning and those diseases and conditions associated with the population. Additionally, PAHO continued with special programs and initiatives to maximize its role as a catalyst and to mobilize national and international resources in support of activities aimed at selected health priorities. Some of these initiatives included the Expanded Program on Immunization, the Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Relief Coordination, and the Caribbean Cooperation in Health. In addition, each country's PAHO activities have been summarized.
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  15. 15

    Attention and inattention to maternal mortality in international agencies.

    Maine D

    In: Women's health and apartheid: the health of women and children and the future of progressive primary health care in Southern Africa, edited by Marcia Wright, Zena Stein and Jean Scandlyn. New York, New York, Columbia University, 1988. 84-9.

    There is a large discrepancy between maternal mortality rates in developed and developing countries, with maternal mortality as a leading cause of death of young women in poor countries. There has been renewed interest in maternal mortality among international agencies and major foundations quite recently. Women and children form up to 2/3 of the population of many developing countries, and over 1/2 of primary health care resources are devoted to maternal and child health programs. Nevertheless, little of this is directed at maternal mortality; most goes to immunization, oral rehydration for diarrhea, monitoring children's growth, and promoting breastfeeding. While some of the international health community attribute the long neglect of maternal mortality to not knowing the extent and severity of the problem before, prior data existed demonstrating the alarmingly high rates. Low maternal mortality in the West may have distracted attention from the international problem. Sexism may have been a major factor, as even today efforts to reduce maternal mortality need to be justified in terms of the implications for the family, children and society as a whole. The reasons for the current concern are not clear, but may relate to an interest in concrete issues after the United Nations Decade for Women, or real surprise in the international community once the problem was pointed out. As various agencies rush to establish maternal mortality programs, it is imperative to evaluate which approaches will be really effective. Critical evaluation of programs is necessary to capitalize on the current interest.
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  16. 16

    Turkey's workforce backs family planning.

    Fincancioglu N

    PEOPLE. 1987; 14(2):33.

    3 agencies in Turkey are placing family planning centers in factory settings: the Family Planning Association of Turkey (FPAT), the Confederation of Trade Unions (TURK-IS), and the Family Health and Planning Foundation, a consortium of industrialists. The FPAT started with 27 factories 7 years ago, educating and serving 35,000 workers. The 1st work with management, then train health professionals in family planning, immunization, infant and child care, maternal health, education, motivation techniques, record-keeping and follow-up. Worker education is then begun in groups of 50. New sites are covered on a 1st-come-1st-served basis. This program is expected to be successful because newcomers to city jobs are beginning to see the need for smaller families, and accept family planning. TURK-IS has conducted seminars for trade union leaders and workers' representatives and provided contraceptives in 4 family planning clinics and in 20 hospitals run by Social Security, a workers' health organization. They have distributed condoms in factories and trained nurses to insert IUDs in factory units. The businessmen have opened family planning services in 15 factories, with support from the Pathfinder Fund, and hope to make the project self-supporting.
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  17. 17

    Report on the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to the family health programme of Zambia: project ZAM/74/PO2 (February - March 1984).

    Ryder B; Burton J; McWilliam J

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Sep. x, 38, [5] p.

    The objective of the Family Health Program of Zambia is to enhance the health and welfare of Zambians, particularly mothers and children, through an increase in coverage of the population served through under-5s clinics, pre- and post-natal services and child spacing activities. The Mission found that the strong points of the project are the increasing commitment of the Government to incorporate family planning activities as an essential component of its family health and primary health care programs; the training and health education components of the program; and the enthusiasm and ability of the Zambian Enrolled Nurse/Midwives in organizing maternal child health/family planning services at service delivery points. Factors which appear to have hindered a more effective project performance have been the restriction on prescribing contraceptives by anyone but physicians; the imbalance in implementation among the project components; the failure to appoint international and national staff to key positions and with a timing that would have enabled staff members to support each other as members of a coordinated team; weak supervision; no research and evaluation activities; transport problems; the lack of use of, and updating of, the project plans; and the absence of a tripartite review early in the project's life to address implementation problems.
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  18. 18

    Report on the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to the maternal and child health programme of Malawi: project MLW/78/P03 (February 1984).

    Ryder B; Burton J; McWilliam J

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Sep. xi, 36, [5] p.

    The 3 initial objectives of the Maternal and Child Health Program of Malawi were health and nutrition education, training of traditional midwives, and immunization against measles and polio. The Evaluation Mission found that the strong points of the project are: the Government's commitment to improve the status of maternal and child health by its expansion of services and its recent acceptance of child spacing as part of its program in maternal child health; the high level of dedication of the personnel in the Ministry of Health; the attention given to strengthening the Health Education section; and the establishment of a good management information framework upon which planning, supervision and monitoring can be further developed. Factors which seem to have hindered the project have been the lack of trained staff at the supervisory and service delivery level caused in large part by the lack of accomodation at the various national training institutions; the failure to appoint international staff to key positions within the project; and the lack of adequate transportation for project personnel. As child spacing will soon be included in project activities, the present organization of the Central Medical Stores to procure and distribute contraceptives and other needed supplies will adversely affect project performance. In total, the evaluation Mission made 19 recommendations addressed mainly to the Government and a number to the World Health Organiation and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities for project management decisions.
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  19. 19

    SOMARC briefing book.

    Futures Group. Social Marketing for Change [SOMARC]

    Washington, D.C., SOMARC, [1985]. [58] p.

    This document contains briefing materials for the participants of an upcoming meeting of the advisory council and working groups of Social Marketing for Change (SOMARC), an organizational network, funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and composed of 5 firms which work together in helping agencies, organizations, and governments develop contraceptive social marketing programs. Social marketing is the use of commercial marketing techniques and management procedures to promote social change. The briefing materials include 3 background and 18 issue papers. The background papers provide brief summaries of USAID's population activities and of the history of social marketing programs, an overview of USAID sponsored contraceptive social marketing programs in 14 countries and of 3 major non-USAID programs, and a listing of the skills and resources needed to develop effective contraceptive social marketing programs. The issue papers provide a focus for the discussion sessions which are scheduled for SOMARC's working groups on marketing communication, management, and research. USAID's objective is to promote the development of family planning programs which are completely voluntary and which increase the reproductive freedom of couples. Contraceptive social marketing programs are consistent with this objective. USAID provides direct funding for family planning programs as well as commodity, technical, and training support. USAID's involvement in social marketing began in 1971, and USAID is currently sponsoring programs in Jamaica, Bangladesh, Nepal, El Salvador, Egypt, Honduras, Ecuador, the Caribbean Region, Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Peru. In the past, USAID provided support for programs in Mexico, Tunisia, and Ghana. The Mexican project is now functioning without USAID support, and the projects in Tunisia and Ghana are no longer operating. Major non-USAID contraceptive social marketing programs operate in India, Sri Lanka, and Colombia. These programs received only limited technical support from USAID. To ensure the success of social marketing programs, social marketers must have access to the knowledge and skills of commercial marketers in the areas of management, analysis and planning, communications, and research. Social marketers must also have expertise in social development and social research. In reference to the issue papers, the working groups and the advisory council were asked to develop suggestions for 1) overcoming social marketing program management problems, 2) motivating health professionals toward greater involvement in social marketing programs, 3) improving the media planning component of the programs, 4) improving management stability and training for management personnel, and 5) improving program evaluation. Areas addressed by the issue papers were 1) whether social marketing programs should be involved in creating a demand for contraceptives or only in meeting the existing demand, 2) the development of a methodology for assessing why some programs fail and others succeed, 3) the feasibility of using anthropological and questionnaire modules for conducting social marketing research, 4) techniques for overcoming the high level of nonsampling error characteristic of survey data collected in developing countries, 5) techniques for identifying contraceptive price elasticity, 6) the feasibility of using content analysis in social marketing communications, 7) the applicability of global marketing strategies for social marketing, and 8) how to select an an appropriate advertising agency to publicize social marketing programs.
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  20. 20

    Regional Course in the Production and Use of Mass Media for Family Planning Programmes in Asia, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 14 September-10 October, 1970. Final report.

    UNESCO. Regional Office for Education in Asia

    Bangkok, Unesco Regional Office for Education in Asia, 1971. (1) 58 p. (MC/FP/ASIA/)

    The Regional Course in the production and use of mass media for family planning programs in Asia, held at the National Family Planning Training Center in Seoul, Korea during 1970, was given a seminar/workshop character. The meeting took note of the purpose and program of the course, as stated by Unesco, as well as the purposes which each paticipant has in mind in coming to the Course. The basic elements of the program were identified as follows: principles and steps involved in the planning, production, use, and evaluation of mass media for family planning; problems arising from the practice of these stages; field reconnaisance of Korean family planning projects and media organizations; screening of materials for communication in family planning, individual, and group research; an integrated campaign; and recommendations primarily in the form of a draft for a Manual on Production and Use of Mass Media for Family Planning Programs, which Unesco plans to prepare and publish in 1971. A Working Paper on the Principles of Production and Use of Mass Media for Family Planning Programs in Asia was submitted to the paticipants. Its discussion was preceded by the presentation of the frames of reference in which the whole problem of communication and its relation to social change, national development, and in paticular family planning were to be considered. Participants examined the practice of communication support to family planning programs in light of their experiences in their respective countries. The difficulty generally encountered concerned the channel and the type of media program to be used for reaching different target audiences in different communities and to achieve different levels of impact at different stages of a family planning program. The participants spent 3 days in field visits to family planning and mass media activities in Korea. Teams were formed to deal with the following activities of the course: field trips; documentation; exhibits; and screening of films. A framework of communication strategy was presented to the meeting. It provided for a combination of channels, both mediated and interpersonal, a relation to audience characteristics, resources, service infrastructure, and coordination with other fields. It was based on the following stages: planning; production; dissemination; promotion and implementation; and feedback, evaluation, and research.
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  21. 21

    Health, population and development: more responsible parenthood, proposals for action.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    In: Tokyo International Symposium, April 1977: Action Now Toward More Responsible Parenthood Worldwide. Tokyo, Japan Science Society, 1977, pp. 311-330

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  22. 22

    Planner's approaches to community participation in health programmes: theory and reality.

    Rifkin SB

    Contact. 1983 Oct; (75):1-16.

    Investigates health planners' assumptions about community particiation in health care. Primary health care aims to make essential health care accessible to all individuals in the community in an acceptable and affordable way and with their full participation. It is the strategy propagated by the World Health Organization to provide health for everyone by the year 2000. Community participation is seen as the key to primary health care and has raised many assumptions and expectations among health planners. Community people are seen as a vast untapped resource which can help to reduce the cost of health care by providing additional manpower. It is also expected that community people want to participate in their own health care because they wish to serve their community and to have a part in decisions which affect them. In the early 1970's, programs were developed out of church-related efforts. They pioneered many of the ideas which became principles of primary health care. The church-related programs were nongovernmental and therefore flexible. They had the same goal of letting the community take responsibility for their own health care; program planners were primarily medical people trained in Western medicine. The planners were concerned with the plight of the poor. However, the programs tended to reflect planners' hopes for, rather than the community's understanding of, the community health problem. The author concludes that the assumptions that planners make about their programs need to be critically analyzed. Investigations need to be made into community perceptions and expectations of their role in health programs. Studies need to be undertaken to identify the potentials and problems of community participation and the record of established community health care programs needs to be examined.
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  23. 23

    The south-east Asia region.

    Zaman H

    In: Bannerman RH, Burton J, Ch'en Wen-Chieh. Traditional medicine and health care coverage: a reader for health administrators and practitioners. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, 1983. 231-9.

    This article discusses the status and functioning of the major systems of traditional medicine in Southeast Asia with particular attention to the activities of WHO. Decision regarding traditional medicine taken by health and political authorities in congresses and conferences from 1977 to 1979 are outlined. Intercountry projects to promote traditional medicine including 1 begun by WHO in 1978 and another 1 founded by the United Nations Development Programme in 1982 are described. The major systems of traditional medicine practiced in the region can be classified as 1) formalized systems which include Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani-Tibbi, the chinese system of medicine, and 2) non-formalized, traditional systems of medicine practiced by herbalists, bonesetters, practitioners of thaad (element system), home remedies and spiritualists. In addition yoga, nature cure and homeopathy are being practiced in some countries including Bangladesh and India. Almost all the countries have recognized the traditional systems of medicine and are making efforts to utilize the practitioners in their health care delivery programs. There are at present 750,000 practitioners of traditional medicine in the region. Health programs in Bangladesh, Burma, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Nepal, and Sri Lanka are discussed. Future efforts of WHO in the region will be related 1st, to reorient traditional healers to meet the needs of primary health care; and 2nd to support research on the treatment of diseases for which modern medicine has no cure, such a peptic ulcer, bronchial asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, urolithiasis, viral hepatitis, and diabetes mellitus.
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  24. 24

    [The strategy of health for all in all its magnitude] Estrategia de salud para todos en toda su magnitud.

    Mahler H

    Boletin de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana. 1983 Oct; 95(4):361-6.

    Around 1970, interest in the concept of social justice began to be reflected in analyses of health systems in developing countries, and in the rapid acceptance and popularization of the goal of health for all by the year 2000, to be achieved through primary health care programs providing universal coverage. UN member states can maintain the impulse to provide universal health care by carrying out within their borders the health care policies collectively recommended by the UN General Assembly, aided by the World Health Organization (WHO) which has put aside the paternalistic policies of the past and which now seeks to assist nations in carrying out their own goals. 1 step in assuring that the goals will be met involves continual surveillance of the progress of implementation, which is to be reported in various meetings and conferences at regional levels and at the World Health Assembly in 1984. Identification of problems in implementation should not be interpreted as placing blame, but rather as signalling the need to search for common solutions to them. New principles in the use of WHO aid are that the member governments should assume responsibility for the application in their countries of the jointly agreed upon policies as well as the utilization of WHo resources reserved for that end, that WHO resources be used only for activities compatible with policies defined at the national and international levels; that WHO resources be used to achieve adequate planning and administration of the health infrastructure, with assistance from WHO; that individual countries participate in evaluation of WHO sponsored activities to assure the optimal use of resources; and that countries assume much greater responsibility for the use of WHO resources. Application of the new principles will require a new type of interaction with the various organs and personnel of WHO at different levels. External aid which requires excessive concentration on only 1 aspect of health care, such as immunization or control of some forms of diarrhea, is counterproductive and continues past tendencies to impose health goals and programs from outside.
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  25. 25

    Seventh General Programme of Work, covering the period 1984-1989.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1982. 153 p. (Health for All Series, No. 8)

    This document contains the World Health Organization's (WHO's) 7th General Programme of Work for the period 1984-89 as approved by the World Health Assembly in May, 1982. WHO's major task between 1984-89 will be to provide coordination and technical support for the development, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of strategies for attaining the world's goal of health for all by 2000. WHO will seek to strengthen primary health care (PHC) systems in member states by promoting the use of appropriate technology, by assisting in the development of health systems for the delivery of integrated services, and by encouraging a high level of community participation in health care systems. The 4 major components of the program are 1) the direction, coordination, and management of the overall program; 2) the development of health system infrastructures; 3) the collection and dissemination of information on health technology and science and support for research to develop new health technologies; and 4) program support. In reference to the 1st component, WHO, through its governing bodies, i.e., the World Health Assembly, the 6 regional committees, and the executive board, will seek to maintain a unity of purpose and direction for the program as it is implemented in each country and region. In regard to the 2nd component, WHO will provide assistance for 1) collecting the information required for effective health planning 2) conducting research aimed at determining optimal organizational structures for PHC systems, 3) determining if legislation is needed to facilitate the development of effective and efficient health systems, 4) ensuring the efficient management of health systems, 5) mobilizing the required health manpower, 6) engendering support for the program among health personnel and policy makers, and 7) monitoring and evaluating the program. The health sciences and technology component will deal with the content of health care. Existing technologies for diagnosing, treating, preventing, and controlling specific disease must be evaluated in reference to their appropriateness for inclusion in health systems. Research to develop new technologies will also be encouraged. Specific programs will focus on nutrition, oral health, accident prevention, maternal and child health, family planning, reproductive health, worker safety, the elderly, mental health, environmental health, diagnostic technology, therapeutic and rehabilitation technology, and the prevention and control of numerous communicable, infectious, and noncommunicable diseases. WHO's support component will provide primarily health information and administrative support.
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