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  1. 1

    Strengthening the provision of adolescent-friendly health services to meet the health and development needs of adolescents in Africa. A consensus statement emanating from a regional consultation on strengthening the provision of adolescent-friendly health services to meet the health and development needs of adolescents in Africa, Harare, Zimbabwe, 17-21 October 2000.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development; World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Africa

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, 2001. [6] p. (WHO/FCH/CAH/01.16; AFR/ADH/01.3)

    Health ministers in the WHO African Region at the 45th regional Committee for Africa (1995) requested WHO to assist Member States in their efforts to address the health problems of adolescents in an integrated manner. In addition, the WHO reproductive-health strategy for the African Region includes a framework which provides for equitable access to quality health services through the establishment of youth-friendly services and counselling for all adolescents. There have been many initiatives, largely donor-driven, in many African countries to provide health services to adolescents. On the other hand, there is ample evidence that even when health services are available adolescents do not utilize them for various reasons, ranging from the organization of services; the attitude of health workers, and community acceptance of services for adolescents. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Rational organization of primary health services.

    Jancloes MF

    In: Wood C, Rue Y, ed. Health policies in developing countries. London, England, The Royal Society of Medicine, 1980. 11-7. (Royal Society of Medicine. International Congress and Symposium Series; No. 24)

    In developing countries systems of "bare-foot doctor" health care are being used. The goal is to provide a health service that is within the reach of each individual and family in the community, is acceptable to participants, that entails their full participation at a cost suitable to the individual and the nation. As opposed to hospital oriented Western medicine, there is usually a health officer from the local community, trained and provided with a dispensary, who returns to the home community. 2 projects in progress which were having negative results, 1 in Zaire and 1 in Senegal, were evaluated. The principles which redirected the programs are discussed. Problems such as mobile centers versus fixed sites for health centers, single aim projects and self-administration of the centers are explored. The acceptance of responsibility by the local public by using funding and resources of its own was judged to run the least risk of failing in the long term. In Senegal a new law on administrative reform was passed which allowed district health committees dealing with about 100,000 people to be set up. With a system of self-financing, more than 500,000 people were treated in 3 years. The fees were modest and 65% of the income from fees was used to keep drug supplies up to date. 3 dangers were identified and overcome: risk of embezzlement by district treasurers, overconsumption of drugs, and stocking excessively expensive products. The basic conditions necessary to provide an efficient network of health services in a rural environment (Zaire) and an urban environment (Senegal) are joint financing of activities through contractual financial participation, local administration, improved medical personnel, standardized medical procedure, and continuous supervision in collaboration with non-professional health workers.
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  3. 3

    Planner's approaches to community participation in health programmes: theory and reality.

    Rifkin SB

    Contact. 1983 Oct; (75):1-16.

    Investigates health planners' assumptions about community particiation in health care. Primary health care aims to make essential health care accessible to all individuals in the community in an acceptable and affordable way and with their full participation. It is the strategy propagated by the World Health Organization to provide health for everyone by the year 2000. Community participation is seen as the key to primary health care and has raised many assumptions and expectations among health planners. Community people are seen as a vast untapped resource which can help to reduce the cost of health care by providing additional manpower. It is also expected that community people want to participate in their own health care because they wish to serve their community and to have a part in decisions which affect them. In the early 1970's, programs were developed out of church-related efforts. They pioneered many of the ideas which became principles of primary health care. The church-related programs were nongovernmental and therefore flexible. They had the same goal of letting the community take responsibility for their own health care; program planners were primarily medical people trained in Western medicine. The planners were concerned with the plight of the poor. However, the programs tended to reflect planners' hopes for, rather than the community's understanding of, the community health problem. The author concludes that the assumptions that planners make about their programs need to be critically analyzed. Investigations need to be made into community perceptions and expectations of their role in health programs. Studies need to be undertaken to identify the potentials and problems of community participation and the record of established community health care programs needs to be examined.
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