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  1. 1
    083349

    The role of health centres in the development of urban health systems: report of a WHO Study Group on Primary Health Care in Urban Areas.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Study Group on Primary Health Care in Urban Areas

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES. 1992; (827):i-iv, 1-38.

    The WHO Study Group on Primary Health Care (PHC) in Urban Areas has written a report after examining the development of reference health centers in urban areas in various parts of the world. It considers such centers to be a potentially important way to improve urban health services. Reference health centers, with real roots in the community and good links to first level and referral level care, can address the problems of access to health care and intersectoral collaboration. Each center should be based on a general model, but its exact operation depends on local conditions and on a comprehensive situation analysis that considers social and financial factors and the level of organizational development. Each reference center should determine what needs to be done locally with local and national resources. Outside donors should only provide assistance for operational costs and a last resort. To plan services adequately, decision makers must define geographical catchment areas and travel times. These definitions must see to it that services integrate with each other vertically (with services at health post and hospital levels), and horizontally (with government, and nongovernmental, and community projects). A solid epidemiological understanding of major local health problems is essential for expanding PHC through reference health centers. This knowledge comes from an assessment of demographic, morbidity, mortality, and social data an evaluation of coverage of underserved and marginal groups. Reference health centers would be in an ideal position to gather and analyze these data. Innovative ways to obtain the resources for urban PHC are collection of user fees and close supportive links with universities and nongovernmental organizations. The Study Group looks at how reference health centers in Cali, Colombia; Manila, the Philippines; and Newark, New Jersey in the US, developed.
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  2. 2
    072823

    The hospital in rural and urban districts. Report of a WHO Study Group on the Functions of Hospitals at the First Referral Level.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Study Group on the Functions of Hospitals at the First Referral Level

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES. 1992; (819):i-vii, 1-74.

    In 1992, the WHO Study Group on the Functions of Hospitals at the First Referral Level compiled a report on the functions of the hospital in rural and urban districts. It advocates that the 1st referral level hospital should be integrated into the district health care system, which is administered by a district health council. This approach strengthens primary health care and uses hospital resources to promote health. The most pressing need for this approach to work is changing people's attitudes and motivation. Various obstacles invariably slow this integration process such as resistance by central and local government officials and inadequate funding. The district hospital should help people to find health rather than just cure disease. Further it must accept the fact that it is not the center of the health system. This means a redistribution of both finance and effort. Governments need to improve the decentralization process to facilitate integration. The study group proposes a step by step methodology to integrate the health system. The 1st step is creating a district health council with representatives from the district health office, the hospital, other sectors of the health care system, and the community. The council determines the community diagnosis including population trends, patterns of morbidity and mortality, and disease and risk distribution by age and location. It also needs to review health services in the district. The council can divide these services into preventive, promotional, curative, rehabilitative, and organizational services. It also must reassess distribution of resources including people, buildings, equipment, and materials. The council must draft a plan and deliberate on implementing the plan. Once the council has taken these steps, it can then implement, monitor, and evaluate the plan and its results.
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  3. 3
    040623

    Provisional summary record of the fourteenth meeting, WHO headquarters, Geneva, Thursday, 16 January 1986, at 9h30.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Executive Board

    [Unpublished] 1986 Jan 16. 20 p. (EB77/SR/14)

    This document provides a progress and evaluation report of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), a summary record of the 14th Meeting, held in Geneva, Switzerland during January 1986. Dr. Uthai Sudsukh began by saying that the Program Committee had undertaken a review and evaluation of immunization against the major infectious diseases in relation to the goal of health for all and primary health care. This was the second in a series of evaluations and reviews of World Health Organization (WHO) programs corresponding to the essential elements of primary health care. The Program Committee had requested the Secretariat to revise the progress and evaluation report in light of its observations as well as those of the EPI Global Advisory Group. The revised report was before members in document EB77/27, which contained a draft resolution proposed for submission to the 39th World Health Assembly in May 1986. Dr. Hyzler indicated that the revised report provided an excellent picture of the present situation, and he supported the recommendations of the EPI Global Advisory Committee and the draft resolution proposed for submission to the Health Assembly. The underlying concern that was expressed in the report was that EPI might become isolated as a vertical program at the expense of encouraging infrastructure development. Consequently, it was important to ensure that rapid increases in EPI coverage were sustained through mechanisms that also strengthened the delivery of other primary health care interventions. The efficiency of EPI was linked closely to the efficacy of maternal and child health services. The real commitment to the success of immunization that was needed was that of the health workers providing day-to-day care to mothers and children and their families. Those countries that had realized the most progress in immunization had done so because of a very strong maternal and child health component in their national health services. Dr. Otoo made the point that 1 of the major constraints in EPI programming was the shortage of managerial skills and that more effort must be made to improve managerial capabilities. Comments of other participants in the 14th Meeting are included in this summary document.
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  4. 4
    041062

    Hospitals and health for all. Report of a WHO Expert Committee on the Role of Hospitals at the First Referral Level.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Expert Committee on the Role of Hospitals at the First Referral Level

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES. 1987; (744):1-82.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on the Role of Hospitals at the First Referral Level met from December 9-17, 1985, to review the role of the hospital in the broader context of a health system. The Expert Committee recognized that different strategies could be used to define the role of hospitals in relation to primary health care and that, for example, it would be possible to begin by analyzing what hospitals currently are doing with respect to primary health care, describe the different approaches being used, and then formulate guidelines to be followed by hospitals that are seeking to strengthen their involvement in primary health care. A shortcoming of this strategy is that it is based on what hospitals are already doing in particular circumstances, rather than helping people to decide what is required in a wide range of different settings. Consequently, the Expert Committee undertook to provide an analysis of primary health care, particularly in relation to the principles of health for all, to specify the components of a district health system based on primary health care, and to use this information as a basis for describing the role of the hospital at the first referral level in support of primary health care. This report of the Expert Committee covers the following: hospitals versus primary health care -- a false antithesis (the need for hospital involvement, the evolution of health services, expanding the role of hospitals, delineation of primary health care, hospitals and primary health care, and the common goal of health for all); components of a health system based on primary health care (targeted programs, levels of service delivery, and the functional infrastructure of primary health care); role and functions of the hospital in the first referral level (patient referral, health program coordination, education and training, and management and administrative support); the district health system; and approaches to some persistent problems (problems of organization and function; problems of attitudes, orientation, and training; and problems of information, financing, and referral system). The report includes recommendations to WHO, to governments, to nongovernmental organizations, and to hospitals. The Expert Committee considered that the conceptual focal point for organizational and functional integration should be the district health system encompassing the hospital and all other local health services. Further, the Expert Commitee was convinced that organizational and functional interaction (focused on the district health system) is imperative if full and effective use is to be made of the resources of the hospitals at the first referral level and if the health needs of the population are to be met.
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  5. 5
    038721

    WHO Expert Committee on Tuberculosis: ninth report.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Expert Committee on Tuberculosis

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES. 1974; (552):1-40.

    This document represents the work of a World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Tuberculosis, which met in Geneva in 1973. Chapters in this volume focus on epidemiology, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination, case finding and treatment, national tuberculosis programs, research, WHO activities in this field, and the activities of the International Union against Tuberculosis and voluntary groups. The Committee emphasized that tuberculosis still ranks among the world's major health problems, particularly in developing countries. Even in many developed countries, tuberculosis and its sequelae are a more important cause of death than all the other notifiable infectious diseases combined. The previous WHO report, issued in 1964, set forth the concept of a comprehensive tuberculosis control program on a national scale. The implementation of this approach has encountered many problems, including deficiencies in the health infrastructure of many countries (shortages of financial, material, and physical resources and a lack of trained manpower) and resistance to change. However, many countries have instituted comprehensive programs and tuberculosis control has become a widely applied community health activity. A priority will be control of pulmonary tuberculosis. The Committee stressed that national programs must be countrywide, permanent, adapted to the expressed demands of the population, and integrated in the community health structure. Steps involved in setting up such programs include planning and programming, selection of technical policies, implementation, and evaluation. Research priority areas identified by the Committee include epidemiology, bacteriology and immunology, immunization, chemotherpy, the systems analysis approach to tuberculosis control, and training methods and instructional materials.
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  6. 6
    041441

    Fourth programme report, 1983-1984.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1985. 101 p. (WHO/CDD/85.13)

    The Diarrheal Diseases Control (CDD) Program, initiated in 1978, is a priority program of WHO for attainment of the goal of Health for All by the Year 2000. Its primary objectives are to reduce diarrheal disease mortality and morbidity, particularly in infants and young children. This report describes the activities undertaken by the Program in the 1983-1984 biennium. During this period, the Program collaborated with more than 100 countries in the implementation of national diarrheal disease control and research activities. The biennium has witnessed a growing interest of other international, bilateral, and nongovernmental agencies in diarrheal disease control; their financial support and commitment have contributed in a large measure to furthering the development of CDD programs and related research in many countries. During the biennium, the services component continued to expand both the quantity and scope of its activities at global, regional, and national levels. This is readily seen from the increase in global acess to Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS) packets from less than 5% in 1981 to 21% in 1983. Other significant developments were a substantial increase in the number of countries planning and implementing programs and the initiation of a new management course in supervisory skills. Successful implementation of national primary health care systems was recognized as necessary for the achievement of the Program's objectives. Efforts of both developing and industrialized countries must continue in a joint endeavor to reduce the problem of diarrheal diseases, especially cholera, the most severe diarrheal disease. The following areas are discussed: the health services component; the research component; information services; program review bodies; program resources and obligations; and program publications and documents for 1983-1984.
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  7. 7
    030992

    Health manpower requirements for the achievement of health for all by the year 2000 through primary health care. Report of a WHO Expert Committee.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Expert Committee on Health Manpower Requirements for the Achievement of Health for All by the Year 2000 through Primary Health Care

    World Health Organization Technical Report Series. 1985; (717):1-92.

    Health manpower development is central to effective primary health care, and appropriate manpower policies must form the basis for national strategies aimed at health for all. Moreover, these policies must be coordinated with the political, social, and economic goals at the national level and anchored in national strategies to achieve health for all. This volume sets forth numerous recommendations for strengthening health manpower development. It is urged that the World Health Organization (WHO) support Member States in their efforts to formulate or revise national health manpower requirements to achieve health for all by the year 2000. Permanent mechanisms for manpower development should be established or strengthened, in conjunction with national health councils and health development networks. It is further urged that Member States design country-specific mechanisms to ensure the fair participation of all sectors of the community, including the less privileged, in health manpower development activities and community involvement in all aspects of manpower development. Decentralization of decision-making power and management functions will make the health system infrastructure more responsive to community health needs. In addition, WHO should encourage Member States to include in training programs for all health workers the acquisition of skills needed to elicit community involvement, undertake activities aimed at changing the value orientations of health workers from profession-based to people-oriented, and develop a system of accountability of training institutes and health services to community bodies. Also recommended is the development of a global health manpower data base system. It is noted that trained health manpower will have only a limited role in the development of health systems based on the primary health care approach unless such manpower is properly deployed and utilized through effective management.
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  8. 8
    080967

    Assuring health sector policy reforms in Africa: the role of non-project assistance.

    Foltz AM

    [Unpublished] 1992. Presented at the 120th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association [APHA], Washington, D.C., November 8-12, 1992. 27, [1] p.

    In the mid 1980s, USAID started nonproject assistance, mainly in the economic sectors, to African countries. The countries received nonproject assistance after they fulfilled conditions which influence institutional and/or policy reforms. The longest running health sector reform program in Africa was in Niger and was slated to receive portions of the funds after fulfilling 6 specific predetermined reform activities. Yet, between 1986 and 1991, Niger had implemented only 2 of them. It did accomplish the population/family planning reforms: expansion of family planning services, a national population policy, analyses and implementation of improvements in the pricing and distribution of contraceptives, and legalization of use and distribution of contraceptives. Continuing economic deterioration during the 1980s and political upheavals after 1989 somewhat explained why the other reform activities were not implemented. Other equally important factors were a very complex sector grant design (more than 20 reforms in 6 policy/institutional areas) with little incentive to realize the reforms, insufficient number of staff (limited to senior personnel) to implement the reforms, and just 1 USAID staff to monitor and facilitate activities. The nonproject assistance for the primary health care (PHC) system in Nigeria had a simpler design than that in Niger. The reform goals were shifting responsibility for PHC from curative care to preventive health services. After USAID and the Nigerian government signed an agreement, they included policy reforms promoting privatization of health services. Only 1 reform was implemented. Factors which could lead to success of nonproject assistance include host government needs to perceive it owns the objectives and building financial and institutional sustainability. In conclusion, nonproject assistance can be effective when implementing policy reforms that the host government has already adopted.
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  9. 9
    046618

    Financing health services in developing countries: an agenda for reform.

    Akin J; Birdsall N; de Ferranti D

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Population, Health and Nutrition Dept., 1986 Dec 31. 124 p.

    In the current environment of general budget stringency in developing countries, it is unrealistic to push for more public spending for health services. The answer to this health crisis is to relieve government of much of the responsibility for financing those kinds of health services for which the benefits to society as a whole (as opposed to direct benefits to the users of the service) are low, freeing public resources to finance those services for which benefits are high. The intent is to relieve government of the burden of spending on health care for the rich, freeing public resources for more spending for the poor. Individuals with sufficient income should pay for their curative care. The financing and provision of these "private" health services should be shifted to a combination of the nongovernment sector and a public sector reorganized to be more financially self-sufficient. A shift such as this would increase the public resources available for those types of health services which are "public goods" and currently are underfunded "public" health programs, such as immunization, vector control, some prenatal and maternal care, sanitary waste disposal, and health education. Also such a shift would increase the public resources available for simple curative care and referral for the poor who now only have limited access to low quality services of this nature. Government efforts to cover the full costs of health care for everyone from general public revenues have contributed to 3 sets of problems in the health systems of many countries: an allocation problem -- insufficient spending on cost-effective health activities; an internal efficiency problem -- inefficient public programs; and an equity problem -- inequitable distribution of benefits from health services. 4 policies for health financing are proposed to raise revenues for important health programs, increase the efficiency of public health services, and make the system better serve the poor. These are: charging users of public health facilities; providing insurance or other risk coverage; strengthening nongovernmental health activities; and decentralizing government health services. A table summarizes the effects of each of the 4 options for reform in alleviating health sector problems.
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  10. 10
    046823

    The state of the world's children 1988.

    Grant JP

    Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1988. [9], 86 p.

    The 1988 UNICEF report on the world's children contains chapters describing the multi-sectorial alliance to support child health, the current emphasis on ORT and immunization, the effect of recession on vulnerable children, family rights to knowledge of basic health facts, and support for women in the developing world. Each chapter is illustrated by graphs. There are side panels on programs in specific countries, including Senegal, Syria, Colombia, Bangladesh, Turkey, India, Honduras, Japan and Southern Africa, and highlighted programs including immunization, AIDS, ORT, breast-feeding and tobacco as a test of health. The SAARC is a new regional organization of southern Asian countries committed to immunization and other health goals. Tables of health statistics of the world's nations, divided into 4 groups by "Under 5 Mortality Rate" present basic indicators, nutrition/malnutrition data, health information, education, literacy and media data, demographic indicators, economic indicators and data pertaining to women. The absolute numbers of child deaths had fallen to 16 million in 1980, from 25 million in 1950. Saving children's lives will not exacerbate the population problem because, realizing that their children will survive, families will have fewer children. Furthermore, the methods used to reduce mortality, such as breast feeding and empowerment of families to control their lives, are known to reduce fertility.
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  11. 11
    040872

    Expanded Programme of Immunization Eastern Mediterranean Region. A report for the EPI Global Advisory Group Meeting, Alexandria, 21-25 October 1984.

    Sulieman O

    [Unpublished] 1984. 10, [8] p. (EPI/GAG/84/WP.7.a)

    The strategy adopted by the Members States of the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) to achieve the objective of the promotion of the Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) through primary health care (PHC) concentrates on strengthening synergistic integration of EPI with other services. Activities have been planned and implemented or are being implemented at the Regional Office and at the country level. 21 countries of the Region now have either a full-time or part-time manager or an EPI focal point. This is a considerable development, for in 1982 there were EPI managers in 9 countries. Except for 3 countries, all national EPI managers/focal points have received senior level training in EPI. At delivery points, vaccination is performed to a large extent by multipurpose health workers, but full-time vaccinators are available in about 6 countries. All field workers have received training at their respective regional levels. Limited financial resources continue to be 1 of the primary constraints of the program in the Region. Plans to resolve this problem include: counteracting wastage factors; close collaboration with the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) and other international agencies at the country level to standardize approaches and avoid overlap; tapping regional and international voluntary agencies to increase their contributions; and increased use of associate experts, UN volunteers, and national technical staff. The overall information system is to some extent weak and suffers from irregularity and a lack of continuity. Regular reports are received from 9 countries which have World Health Organization staff. Repeated requests from other countries yield incomplete and at times contradicting data. Research efforts are directed towards operational areas, and research in strategies, integration, community, and surveillance areas is being encouraged.
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  12. 12
    043909
    Peer Reviewed

    An economic evaluation of "health for all".

    Patel M

    HEALTH POLICY AND PLANNING. 1986 Mar; 1(1):37-47.

    This economic analysis assesses the probable costs of implementing various activities of the World Health Organization's (WHO's) global strategy of "health for all by the year 2000" and the likelihood that developing countries will be able to afford these costs, either on their own or with the assistance of developed countries. If this policy is to be transformed into concrete results, there must be a plan complete with budgetary requirements, planned activities, and expected results specified in adequate detail. The overall costs of the activities proposed by the global strategy would amount to approximately 5% of the gross national product of most developing countries, with water supplies and primary health care comprising the most expensive activities. Although there is a good match between estimated resource requirements and planned activities, the desired outcomes are often unlikely to result from the activities proposed. At present, all 25 industrial market and nonmarket industrial developed countries have already achieved the outcome goals of the global strategy; however, these countries account for only 25% of the world's population. Of the 63 middle-income countries, 54 have already achieved a gross national product per capita of over US$500, but only 22 have an infant mortality rate better than 50/1000. Very few low-income countries are close to reaching their targets for income, infant mortality, life expectancy, or literacy. On the basis of current trends, 25-33% of countries are considered unlikely to achieve the outcome goals by the year 2000. In general, it appears that expenditure targets are too low to cover the needed health services activities. Further research on the costs of health promoting activities such as immunization and primary health care should be given high priority.
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  13. 13
    041365

    Expanded Programme on Immunization: progress and evaluation report by the Director-General.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Unpublished] 1985 Nov 19. Presented to the Executive Board, Seventy-seventh Session, Provisional Agenda Item 18. 20 p. (EB77/27)

    The Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) has made major public health gains in the past decade. The central EPI strategy has been to deliver immunization in consonance with other health services, particularly those directed toward mothers and children. However, in the least developed countries and many other developing countries, it does not appear likely that national budgets will be sufficient by 1990 to support full immunization coverage on a sustained basis or that an adequate number of national managers can be assembled to staff effective programs. At the November 1985 meeting of the EPI Global Advisory Group, recommendations were made to accelerate global progress. These recommendations reflect optimism that the 1990 goal of reducing morbidity and mortality by immunizing all children of the world can be achieved, but also acknowledge that many fundamental problems of national program management remain to be resolved. 3 general actions needed are: 1) promote the achievement of the 1990 immunization goal at national and international levels through collaboration among ministries, organizations, and individuals in both the public and private sectors; 2) adopt a mix of complementary strategies for program acceleration; and 3) ensure that rapid increases in coverage can be sustained through mechanisms which strengthen the delivery of other primary health care interventions. The 4 specific actions needed are: 1) provide immunization at every contact point, 2) reduce drop-out rates between first and last immunizations, 3) improve immunization services to the disadvantaged in urban areas, and 4) increase priority for the control of measles, poliomyelitis, and neonatal tetanus. Continued efforts are also required to strengthen disease surveillance and outbreak control, reinforce training and supervision, ensure quality of vaccine production and administration, and pursue research and development.
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  14. 14
    041364

    Expanded Programme on Immunization progress report by the Director-General.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Unpublished] 1978 Mar 31. Presented to the Thirty-first World Health Assembly provisional agenda item 2.6.10. 13 p. (A31/21)

    This report summarizes progress in 1977-78 in the planning and implementation of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). The EPI's long-term objectives are: 1) to reduce morbidity and mortality from diphtheria, pertussis, measles, poliomyelitis, and tuberculosis by providing immunization against these diseases to every child in the world by 1990; 2) to promote countries' self-reliance in the delivery of immunization services within the context of comprehensive health services; and 3) to promote regional self-reliance in matters of vaccine quality control and production. The present EPI program strategy is to develop managerial competence at the senior and middle levels to serve as a foundation for solid, enduring program implementation. Regional and national authorities have been made a part of the global planning process. An EPI Global Advisory Group has been established to assist in operational implementation, develop prototype training curricula and educational materials, develop and transfer appropriate technologies, establish a 2-way information system to obtain global data on the target diseases, and attract and coordinate extrabudgetary resources. Recent training activities have included a course on EPI planning and management, middle management training at the national level, training in cold chain management, and preparation of an EPI field manual. Research and development efforts have focused on improving the equipment used in the cold chain. Work continues on the development of more stable, more potent, less reactogenic vaccines. 42 developing countries, in which a total of 57 million children are born every year, have been identified as expanding their immunization programs in active collaboration with the World Health Organization. As more countries actively expand their immunization coverage, a larger level of resource input will be required to sustain this expansion.
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  15. 15
    038933

    The role of a donor government.

    Wit KG

    TROPICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL MEDICINE. 1985 Sep; 37(3 Suppl):S78-80.

    In the Netherlands the program of international cooperation focuses on the improvement of the socioeconomic situation of the poorest groups in societies as one of the major aims. Health is considered to be an important component of that situation and emphasis is laid on the complexity of the many different factors that determine the health status of individuals, groups, and populations. The ministry strongly advocates a community-based or community-oriented approach, popular participation, and a multisectoral approach by integration of activities such as health care, drinking water supply, agriculture, education, and poverty-reducing measures in general. Considering the above identified policy and the positive experiences the government had gained through bilateral, multilateral, and nongovernmental organization channels, the Netherlands wholeheartedly welcomed the results of the World Health Organization (WHO) UN International Children's Emergency Fund Conference of Alma Ata in 1978, endorsing the declaration of the conference. It was stated that the actual health situation of the world population was intolerably poor, that the majority of humankind had to live without possibilities to benefit from modern health technology, and that primary health care (PHC) had to be considered the key strategy in order to obtain the aim of "Health for All at the Year 2000." In the years that followed, PHC became a popular concept worldwide. Within the Netherlands itself, the Royal Tropical Institute in Amsterdam created a multidisciplinary group linked with other institutions in order to process and analyze the experience gained in different PHC projects in various 3rd world countries. These studies already have contributed to basic knowledge in the PHC field and the group assisted through direct or indirect training. Additionally, about 200 Dutch medical doctors working in developing countries and doctors from those countries have participated in the annual international Courses in Health Development, organized in 1963. In the context of a multilateral approach to help solve global problems, the Netherlands has built up a certain tradition, one that supports WHO in its efforts to elaborate the concept of PHC as well as to develop and to supply the means to implement the strategy. Support also is given to WHO's initiative to establish the Health Resources Group, which participates in making an inventory of national health problems and of available resources from national and international sources. Returning to the theme of this symposium, vaccination can function as a starter for PHC when it is implemented in accordance with the overall PHC philosophy, i.e., it supports the general development process of societies and individuals.
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  16. 16
    034877

    Toward 2000: the quest for universal health in the Americas.

    Acuna HR

    Washington, D.C, Pan American Health Organization, 1983. x, 145 p. (Scientific Publication No. 435)

    This document, prepared by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), reviews health in the Americas in the period 1905-47, provides a more detailed assessment of progress in the health sector during the 1970s, and then outlines prospects for the period 1980-2000 in terms of meeting the goal of health for all by the year 2000. The main feature of this goal is its comprehensiveness. Health is no longer viewed as a matter of disease, but as a social outcome of national development. Attainment of this goal demands far-reaching socioeconomic changes, as well as revision of the concepts underlying national health systems. It seems likely that the coming period in Latin America and the Caribbean will be characterized by intense urban concentration and rapid industrialization, with a trend toward increasing heterogeneity. If current development trends continue, the gap in living standards between urban and rural areas will widen due to sharp differences in productivity. Regionally based development planning could raise living standards and reduce inequalities. In the type of development expected, the role of social services is essential. It will be necessary to determine whether the objective is to provide the poor with access to services that are to be available to all or to provide special services for target groups. The primary health care strategy must be applicable to the entire population, not just a limited program to meet the minimal needs of the extreme poor. Pressing issues regarding health services in the next 2 decades include how to extend their coverage, increase and strengthen their operating capacity, improve their planning and evaluation, increase their efficiency, and improve their information systems. Governments and ministries must be part of effective infrastructures in which finance, intersectoral linkages, community participation, and intercountry and hemispheric cooperation have adequate roles. One of PAHO's key activities must be systematic monitoring and evaluation of strategies and plans of action for attaining health for all.
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  17. 17
    033658

    Targets for health for all. Targets in support of the European regional strategy for health for all.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Europe

    Copenhagen, Denmark, WHO, Regional Office of Europe, 1985. x, 201 p.

    This book sets out the fundamental requirements for people to be healthy, to define the improvements in health that can be realized by the year 2000 for the peoples of the European Region of the World Health Organization (WHO), and to propose action to secure those improvements. Its purposes are as follows: propose improvements in the health of the people in order to achieve health for all by the year 2000; indicate where action is called for, the extent of the collective effort required, and the lines along which it should be directed; provide a tool for countries and the Region to Monitor progress toward the goal and revise their course of action if necessary. The targets proposed are intended to indicate the improvements that could be expected if all the will, knowledge, resources, and technology already available were pooled in the pursuit of a common goal. The target levels set are based on historical trends in the fields concerned, their expected future evolution, and the knowledge available on the probable effects of intervention. These levels are intended to inspire and motivate Member States when they are determining their own priorities, targets, and capabilities and thus the degree to which they can contribute to reaching the regional targets. The base year for all the targets in 1980. The year 2000 is the completion data retained for all targets related to health improvements. Targets related to lifestyles, the environment and care respectively have 1990 or 1995 as their date of completion unless specific problems justify the allocation of a later year. Targets embodying measures to bring about the changes in research and health development support should be reached before 1990. The aim is to give people a positive sense of health so that they can make full use of their physical, mental, and emotional capacities. A well informed, well motivated, and actively participating community is a key element to the attainment of the common goal. The focus of the health care system should be on primary health care -- meeting the basic health needs of each community through services provided as close as possible to where people live and work, readily accessible and acceptable to all, and based on full community participation. Health problems transcend national frontiers.
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  18. 18
    033365

    United Nations Children's Fund: report of the Executive Board (15-26 April 1985).

    UNICEF. Executive Board

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1985. v, 58 p. (Economic and Social Council Official Records, 1985. Supplement No. 10; E/1985/31; E/ICEF/1985/12)

    The major decisions of the UN Children's Fund Executive Board in their 1985 session were to: approve several new program recommendations and endores a major emergency assistance program for several African countries; approve initiatives to accelerate the implementation of child survival and development actions, particularly towards the goal of achieving universal immunization of children against 6 major childhood diseases by 1990; adopt a comprehensive policy framework for UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) programs concerning women; approve UNICEF revised budget estimates for 1984-85 and budget estimates for 1986-87; and make a number of decisions on ways to improve the administration and the role of the Board. The Board members both reported on and heard evidence of the encouraging results of recent efforts to implement national child survival and development programs. Reports of the successful immunization campaigns in Burkina Faso, Colombia, El Salvador, and Nigeria were welcomed, along with the news that half a million children were saved during the year through the use of oral rehydration therapy. Stronger efforts were encouraged to improve results in the areas of breastfeeding and growth monitoring. Implementation issues in connection with child survival and development actions were a continuing focus of Board attention during the session. The accelerated implementation of child survival and development actions was accorded the highest priority in approving the medium-term plan for 1984-88. The Board also adopted a resolution that sought to draw the attention of world leaders, during their observance of the 40th anniversary of the UN, to the importance of reaffirming their commitment to accelerate the implementation of the child survival and development resolution and realizing universal immunization by 1990. Delegations commended the results of the World Health Organization/UNICEF joint nutrition support program but noted that malnutrition among women and children appeared to be increasing. Water supply and sanitation activities were encouraged, and the Board stressed that those actions should be linked with health and hygiene education. The Board endorsed the report on recent UNICEF activities in Africa. Many delegations spoke in support of the increased aid to Africa. Major emphasis was given to linking emergency responses with ongoing UNICEF programs. The Board approved new multi-year commitments from general resources totalling $303,053,422 for 28 country and interregional programs and noted 32 projects totaling $223,215,000 to be funded from specific-purpose contributions. The Board stressed the importance of ensuring that child survival and development actions were integrated with continuing efforts in other of UNICEF action. The Board approved a commitment of $252,550,443 for the budget for the biennium 1986-87.
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  19. 19
    032770

    Making primary health care a way of life.

    Mamuya SJ

    Joicfp Review. 1985 Oct; 10:28-31.

    Umati is a nongovernmental and nonprofit voluntary family planning organization which pioneered family planning activities in Tanzania in 1959. Umati was also assigned a role in the MCH program to ensure that the family planning component be given equal priority with the other components of the health program. Umati assists the Ministry of Health in its efforts to increase awareness of the advantages of family planning and responsible parenthood; gives advice on service delivery as well as assists the Ministry of Health in its task of training family planning service providers; and assists the Ministry of Health in the procurement and distribution of contraceptives and equipment. Umati is supported by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). The integrated project aims to compensate for some of the deficiencies inherent in the MCH program. The project should respond to other community needs in order to attract and sustain the interest and active participation of community members. Parasite control and nutrition have been selected as priority health concerns. The integrated project must belong to the community. The following channels are being utilized on the local level: the local steering committee; the project volunteers; the Family Planning Association of Tanzania; MCH unit of the government; the government environmental sanitation unit; primary schools; religious institutions; the village government; and information, education and communication. The project should be evaluated and should be flexible.
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  20. 20
    031467

    [Health costs and financing and the work of WHO] Cout et financement de la sante et activities de l'OMS.

    Mach EP

    World Health Statistics Quarterly. Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales. 1984; 37(4):339-50.

    This discussion examines the international responses to issues and problems in the cost and financing of the health sector, focusing on the work of the World Health Organization (WHO). It describes the growth of attention to these concerns beginning in the 1970s, reviews methods and applications of financial analysis in greater detail, and summarizes progress to date and the agenda for work. Emphasis is on the developing countries, for they face the most urgent problems regarding costs and financing, and more attention is directed to their needs for support in this area. By the early 1970s it was clear that progress in health development particularly in the most underprivileged countries was unsatisfactory and that changes were needed if services were to have an appreciable impact on the health problems of developing populations. A major study conducted jointly by the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) and WHO identified several of the critical problems associated with resources. The essential financial concerns requiring attention in connection with primary health service coverage, the need for more equitable distribution of existing resources for health and the priority of resources allocation to peripheral health services were examined in detail by a WHO Study Group on Financing Health Services which met in 1977. Among the problems of health finance, those of the overall lack of funds, the maldistribution of health resources, rising health care costs, and the lack of coordination were found to be particularly important. The Study Group concluded that, despite difficulties, it was possible to collect information of sufficient reliability for planners' needs and at a modest cost, even for the private sector. To help bring this about, it recommended that research centers and universities, in collaboration with national health authorities of their country, devote considerable attention to data collection methods. The reports, studies, and papers prepared at various meetings deal in general with specific aspects of health cost and financing. A major element, and evolving product, of the meetings and studies related to developing countries was a manual on financing health services, originally based on the recommendations of the 1st Study Group meeting. This draft document served as background material for a series of further meetings and was used to guide many of the country financing studies. A number of other health financing manuals were also developed between 1979-81. In its final published form the WHO manual attempts to be relevant to all developing countries. The manual describes health policies and their financial aspects and outlines techniques for data collection. If the recommendations of the 1st Study Group are compared with the achievements recorded thus far, the following facts come to light: many countries have undertaken surveys of health sector financing and resource allocation; increased interest in this subject has been shown by other international organizations; much progress has been made in the development and refinement of methodologies for collecting and using financial data; international activities and country studies have made it possible to provide reports for country leadership; and issues of financial planning and management often appear in medium and longterm plans.
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  21. 21
    030590

    Women's organizations in primary health care: report of a working group.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Unpublished] 1985. 11 p. (WHD/85.2)

    During August 1983, a small working group met in Geneva to discuss approaches for the World Health Organization (WHO) in designing and carrying out activities for the support of women's organizations' involvement in primary health care. The group discussed the distinct characteristics of women's organizations' involvement in primary health care as compared with the involvement of community organizations in general. Women's organizations have special characteristics which are advantageous to the development of primary health care. They are traditionally motivated and interested in health care; they are multidimensional; they have positive values toward voluntarism; their work in primary health care is viewed as positive, nonconflicting action at the community level; and they are based on, or form part of, longstanding women-to-women networks, with intergenerational, family, and cultural ties, which are conducive to health promotive and preventive subjects. The WHO is promoting the involvement of women's organizations in primary health care as it recognizes the importance of their current potential roles in developing and implementing strategies of health for all by 2000. The group analyzed several typologies of women's organizations developed previously and agreed that for the present purpose very simple categories could be used. Types of women's nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) include: self help organizations; intermediary organizations; and international women's organizations. In an increasing number of countries, government offices, commissions, or ministries have been created to serve as a coordinating mechanism for women's programs or women's "affairs." The role or women's NGOs have been recognized as critical for the promotion and implementation of the goals and programs of the UN Decade for Women. Various types of activities and roles were discussed. Examples of activities are listed as are the roles of governments and suggested actions for the WHO. Types of documents or guides needed in support of women's organizations in primary care include: a community level guide; guides for the health system; political/promotional documents; and a monograph on the involvement of women's organizations in primary health care.
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  22. 22
    029925

    The NGO Group on Primary Health Care.

    World Health. 1985 Mar; 8-10.

    The emerging pattern of cooperation between nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and between NGOs and governments in the provision of primary health care (PHC) services was noted, factors which impede the cooperative provision of PHC services were identified, and some principles for guiding the cooperative delivery of PHC services were delineated. NGOs initiated the delivery of organized health services in several developing countries, and NGOs are currently responsible for the provision a large proportion of the health services in many countries. In 1978 the estimated development contribution of NGOs was about US$700 million. In comparision, the development contribution was US$1200 million for the World Bank, US$600 million for other development banks, and US$500 million for UN agencies. The expertise acquired by the NGOs in the development of innovative health programs throught the years should be utilized by governments to formulate effective health policies and programs. Cooperation between NGOs and between NGOs and governments is increasing both at the national and international level. 30 countries now have national bodies which coordinate the activities of NGOs operating in their country. Many of these national bodies are forging cooperative links with government agencies. An example of international cooperation is the NGO Group on PHC established in 1976. This group, comprised of several international NGOs based in Europe is currently coolaborating with the World Health Organization, the UN Chindren's Fund and the governments of Botswana, Lesotho, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Swaziland for the purpose of promoting the development of PHC services in these 5 countries. Factors which impede the cooperative provision of PHC services include 1) the tendency of both governments and NGOs to use scarce resources to develop sophisticated medical services rather than to develop basic services for the general population, 2) the use of superior employment benefits by NGOs to attract trained personnel away from government programs, 3) the failure of many NGOs to develop programs in accordance with national policies and priorities, 4) the failure of many NGO projects to promote community participation and self-reliance, 5) the duplication of services by NGOs and governments, 6) competition between NGOs and between NGOs and government agencies, and 7) the failure on the part of some NGOs to adequately evaluate and monitor their projects. Principles which should guide the cooperative provision of PHC services are 1) health care should be developed in accordance with a nation's socioeconomic development goals; 2) NGOs and government agencies should provide coordinated and expanded services rather than competitive services; 3) NGO activities should be an integral part of each nation's health care system, and a referral network between all programs in the system should be established; 4) both national and external resources should be allocated in such a way as to promote harmony between the various programs in the system; 5) training programs should stress the acquisition of practical skills and 6) NGOs should focus more attention on monitoring and evaluating their programs in order to improve their ability to participate in the formualtion of health policies and programs.
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  23. 23
    029924

    Partners in health.

    Mutalik GS

    World Health. 1985 Mar; 5-7.

    Attainment of health for all by the year 2000 will require increased cooperation between governments, the World Health Organization (WHO), and voluntary health organizations. Voluntary organizations function at many levels. Some are strictly local, some operate nationwide, and others function at the international level. They have developed innovative health programs throughout the world and have developed expertise in confronting and solving a wide range of health problems. Collaboration between WHO, voluntary organizations, and member states was initiated in 1948 at the 1st World Health Assembly. In 1978 in the Declaration of Alma-Ata, WHO, voluntary organizations, and member states jointly identified the components and goals of primary health care, and in 1979, at the 32nd World Health Assembly they jointly launched the health for all by 2000 movement. The technical discussions scheduled for May 1985, in conjunction with the World Health Assembly will provide an opportunity for promoting further cooperation. At this meeting a number of issues must be resolved if an effective partnership is to emerge. Governments must declare their willingness to share the responsibility of providing health services for their populations and to share resources with the voluntary organizations. Voluntary organizations must declare their willingness to develop programs which are in accordance with the planning goals and priorities of the member states. Both must decide how closely they are willing to work together. Efforts must also be directed toward creating a structural framework for collaboration which will allow the voluntary organizations to participate in the nation's health development without stifling the organizations' albilities to formulate innovative programs and to make flexible responses to local conditions. The ability of governments and organizations to work cooperatively is being demonstrated in countries around the world. For example, in 1 Asian country, a voluntary organization is using its knowledge of local conditions to promote community acceptance of the government's malaria control program. In Africa, a joint effort to implement primary health care is being undertaken by several international voluntary organizations, the governments of 6 countries, and WHO. The degree to which cooperative bonds such as these are forged during the next few years will determine whether the world's goals for the year 2000 will be met.
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  24. 24
    025040

    The monitoring process has been set in motion.

    Mahler H

    World Health Forum. 1984; 5(2):99-102.

    This report reviews the monitoring of progress towards the goal of health for all. It appears that a high level of political sensitization has occured and that the political will to achieve the goal of health for all exists in a large majority of the countries that have reported. Health policies have been or are being formulated with the objective of achieving universal coverage of the population through primary health care (PHC). Countries are beginning to look at their health systems with a view toward reorienting them to the PHC approach and to redistributing resources in a way that will strengthen their community based health services. Considerable efforts have been made to reorient health workers towards PHC. Most countries have officially recognized the right of people to participate in the health system, and several countries are trying various ways of promoting participation. In a few countries efforts are being made to stimulate othe relevant sectors to undertake intersectoral action in health. A number of observations can also made on the relative lack of progress. Few countries seem to have developed well-defined plans of action that include specific targets and objectives, a time frame, and data on the projection and allocation of resources. Even fewer countries can assess the resource flow from national and external sources to support their strategies. The overall response rate is good (118 of 162 Members States have reported), but the completeness and the quality of information leave much to be desired. At the global level, the consolidation of the progress reports tends to smooth over the findings, and it is difficult to reflect the wide variations among countries and regions. An important observation must be made: there is a striking lack of information that would enable analysis of even some of the critical aspects of implementation. It is difficult to determine at this stage whether such information is simply unavailable in countries or whether the efforts made to collect it were inadequate. Another critical area is the information on the resources currently available for health, especially the financial resources. Many countries encountered serious difficulties when trying to determine the proportion of gross national product spent on health, and even more could not estimate the percentage of the national health expenditure spent on PHC. Despite its limitations, the monitoring process has yielded useful information, even at this early stage, on the efforts governments are making to implement national strategies. Monitoring of implementation and evaluation must occur at the managerial and technical as well as the policy level, and these two must be interlinked.
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  25. 25
    025018

    Executive Board monitors progress towards health for all.

    Who Chronicle. 1984; 38(2):47-59.

    The 73rd session of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Executive Board met in January 1984 to review progress in implementing strategies for health for all by the year 2000, based on information emanating from the countries themselves. This monitoring function was assigned to the Board by the World Health Assembly in 1981 and calls for the Board to evaluate progress towards health for all at regular intervals and to report back to the Health Assembly. The 1st country reports together with comments of the regional committees and relevant information provided by theSecretariat were examined in November 1983 by the Board's Program Committee. Emphasis at this stage was placed on reviewing the relevance of national health policies to the attainment of health for all and the progress being made in implementing national strategies. Actual evaluation of the strategies will begin in 1985. As many of the country reports submitted were not as complete or as accurate as they could have been, the overall progress report submitted were not as complete or as accurate as they could have been, the overall progress report suffered from a lack of detailed and precise informattion on many important aspects that were crucial to national health for all strategies. Dr. Brandt, presenting the Program Committee's views, told the board that the report did indicate that a high level of political sensitization had occurred and that the political will to attain the goal of health for all existed in a large majorithy of the countries that had reported. The report indicated that to a large extent the Secretariat had met its responsibilities. It was the Member States that had to shoulder the responsibility and reaffirm their commitment by action. The Program Committee's progress report points to the existence of specific technical needs, particularly in national capability to carry out health policies. Among the areas requiring strengthening are information analysis and management, financial analysis, assessment of status of public information, competence in planning and management, effective involvement of relevant sectors in health, and measurement of intersectoral action for health. The Board urged Member States to give highest priority to the continuing monitoring and evaluation of their health for all strategies and to assume full responsibility for this process. In regard to the action program on essential drugs and vaccines, priority in the last 2 years has gone to training and manpower development, the dissemination of experience and information, cooperation in the procurement and production of essential drugs, technical cooperation among developing countries, and contracts with nongovernmental organizations and the pharmaceutical industry. During the far ranging discussion that ensued in the Executive Board, members addressed themselves in considerable detail to numerous aspects of the action program. The Board approved a new and carefully phased procedure for the review of substances to be recommended for international drug control.
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