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Implementation of the global strategy for Health for All by the Year 2000, second evaluation; and eighth report on the world health situation.
[Unpublished] 1992 Mar 6. 171 p. (A45/3)This 2nd evaluation of the global strategy for health for all (HFA) by 2000/8th report on the world health situation indicates a need for a new approach for sustainable health development which includes mobilizing resources for high priority populations and health needs, more effective and intersectoral health promotion and protection, and improving access to primary health care (PHC) via higher quality services and integrating health services into all social services. The data cover 96% of the world's population and the years 1985-90. The 1st chapter looks at the interaction among political, economic, demographic, and social development trends and their effects on health. It mentions the health development trend of increased involvement of individuals, communities, professional groups, and development agencies. The 2nd chapter centers on the progress of countries towards reaching HFA by examining the differences between the haves and the have nots. The 3rd chapter examines improvement and obstacles in health care coverage, PHC coverage, and quality of care. Chapter 4 reviews health resources including financial and human resources and health technology. The next chapter focuses on trends in mortality, morbidity, and disability and life style factors of health such as smoking. Chapter 6 examines policies and programs of environmental health, evaluation, and monitoring of environmental health hazards and risks, and environmental resources management. The 7th chapter brings together highlights and implications expressed in the previous chapters and states that health improvements have indeed occurred such as increased life expectancy. The last chapter uses the information in the preceding chapters to project future trends and mentions 5 challenges facing the world today.
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES. 1985; (728):1-113.This document represents the work of a World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on the Control of Schistosomiasis which met in Geneva in 1984. Chapters in this volume focus on epidemiology, disease due to schistosomiasis, methods of control, progress in national control programs, and a strategy for morbidity control. At present, the aim is to control the morbidity due to schistosomiasis rather than to control its transmission. The simplicity of diagnostic techniques, the safety and ease of administering oral antischistosomal drugs, the use of snail control measures based on specific epidemiologic criteria, and precise methods of data collection and analysis mean that control activities can be adapted to suit any level of the health care delivery system. Drug treatment reduces the prevalence and intensity of infection, prevents or reduces pathologic manifestations in infected persons, and is generally the most cost-effective way of achieving schistosomiasis control. On the basis of the severity of schistosomiasis in the area, its priority rating as a public health problem, and available resources, those operational approaches most suited to a particular area should be identified. Active community participation is necessary to ensure that the maximum benefits are derived from chemotherapy. Maintenance of transmission control by the primary health care system, through monitoring of both parasitologic indexes and clinical signs and measurements, is essential. In most endemic areas, schoolchildren are regarded as the most appropriate target group for monitoring. The WHO Expert Committee has recommended that schistosomiasis control programs be integrated into primary health care and noted the need for greater administrative and managerial expertise in schistosomiasis control. Improvement in socioeconomic conditions in endemic areas provides the longterm solution to schistosomiasis control.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1985. 101 p. (WHO/CDD/85.13)The Diarrheal Diseases Control (CDD) Program, initiated in 1978, is a priority program of WHO for attainment of the goal of Health for All by the Year 2000. Its primary objectives are to reduce diarrheal disease mortality and morbidity, particularly in infants and young children. This report describes the activities undertaken by the Program in the 1983-1984 biennium. During this period, the Program collaborated with more than 100 countries in the implementation of national diarrheal disease control and research activities. The biennium has witnessed a growing interest of other international, bilateral, and nongovernmental agencies in diarrheal disease control; their financial support and commitment have contributed in a large measure to furthering the development of CDD programs and related research in many countries. During the biennium, the services component continued to expand both the quantity and scope of its activities at global, regional, and national levels. This is readily seen from the increase in global acess to Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS) packets from less than 5% in 1981 to 21% in 1983. Other significant developments were a substantial increase in the number of countries planning and implementing programs and the initiation of a new management course in supervisory skills. Successful implementation of national primary health care systems was recognized as necessary for the achievement of the Program's objectives. Efforts of both developing and industrialized countries must continue in a joint endeavor to reduce the problem of diarrheal diseases, especially cholera, the most severe diarrheal disease. The following areas are discussed: the health services component; the research component; information services; program review bodies; program resources and obligations; and program publications and documents for 1983-1984.
Health and health services in Judaea, Samaria and Gaza 1983-1984: a report by the Ministry of Health of Israel to the Thirty-Seventh world Health Assembly, Geneva, May 1984.
Jerusalem, Israel, Ministry of Health, 1984 Mar. 195 p.Health conditions and health services in Judea, Samaria, and Gaza during the 1967-83 period are discussed. Health-related activities and changes in the social and economic environment are assessed and their impact on health is evaluated. Specific activities performed during the current year are outlined. The following are specific facets of the health care system that are the focus of many current projects in these districts; the development of a comprehensive network of primary care programs and centers for preventive and curative services has been given high priority and is continuing; renovation and expansion of hospital facilities, along with improved staffing, equipment, and supplies for basic and specialty health services increase local capabilities for increasingly sophisticated health care, and consequently there is a decreasing need to send patients requiring specialized care to supraregional referral hospitals, except for highly specialized services; inadequacies in the preexisting reporting system have necessitated a continuting process of development for the gathering and publication of general and specific statistical and demographic data; stress has been placed on provision of safe drinking water, development of sewage and solid waste collection and disposal systems, as well as food control and other environmental sanitation activities; major progress has been made in the establishment of a funding system that elicits the participation and financial support of the health care consumer through volunary health insurance, covering large proportions of the population in the few years since its inception; the continuing building room in residential housing along with the continuous development of essential community sanitation infrastructure services are important factors in improved living and health conditions for the people; and the health system's growth must continue to be accompanied by planning, evaluation, and research atall levels. Specific topics covered include: demography and vital statistics; socioeconomic conditions; morbidity and mortality; hospital services; maternal and child health; nutrition; health education; expanded program immunization; environmental health; mental health; problems of special groups; health insurance; community and voluntary agency participation; international agencies; manpower and training; and planning and evaluation. Over the past 17 years, Judea, Samaria, and Gaza have been areas of rapid population growth and atthe same time of rapid socioeconomic development. In addition there have been basic changes in the social and health environment. As measured by socioeconomic indicators, much progress has been achieved for and by the people. As measured by health status evaluation indicators, the people benefit from an incresing quantity and quality of primary care and specialty services. The expansion of the public health infrastructure, combined with growing access to and utilization of personal preventive services, has been a key contributor to this process.
The World Health Organization's Expanded Programme on Immunization: a global overview. Le Programme Elargi de Vaccination de L'Organization Mondiale de la Sante: apercu mondial.
World Health Statistics Quarterly. Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales. 1985; 38(2):232-52.In recognition that immunization is an essential element of primary health care, the World Health Organization (WHO), with other agencies, is sponsoring the Global Program on Immunization whose goal is to reduce morbidity and mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases by providing immunization for all children of the world by 1990. A global advisory group of experts meets yearly to review the program. This paper summarizes the most salient features of the 1984 meeting. The major event for the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in 1984 was the Bellagio Conference on protecting the world's children. Activities undertaken as a result of this conference are discussed. 1 outcome was the formation of the Task Force for Child Survival whose main objective is to promote the reduction of childhood morbidity and mortality through acceleration of key primary health care activities. Focus is on supporting Colombia, India and Senegal in accelerating the expansion of their immunization programs and strengthening other elements of primary health care, such as diarrheal diseases control, family planning and improved nutrition. The 5-point action program consists of the following components: promoting EPI within the context of primary health care; investing adequate human resources in EPI; ensuring that programs are continuously evaluated and adapted so as to achieve high immunization coverage and maximum reduction in target-disease deaths and cases; and pursuing research efforts as part of program operations. EPI has continued to collaborate with other programs to help assure that immunization services are provided to support delivery of other services. Integration of EPI in Africa, the Americas, the Eastern Mediterranean Region, Europe, the South-East Asia Region, and the Western Pacific Region is examined.
International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 1985 Sep; 23(4):247-8.The WHO is certain that the health of mothers and babies can be improved by giving traditional birth attendants (TBAs) special training and support to enable them to carry out their activities with greater safety. This is probably one of the most cost effective approaches to reducing maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. Some workers, however, stress that this approach is inappropriate to the real needs of the impoverished majority. They believe that the real causes of mortality are socioeconomic deprivation, top managerial incompetence and mass illiteracy. In addition to TBA training the WHO suggests strengthening the referral and support system and improvement and wide spread use of appropriate technologies. TBAs have been most successful when trained for a special skill, such as reducing neonatal tetanus. This supplement shows some of the achievements and problems that still exist. The material is presented to gain better understanding of obstetricians and support for simplified maternity care for mothers and babies in rural areas. Obstetricians can influence decision makers who allocate funds for health care to achieve a more equal distribution of resources. The articles are presented as part of a broader program of collaboration between the WHO and the International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology (FIGO) in their common objective of improving the health of women and children based on the principles and programs for primary health care. The 2 organizations have joined to form a WHO/FIGO Task Force for the Promotion of Maternal and Child Health (MCH), including Family Planning (FP), and Primary Health Care. The activities of the Task Force are: to put into effect the specific recommendations of the Joint WHO/FIGO workshop; to promote and support the MCH/FP elements of PHC at the national levels; and to promote the transfer, adaptation and further development of appropriate technologies for pregnancy, perinatal and family planning care.
Public Health Reviews. 1982 Jul-Dec; 10(3-4):223-7.Throughout the world and particularly in the developing and underdeveloping countries the health situation is less than satisfactory. In their report O'Mahoney and Dahlqvist listed 31 countries as being the least developed and with an average life expectancy of 45 years and 200/1000 children born dying within a year. With a world population of 4 billion people, 10 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) South East Asian region alone have a population of about 1 billion. The common enemies of the population of this region are hunger, poverty, and ignorance. The health problems which are responsible for high morbidity and mortality are protein energy malnutrition, which aggravates the already prevalent common infectious diseases, and gastrointestinal infections due to bacteria and parasites. Tuberculosis, malaria, and acute hemorrhagic fever also require attention. The situation is worsened by very high birthrates (30-40/1000), resulting in high population growth rates (1.8-3.0%) in many countries in this region. The impact of medical care on health, not to mention health coverage, is only temporary. Health depends on a simple effective system within a community whose members are alert to their own health, since the number of professional medical personnnel will never suffice. Health is as much everyone's right as everyone's responsibility. It is essential to gear the education of the health professionals to the true needs of the people. The public requires a new kind of physician who is willing to attack the health needs of a total population and is committed to preventing, promoting, and rehabilitating as well as curing. Physicians need to be concerned with socioeconomic and health problems, and students must be trained to function as members of a larger group of health personnel, i.e., of a health care team. At the 30th World Health Assembly, held in May 1977, it was resolved that primary social target of WHO and its member states should be the attainment by the year 2000 of a level of health that will allow all the worlds' citizens to lead socially and economically productive lives. Essential elements for health as suggested by the Director General of WHO include: adequate food and housing; adequate supply of safe drinking water; suitable waste disposal; maternal and child health and family planning; immunization against major infectious diseases; prevention and control of locally endemic diseases; appropriate treatment of common diseases and injuries; health education; and the provision of essential drugs. These are guidelines; each individual country has to work out its own strategies.