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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    An economic evaluation of "health for all".

    Patel M

    HEALTH POLICY AND PLANNING. 1986 Mar; 1(1):37-47.

    This economic analysis assesses the probable costs of implementing various activities of the World Health Organization's (WHO's) global strategy of "health for all by the year 2000" and the likelihood that developing countries will be able to afford these costs, either on their own or with the assistance of developed countries. If this policy is to be transformed into concrete results, there must be a plan complete with budgetary requirements, planned activities, and expected results specified in adequate detail. The overall costs of the activities proposed by the global strategy would amount to approximately 5% of the gross national product of most developing countries, with water supplies and primary health care comprising the most expensive activities. Although there is a good match between estimated resource requirements and planned activities, the desired outcomes are often unlikely to result from the activities proposed. At present, all 25 industrial market and nonmarket industrial developed countries have already achieved the outcome goals of the global strategy; however, these countries account for only 25% of the world's population. Of the 63 middle-income countries, 54 have already achieved a gross national product per capita of over US$500, but only 22 have an infant mortality rate better than 50/1000. Very few low-income countries are close to reaching their targets for income, infant mortality, life expectancy, or literacy. On the basis of current trends, 25-33% of countries are considered unlikely to achieve the outcome goals by the year 2000. In general, it appears that expenditure targets are too low to cover the needed health services activities. Further research on the costs of health promoting activities such as immunization and primary health care should be given high priority.
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  2. 2

    Parasites of all types must be controlled.

    Solon FS

    Joicfp Review. 1985 Oct; 10:44.

    The primary health care program in the Philippines today officially includes only the control of parasites which cause malaria and schistomiasis. Dr. Solon suggests that equal emphasis should be given to the control of all types of parasites. This paper presents excerpts from an interview with Dr. Solon. He expresses his opinion that in the past 20 years infant mortality has decreased markedly. In 1985, it was reduced to 58/1000 live births. He attributes this to a political will to support the health ministry in the implementation of its programs. The efforts to implement primary health care (PHC) has resulted in receiving the Kawaski Award given by Japan and the World Health Organization (WHO) to a country successfully implementing PHC. JOICFP has demonstrated the approaches used in the integration of family planning, nutrition and parasite control. Dr. Solon hopes that the integrated project would pave the way for the control of parasites other than schistostomiasis and malariasis. Less attention has been paid to the control of helminths such as ascaris, bookworm, trichuris t. and roundworm, which are common in the Philippines. Worms may cause deadly diseases such as pneumonia and bronchitis. JOICFP has shown that in several project areas in the country, use of the right personnel, equipment and anthelmintics can result in controlling these parasites.
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