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  1. 1

    A proposed plan of action for the integration of women in the development of the Eastern Mediterranean region.

    Badran H

    In: Kjurciev A, Farrag AM, ed. Population-education-development in the Arab countries. Beirut, Lebanon, Unesco Regional Office for Education in the Arab Countries, 1977. 281-95.

    The attempt is made to try to relate the situation of women in the Eastern Mediterranean Region to women's worldwide problems, and, on this basis, propose resolutions as adopted in the Mexico Conference. This discussion will be used in proposing a Regional Plan of Action within the context of the Mexico Conference. It is hoped that the proposed regional Plan will be discussed and adopted by Arab countries represented at the next meeting of the Women's Committee of the League of Arab states. The problems of women, population, and food are found to be particularly interrelated, and there is a relationship between these problems and the existing international economic order. For this region among others, the integration of women in the development process is conceptualized in terms of their roles as reproducers, producers, and citizens. The crux of the problem is the balance and coordination between these 3 roles. The following areas, which have been the focus of studies and meetings in this region as well as at the international Women's Year Conference, are reviewed: education and training; employment; population, health and social services; family roles and legislation; public participation; mass media; and research. The aim of the proposed plan is to achieve the maximum possible equality between men and women in this region for the purpose of national development. To reach this goal, 2 major objectives are identified: to improve women's skills, capabilities, and potentialities, through higher levels of literacy, education, and training on appropriate jobs; and to reduce existing prejudices aginst women, through improved attitudes in all circles. To this end, 2 types of action must be undertaken at the national level: a longterm effort to introduce structural and substantive changes in society and its systems; and increasing the relevance and extending already existing programs for the advancement of women. Most countries of the region have often indicated the need to improve the status of women, but no major steps have been taken thus far towards formulation of a comprehensive plan for such improvement. A comprehensive plan dealing with women's problems in an integrated fashion is very much needed in every Arab country. The requisites for devising the plan in each country are outlined. On the local level, the role of the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund should be related to long-term and short-term activities. UNICEF may grant financial assistance, and once a comprehensive plan has been outlined it should specify clearly its inputs according to both the country's priorities and UNICEF's policy for women's promotion.
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  2. 2

    Assessment of management assistance to the population programme in Bangladesh.

    Miyan A

    In: Sattar E, ed. South Asian focus. Papers presented at the 1982 ICOMP International Conference. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, International Committee on the Management of Population Programmes, 1983 Nov. 156-69. (Management Contributions to Population Programmes Vol. 2)

    The primary study objective was to assess the contributions of external management assistance to the family planning and population program of Bangladesh and to identify the conditions and characteristics of successful assistance activities. Study focus was on 2 key questions: the extent of contributions of management assistance projects to the performance of the population program; and identification of the conditions for the characteristics of those projects which appear to be successful. The scope of this study was limited to the investigation of the 14 management assistance projects as well as the institutional settings of their implementation. These capture all substantive management assistance projects in Bangladesh initiated through external aid between 1968-78. The projects were studied in terms of content and substance of management assistance efforts. Administrative problems are common to all development programs in Bangladesh. In the population and health area administration problems are accentuated by shortages of skilled manpower; cumbersome procedures for the allocation, release, and use of funds; slow decision making process; absence of incentives to improve staff performance; and delays in recruitment of staff. The lack of community support is another barrier to the family planning program. The 14 management assistance projects, described briefly, were of a varied nature. These involved improvement in management of the existing program, reinforcing management capability, build up of a supportive management institution, specific program improvement, development of management assistance capability within the program, integration of maternal and child health (MCH) and family planning services, introduction of legal policy measures, and development of a cost effective services delivery system. The mode of assistance also varied considerably. These were in the form of consulting, institution building, evaluation, training, financial support, and research. The management assistance activities had different levels of success in terms of realizing their objectives. These varied from failure to meet objectives to a low level of success, moderate level of success, or to a high level of success. 4 management assistance activities were categorized as highly successful, 6 as moderately successful, 3 as minimally successful, and 1 as a failure. The management development activity individually and collectively contributed to developing better service delivery capability in the family planning and population program. This is reflected in the improved service statistics of the program. It can be argued that the increase in the acceptance level from 9.6% in 1975 to 14% in 1980 has been possible through improving the capability of service delivery through management improvement of the family planning and population program.
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