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Paper presented at the Nineteenth Session of the UNICEF/WHO Joint Committee on Health Policy, Geneva, February 1-2, 1972. 40 pFamily planning is an integral part of the health care of the family and has a striking impact of the health of the mother and children. Many aspects of family planning care require the personnel, skills, techniques, and facilities of health services and is thus of concern to UNICEF and WHO. Once individual governments have determined basic matters of family planning policy and methods, UNICEF and WHO can respond to requests for assistance on a wide range of activities, with the primary goal being the promotion of health care of the family. Emphasis will be placed on achieving this by strengthening the basic health services that already have a solid foundation in the community. The past experience of UNICEF and WHO should provide valuable guidance for assistance to the health aspects of family planning, particularly as they relate to the planning and evaluation of programs; organization and administration; public education; the education and training of all medical personnel; and the coordination of family health activities both inside and outside the health sector. The review recommends that UNICEF and WHO first regard the capacity of the host country to absorb aid and maintain projects, and that specific family planning activities, such as the provision of supplies, equipment, and transport, be introduced only when the infrastructure is actually being expanded. Capital investment should be viewed in relation to the government's ability to meet budgetary and staff requirements the new facilities demand.
[Unpublished] 1979. Paper prepared for the Technical Workshop on the Four Country Maternal and Child Health/Family Planning Projects, New York, Oct. 31-Nov. 2, 1979. (Workshop Paper No. 2) 10 p.An integrated health care system which combined the maternal/child health with other services was undertaken in the Yozgat Province of Turkey from 1972-77. The objective was to train midwives in MCH/FP and orient their activities to socialization. The first 2 years of the program was financed by UNFPA. 52 health stations were completed and 18 more are under construction. The personnel shortage stands at 33 physicians, 21 health technicians, 30 nurses, and 67 midwives. Yozgat Province is 75% rural and has about a 50% shortage of roads. The project was evaluated initially in 1975 and entailed preproject information studies, baseline health practices and contraceptive use survey, dual record system, and service statistics reporting. The number of midwives, who are crucial to the program, have increased from an average 115 in 1975 to 160 in 1979. Supervisory nurses are the link between the field and the project managers. Their number has decreased from 17 to 6. Until 1977 family planning service delivery depended on a handful of physicians who distributed condoms and pills. The Ministry of Health trained women physicians in IUD insertions. The crude death rate in 1976 was 13.2/1000; the crude birth rate was 42.7/1000. The crude death rate in 1977 was 14.8/1000; birth rate, 39.9/1000. Common child diseases were measles, enteritis, bronchopneumonia, otitis, and parasitis.
New York, N.Y., United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]  54 p. (Population Profiles No. 20)This review traces how various population programs in Africa have evolved since the 1960s. Before the establishment of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) in the late 1960s, the efforts of private groups or non-governmental organizations in the areas of family planning, are highlighted. The vital contribution of private donors in facilitating the work of the Fund in Africa is given emphasis throughout the review. Early studies show that family planning activities in Africa, and governmental population policies fall into a definite pattern within the continent and that the distribution of colonial empires was a major determinant of that pattern. In most of Africa, the 1st stirrups of the family planning movement began during the colonial period. During the 1960s there was marked increase in the demand for family planning services. Lack of official government recognition and not enough assistancy from external sources made early family planning programs generally weak. The shortage of trained personnel, the unsureness of government support, opposition from the Roman Catholic Church to population control, and the logistics of supplying folk in remote rural areas who held traditional attitudes, all posed serious problems. The main sectors of the Fund's activities are brought into focus to illustrate the expansion of population-related programs and their relevance to economic and social development in Africa. The Fund's major sectors of activity in the African region include basic data collection on population dynamics and the formulation and implementation of policies and programs. Family planning, education and communication and other special programs are also important efforts within the Fund's multicector approach. The general principles applied by UNFPA in the allocation of its resources and the sources and levels of current finding are briefly discussed and the Fund's evaluation methodology is outlined. A number of significant goals have been achieved in the African region during the past 15 years through UNFPA programs, most prominently; population censuses, data collection and analysis, demographic training and reseaqrch, and policy formulation after identification of need. This monograph seeks to provide evidence for the compelling need for sustained commitment to population programs in Africa, and for continuing international support and assistance to meet the unmet needs of a continent whose demographic dynamism is incomparably greater than that of any other part of the world.