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  1. 1
    049923

    Vietnam's population growth: old struggle, new strategy.

    Fraser SE

    INDOCHINA ISSUES. 1988 Jan; (78):1-7.

    A campaign promoting "1 or at most 2 children" was launched officially in 1982 in Vietnam, a country which ranked 12th most populous in the world in 1987, with the 7th largest annual growth rate. Although major municipalities have registered less than 1.7% annual growth rates, in rural areas, particularly in the southern provinces, the growth rate ranges from 2.3-3.4%; 80% of the population resides in such locales. In April 1986, the Hanoi City People's Committee issued regulations designed to encourage the practice of birth control. Cash awards were offered to couples with only 1 child and payments for sterilization after the birth of a 2nd child. The birth of a 3rd child triggers higher maternity clinic charges, and an escalating scale of birth registration fees has been introduced to discourage failure to practice family planning. The most significant statistic to emerge from the birth control program is the gradual increase in the number of family planning acceptors over the past 5 years, slightly over 1 million couples estimated in 1981 to 4.5 million acceptors estimated for 1987. Between 1981-87 there was more than a doubling of acceptors for sterilization and IUD insertion. The IUD is used by 75% of couples practicing birth control, followed in popularity by the condom. Agencies in a UN triumvirate with special population concerns in Vietnam include the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), and the World Health Organization (WHO). In the 3 years preceding 1987, several new UNICEF-supported public information projects were implemented, including the creation of an extensive maternal and child care network. This network was used to train cadres from the Women's Union as family planning motivators. In mid-1986, an experimental and innovative pilot project on "family life" or "parenting information" was initiated by UNICEF, UNFPA, and the Vietnamese Committee for the Protection of Mothers and the Newborn (CPMN). The desired growth rate of 1.1% by 2000 will have to rely on a variety of current program innovations. Surveys now being conducted in various regions of Vietnam reveal attitudinal problems in promoting smaller families. A survey of the members of 300 farming cooperatives in various areas of Vietnam in 1986 found that 60% of those questioned believed that the more children they had the better it would be for their family economy. Cooperative Vietnamese and UN efforts, particularly the innovative surveys and field research, represent valuable approaches, but considerable need remains for improvement in birth control knowledge and application and in the means to reduce child morbidity and mortality rates.
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  2. 2
    031969

    China: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 May. xii, 156 p. (Report No. 67)

    A Needs Assessment and Program Development Mission visited the People's Republic of China from March 7 to April 16, 1983 to: review and analyze the country's population situation within the context of national population goals as well as population related development objectives, strategies, and programs; make recommendations on the future orientation and scope of national objectives and programs for strengthening or establishing new objectives, strategies, and programs; and make recommendations on program areas in need of external assistance within the framework of the recommended national population program and for geographical areas. This report summarizes the needs and recommendations in regard to: population policies and policy-related research; demographic research and training; basic population data collection and analysis; maternal and child health and family planning services; management training support for family planning services; logistics of contraceptive supply; management information system; family planning communication and education; family planning program research and evaluation; contraceptive production; research in human reproduction and contraceptives; population education and dissemination of population information; and special groups and multisectoral activities. The report also presents information on the national setting (geographical and cultural features, government and administration, the economy, and the evolution of socioeconomic development planning) and demographic features (population size, characteristics, and distribution, nationwide and demographic characteristics in geographical core areas). Based on its assessment of needs, the Mission identified mjaor priorities for assistance in the population field. Because of China's size and vast needs, external assistance for population programs would be diluted if provided to all provincial and lower administrative levels. Thus, the Mission suggests that a substantial portion of available resources be concentrated in 3 provinces as core areas: Sichuan, the most populous province (100,220,000 people by the end of 1982); Guandong, the province with the highest birthrate (25/1000); and Jiangsu, the most densely populated province (608 persons/square kilometer. In all the government has identified 11 provinces needing special attention in the next few years: Anhui, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jilin, Shaanxi and Shandong, in addition to Guangdong, Jiangsu, and Sichuan.
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  3. 3
    031976

    Ghana: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Jul. vii, 59 p. (Report No. 68)

    This report of a Mission visit to Ghana from May 4-25, 1981 contains data highlights; a summary of findings; Mission recommendations regarding population and development policies, population data collection and analysis, maternal and child health and family planning, population education and communication programs, and women and development; and information on the following: the national setting; population features and trends (population size, growth rate, and distribution and population dynamics); population policy, planning, and policy-related research; basic data collection and anaylsis; maternal and child health and family planning (general health status, structure and organization of health services, maternal and child health and family planning activities, and family planning services in the private sector); population education and communication programs; women, youth, and development; and external assistance in population. Ghana gained independence in 1957. The country showed early promise of rapid development. Although well-endowed with natural and human resources, Ghana now suffers from food scarcity, inadequate infrastructure and services, inflation, inequities in income distribution, unemployment, and underemployment. Per capita gross national product (GNP) was $400 in 1981; between 1960-81 the average annual growth of GNP was -1.1%. A high rate of natural increase of the population has compounded development problems by intensifying demands for food, consumer goods, and social services while simultaneously increasing the constraints on productivity. The population, estimated at 13 million in mid-1984, is growing at a rate of 3.25% per annum. Immigration and emigration have contributed to changes in the size and composition of the population. Post-independence development policies favored the urban areas, encouraging a steady rural-to-urban shift in the population. At the same time, worsening socioeconomic conditions spurred the emigration of professional, managerial, and technical personnel and skilled workers. Ghana was the 1st sub-Saharan African nation to establish an official population policy. Since the formulation of the policy in 1969, successive governments have remained committed to its emphasis on fertility reduction while increasing attention to the problems of mortality and morbidity and rural/urban migration. Recognizing the need to intensify the commitment to population policies, the Mission recommends support for a program to further the awareness of policy makers of the relationship between population trends and their areas of responsibility. The Mission recommends the creation of a special permanent population committee and the strengthening of the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning's Manpower division. The Mission also makes the following recommendations: the provision of training, technical assistance, and data processing facilities to ensure the timely provision of demographic data for socioeconomic planning; data collected in the pilot program of vital registration be evaluated before the system is expanded; the complete integration of maternal and child health and family planning and general health services within the primary health care system; and improvement in women's access to resources such as education, training, and agricultural inputs.
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  4. 4
    030588

    After Mexico: NGOs and the follow-up to the International Conference on Population. Summary report of the Fourth Annual NGO/UNFPA Consultation on Population in New York (March 6, 1985).

    Cassidy K

    New York, New York, UN Non-Governmental Liaison Service, 1985. 50 p.

    This Summary Report of the Fourth Annual Nongovernmental Organizations/UN Fund for Population Activities (NGO/UNFPA) contains the following: an opening statement of David Poindexter, Director, Communication Centre of the Population Institute; a presentation devoted to opportunities for action by Bradman Weerakoon, Secretary General, International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF); a discussion of global population realities by Sheldon Segal, Director, Population Sciences of the Rockefeller Foundation; panel discussions on the topic of patterns of NGO action; reports from workshop groups (environment, development and population; role and status of women; health and population; reproduction and the family; population policies and funding; population and children; population and youth; and population and aging); a report on financing global population programs, given by Barbara Hertz, Senior Economist, World Bank; discussion of the implementation of the Mexico mandate, Rafael M. Salas, Under Secretary-General of the UN and Executive Director of the UNFPA; recommendations of the Mexico City Conference which refer to the NGO role in followup; and some background material. Recommendations of the workshop groups for ongoing NGO action in the field of population include: linkages between environment, development, and population to be more carefully delineated; the need for the voice of women to be heard at all levels by those formulating population policies and for the status of women to be considered by all as essential to the population issue; couples to be offered a full range of contraceptive choices; all family members to have access to reproductive health information, sex education, and family planning services; organizations to look for multiple sources of funding and to become less reliant on a single source of funding for population and health related activities; support of programs which promote women's development; governments to prepare youth better for their roles within their own countries; and the leadership role of the elderly to be facilitated and utilized in the areas of education, communication, and influencing policies at the village, regional, national, and international level.
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  5. 5
    030330

    Stopping population growth.

    Brown LR

    In: State of the world 1985. A Worldwatch Institute report on progress toward a sustainable society [by] Lester R. Brown, Edward C. Wolf, Linda Starke, William U. Chandler, Christopher Flavin, Sandra Postel, Cynthia Pollack. New York, New York, W.W. Norton, 1985. 200-21.

    The demographic contrasts of the 1980s are placing considerable stress on the international economic system and on national political structures. Runaway population growth is indirectly fueling the debt crisis by increasing the need for imported food and other basic commodities. Low fertility countries are food aid donors, and the higher fertility countries are the recipients. In most countries with high fertility, food production per person is either stagnant or declining. Population policy is becoming a priority of national governments and international development agencies. This discussion reviews what has happened since the UN's first World Population Conference in 1974 in Bucharest, fertility trends and projections, social influences on fertility, advances in contraceptive technology, and 2 major family planning gaps -- the gap between the demand for family planning services and their availability and the gap between the societal need to slow population growth quickly and the private interests of couples in doing so. The official purpose of the 1984 UN International Conference on Population convened in Mexico City, in which 149 countries participated, was to review the world population plan of action adopted at Bucharest. In Bucharest there had been a wide political schism between the representatives of industrial countries, who pushed for an increase in 3rd world family planning efforts, and those from developing countries, whose leaders argued that social and economic progress was the key to slowing population growth. In Mexico City this division had virtually disappeared. Many things had happened since Bucharest to foster the attitude change. The costly consequences of continuing rapid population growth that had seemed so theoretical in the 1974 debate were becoming increasingly real for many. World population in 1984 totaled 4.76 billion, an increase of some 81 million in 1 year. The population projections for the industrial countries and East Asia seem reasonable enough in terms of what local resource and life support systems can sustain, but those for much of the rest of the world do not. Most demographers are still projecting that world population will continue growing until it reaches some 10 billion, but that most of the 5.3 billion additional people will be concentrated in a few regions, principally the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East, Africa, and Latin America. What demographers are projecting does not mesh with what ecologists or agronomists are reporting. In too many countries ecological deterioration is translating into economic decline which in turn leads to social disintegration. The social indicator that correlates most closely with declining fertility across the whole range of development is the education of women. Worldwide, sterilization protects more couples from unwanted pregnancy than any other practice. Oral contraceptives rank second. The rapid growth now confronting the world community argues for effective family planning programs.
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  6. 6
    024637

    [Benin: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance] Benin: rapport de Mission sur l'Evaluation des Besoins d'Aide en Matiere de Population.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, 1983 Apr. 42 p. (Report No. 58)

    This report of a needs assessment carried out by a UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) Mission in Benin in November 1980 includes chapters on assistance needs and recommendations in the area of population; geographic, political, administrative, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics of the country as well as socioeconomic and demographic planning and policy; demographic trends; formulation of population policy; collection and analysis of demographic data; demographic research, health; population information, education, and communication; women and development; and external assistance. Benin is characterized by low per capita income, high rates of infant, child, and maternal mortality, high fertility, and unequal population distribution combined with pressure on cultivated land. Rural exodus is fueling rapid urban growth. The population of 3.5 million in 1980 was growing at 2.97% annually. The economy is essentially agricultural. Because Benin is poor in minerals, development efforts are concentrated on agricultural and rural development, with efforts made to reduce unemployment and underemployment especially in urban areas. National objectives also are to improve the educational system and health infrastructure. The government is concerned about the high rate of mortality and morbidity and unequal spatial distribution. Although no overall population policy has been adopted, the government pursues some goals with demographic effects such as attempting to extend preventive medicine, maternal and child health services and birth spacing services to rural areas. The 1979 census is expected to furnish the government with the information necessary to formulate a population policy. The Mission recommended immediate assistance for analyzing and publishing census results, and also that a national demographic survey and migration study be undertaken. Reform of the civil registration system would enable better data to be collected. A demographic teaching and research center should be created at the University of Benin. An interministerial committee should be created to assist in formulation and implementation of a population policy. The extension of health services funded by the UNFPA should be implemented immediately and a communication component should be added.
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  7. 7
    024638

    [Togo: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance] Togo: rapport de Mission sur l'Evaluation des Besoins d'Aide en Matiere de Population.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, 1983 Feb. 66 p. (Report No. 57)

    This report of a needs assessment carried out by a UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) Mission in Togo in late 1980 includes chapters on the country's geographic, administrative, and cultural background, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, and national development policy and population goals; data collection; demographic research and population policy formulation; implementation of policy; external population assistance; and recommendations of the Mission. The population of Togo was estimated at 2.7 million in 1981 and is expected to nearly double by the year 2000. Infant, child, and maternal mortality rates are high, and population distribution is very uneven in different regions, with severe pressure on cultivable lands. The country has enjoyed considerable economic growth in the past 2 decades, with the gross national products (GNP) quadrupling in constant dollars from 1960-75. The rate of increase of the GNP was 7% from 1966-70, 5.6% from 1971-75, and about 3% from 1976-80. 3/4 of Togo's inhabitants derive their livelihood from agriculture, but in 1979 they produced only 28% of the GNP. Self-sufficiency in food is not total. Since 1966 Togo has elaborated 4 5-year plans whose orientations were to promote economic independence, the growth of production, reduction in regional disparities, and human development. The demographic variable has not been integrated into general economic and social development policy. The government has adopted a noninterventionist attitude toward population and considers the demographic situation to be fairly satisfactory. The only actions concern control of infant mortality. Some social and economic interventions, such as the priority given to provision of potable water, will inevitably have an impact on population. Togo has a solid infrastructure and qualified and experienced personnel for demographic data collection. The country is planning an ambitious program of demographic data collection and permanent surveillance. Maternal and child health care are provided in nearly 300 centers. About 1/2 of births occur under medical supervision. The national family welfare program provides family health services and information on birth spacing. A secondary school sex education program is under development. Population education is included in out-of-school educational programs. Population communication programs are not very advanced. Among the recommendations of the Mission were that financial aid be given to institutions responsible for demographic data collection and dissemination and to the demographic research unit of the University of Benin.
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  8. 8
    024950

    Country profile: Sierra Leone.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation. Africa Region; Planned Parenthood Federation of Sierra Leone

    [Nairobi, Kenya], International Planned Parenthood Federation, Africa Region, [1983]. 28 p.

    This profile of Sierra Leone discusses the following: geographical features; neighboring countries; ethnic and racial groups and religion; systems of government; population, namely, size, distribution, age/sex distribution, and women of reproductive age; socioeconomic conditions -- agriculture, industry, exports, imports, employment, education, health, and social welfare; family planning/population -- government policies, programs, Planned Parenthood Association of Sierra Leone (PPASL), nongovernment organizations and voluntary agencies, private organizations, sources of funding, and future trends of policies and programs; and the history, constitution, and structure and administration of the PPASL. According to the 1974 census, the population of Sierra Leone totaled 2,735,159. In 1980 it was estimated to have grown to 3,474,000. With an average annual growth rate of about 2.7%, it is expected to reach 6 million in 2000 and to have doubled in 27 years. Sierra Leone has a population density of 48 people/sq km. In 1974, 27.5% of the population lived in urban centers with 47% living in Freetown alone. The indigenous population includes 18 major ethnic groups; the Temne and Mende are the largest of these. The percentage of nonnationals increased from 2.7% in 1963 to 2.9% in 1974 and includes nationals mainly from the West African subregion with a sprinkling of British, Lebanese, Americans, Indians, and others. In 1974 the sex ratio was 98.8 males/100 females. In 1981 it was estimated that 41% of the total population was under age 15 and 5% over age 65, making the dependency burden very high. Agriculture is now the main focus of the government's development policy. Minerals are an important source of foreign exchange. It was estimated in 1980 that the total economically active population would reach 1.2 million, of whom the majority would be employed in agriculture. Women made up approximately 1/3 of the economically active population in 1970. The adult literacy rate recently has been estimated at 12% of the population. The government allows the PPASL to freely operate in the country, but it has not as yet declared a population policy. In 1973 the government did recognize the effects of rapid population growth on the nation's socioeconomic development. As a pioneering organization in family planning, the PPASL has made considerable effort in promoting the concept of responsible parenthood. Its motivational programs are geared towards informing and educating the public on the need for having only those children whom individuals and couples can adequately provide for in terms of health, nutrition, education, clothing, and all other basic necessities. Family planning services are provided to meet the demand thus created to enable families and individuals to exercise free and informed choice for spacing or limiting of children. Between 1971 and 1983 the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) provided financial assistance to Sierra Leone for population activities in the amount of US$2,659,382.
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