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New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 May. xii, 156 p. (Report No. 67)A Needs Assessment and Program Development Mission visited the People's Republic of China from March 7 to April 16, 1983 to: review and analyze the country's population situation within the context of national population goals as well as population related development objectives, strategies, and programs; make recommendations on the future orientation and scope of national objectives and programs for strengthening or establishing new objectives, strategies, and programs; and make recommendations on program areas in need of external assistance within the framework of the recommended national population program and for geographical areas. This report summarizes the needs and recommendations in regard to: population policies and policy-related research; demographic research and training; basic population data collection and analysis; maternal and child health and family planning services; management training support for family planning services; logistics of contraceptive supply; management information system; family planning communication and education; family planning program research and evaluation; contraceptive production; research in human reproduction and contraceptives; population education and dissemination of population information; and special groups and multisectoral activities. The report also presents information on the national setting (geographical and cultural features, government and administration, the economy, and the evolution of socioeconomic development planning) and demographic features (population size, characteristics, and distribution, nationwide and demographic characteristics in geographical core areas). Based on its assessment of needs, the Mission identified mjaor priorities for assistance in the population field. Because of China's size and vast needs, external assistance for population programs would be diluted if provided to all provincial and lower administrative levels. Thus, the Mission suggests that a substantial portion of available resources be concentrated in 3 provinces as core areas: Sichuan, the most populous province (100,220,000 people by the end of 1982); Guandong, the province with the highest birthrate (25/1000); and Jiangsu, the most densely populated province (608 persons/square kilometer. In all the government has identified 11 provinces needing special attention in the next few years: Anhui, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jilin, Shaanxi and Shandong, in addition to Guangdong, Jiangsu, and Sichuan.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Jul. vii, 59 p. (Report No. 68)This report of a Mission visit to Ghana from May 4-25, 1981 contains data highlights; a summary of findings; Mission recommendations regarding population and development policies, population data collection and analysis, maternal and child health and family planning, population education and communication programs, and women and development; and information on the following: the national setting; population features and trends (population size, growth rate, and distribution and population dynamics); population policy, planning, and policy-related research; basic data collection and anaylsis; maternal and child health and family planning (general health status, structure and organization of health services, maternal and child health and family planning activities, and family planning services in the private sector); population education and communication programs; women, youth, and development; and external assistance in population. Ghana gained independence in 1957. The country showed early promise of rapid development. Although well-endowed with natural and human resources, Ghana now suffers from food scarcity, inadequate infrastructure and services, inflation, inequities in income distribution, unemployment, and underemployment. Per capita gross national product (GNP) was $400 in 1981; between 1960-81 the average annual growth of GNP was -1.1%. A high rate of natural increase of the population has compounded development problems by intensifying demands for food, consumer goods, and social services while simultaneously increasing the constraints on productivity. The population, estimated at 13 million in mid-1984, is growing at a rate of 3.25% per annum. Immigration and emigration have contributed to changes in the size and composition of the population. Post-independence development policies favored the urban areas, encouraging a steady rural-to-urban shift in the population. At the same time, worsening socioeconomic conditions spurred the emigration of professional, managerial, and technical personnel and skilled workers. Ghana was the 1st sub-Saharan African nation to establish an official population policy. Since the formulation of the policy in 1969, successive governments have remained committed to its emphasis on fertility reduction while increasing attention to the problems of mortality and morbidity and rural/urban migration. Recognizing the need to intensify the commitment to population policies, the Mission recommends support for a program to further the awareness of policy makers of the relationship between population trends and their areas of responsibility. The Mission recommends the creation of a special permanent population committee and the strengthening of the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning's Manpower division. The Mission also makes the following recommendations: the provision of training, technical assistance, and data processing facilities to ensure the timely provision of demographic data for socioeconomic planning; data collected in the pilot program of vital registration be evaluated before the system is expanded; the complete integration of maternal and child health and family planning and general health services within the primary health care system; and improvement in women's access to resources such as education, training, and agricultural inputs.
New York, UNFPA, 1978 Jun. 53 p. (Report No 3)The present report presents the findings of the Mission which visited Afghanistan from October 3-16, 1977 for the purpose of assessing the country's needs for population assistance. Report focus is on the following: the national setting (geographical, cultural, and administrative features; salient demographic, social, and economic characteristics of the population; and economic development and national planning); basic population data; population dynamics and policy formulation; implementing population policies (family health and family planning and education, communication, and information); and external assistance (multilateral and bilateral). The final section presents the recommendations of the Mission in detail. For the past 25 years Afghanistan has been working to inject new life into its economy. Per capita income, as estimated for 1975, was $U.S. 150, a relatively low figure and heavily skewed in favor of a very small proportion of the population. The country is still predominantly rural (85%) and agricultural (75%). In the absence of reliable data, population figures must be accepted tentatively. According to the 7-year plan, the population in 1975 was 16.7 million and the rate of growth around 2.5% per annum. The crude birth rate is near 50/1000 and the crude death rate possibly 25/1000. The Mission endorses the priority given by the government to the population census and recommends continued support on the part of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) to help the Central Statistical Office in the present effort and in building up capacity for future work. The Mission recommends that efforts be concentrated on the reduction of infant, child, and maternal mortality levels and that assistance be continued to the family health services and to programs of population education. Emphasis should be on services to men and women in rural areas. The Mission also recommends a training program for traditional birth attendants.
[Benin: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance] Benin: rapport de Mission sur l'Evaluation des Besoins d'Aide en Matiere de Population.
New York, UNFPA, 1983 Apr. 42 p. (Report No. 58)This report of a needs assessment carried out by a UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) Mission in Benin in November 1980 includes chapters on assistance needs and recommendations in the area of population; geographic, political, administrative, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics of the country as well as socioeconomic and demographic planning and policy; demographic trends; formulation of population policy; collection and analysis of demographic data; demographic research, health; population information, education, and communication; women and development; and external assistance. Benin is characterized by low per capita income, high rates of infant, child, and maternal mortality, high fertility, and unequal population distribution combined with pressure on cultivated land. Rural exodus is fueling rapid urban growth. The population of 3.5 million in 1980 was growing at 2.97% annually. The economy is essentially agricultural. Because Benin is poor in minerals, development efforts are concentrated on agricultural and rural development, with efforts made to reduce unemployment and underemployment especially in urban areas. National objectives also are to improve the educational system and health infrastructure. The government is concerned about the high rate of mortality and morbidity and unequal spatial distribution. Although no overall population policy has been adopted, the government pursues some goals with demographic effects such as attempting to extend preventive medicine, maternal and child health services and birth spacing services to rural areas. The 1979 census is expected to furnish the government with the information necessary to formulate a population policy. The Mission recommended immediate assistance for analyzing and publishing census results, and also that a national demographic survey and migration study be undertaken. Reform of the civil registration system would enable better data to be collected. A demographic teaching and research center should be created at the University of Benin. An interministerial committee should be created to assist in formulation and implementation of a population policy. The extension of health services funded by the UNFPA should be implemented immediately and a communication component should be added.
[Togo: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance] Togo: rapport de Mission sur l'Evaluation des Besoins d'Aide en Matiere de Population.
New York, UNFPA, 1983 Feb. 66 p. (Report No. 57)This report of a needs assessment carried out by a UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) Mission in Togo in late 1980 includes chapters on the country's geographic, administrative, and cultural background, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, and national development policy and population goals; data collection; demographic research and population policy formulation; implementation of policy; external population assistance; and recommendations of the Mission. The population of Togo was estimated at 2.7 million in 1981 and is expected to nearly double by the year 2000. Infant, child, and maternal mortality rates are high, and population distribution is very uneven in different regions, with severe pressure on cultivable lands. The country has enjoyed considerable economic growth in the past 2 decades, with the gross national products (GNP) quadrupling in constant dollars from 1960-75. The rate of increase of the GNP was 7% from 1966-70, 5.6% from 1971-75, and about 3% from 1976-80. 3/4 of Togo's inhabitants derive their livelihood from agriculture, but in 1979 they produced only 28% of the GNP. Self-sufficiency in food is not total. Since 1966 Togo has elaborated 4 5-year plans whose orientations were to promote economic independence, the growth of production, reduction in regional disparities, and human development. The demographic variable has not been integrated into general economic and social development policy. The government has adopted a noninterventionist attitude toward population and considers the demographic situation to be fairly satisfactory. The only actions concern control of infant mortality. Some social and economic interventions, such as the priority given to provision of potable water, will inevitably have an impact on population. Togo has a solid infrastructure and qualified and experienced personnel for demographic data collection. The country is planning an ambitious program of demographic data collection and permanent surveillance. Maternal and child health care are provided in nearly 300 centers. About 1/2 of births occur under medical supervision. The national family welfare program provides family health services and information on birth spacing. A secondary school sex education program is under development. Population education is included in out-of-school educational programs. Population communication programs are not very advanced. Among the recommendations of the Mission were that financial aid be given to institutions responsible for demographic data collection and dissemination and to the demographic research unit of the University of Benin.