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Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2017. 8 p.HIV testing services are an essential gateway to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support services. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) endorse and encourage universal access to knowledge of HIV status. Increased access to and uptake of HIV testing is central to achieving the 90–90–90 targets1 endorsed in the 2016 United Nations Political Declaration on Ending AIDS. However, at the end of 2016, approximately 30% of people living with HIV were still unaware of their HIV status. Young people aged 15–24, adult males and people from key populations (men who have sex with men, transgender people, sex workers, people who inject drugs and people in prisons and other closed settings) often have significantly lower access to HIV testing services, are less likely to be linked to treatment and care and have lower levels of viral suppression. (excerpt)
Towards universal access by 2010. How WHO is working with countries to scale-up HIV prevention, treatment, care and support.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of HIV / AIDS, 2006. 32 p.In 2005, leaders of the G8 countries agreed to «work with WHO, UNAIDS and other international bodies to develop and implement a package for HIV prevention, treatment and care, with the aim of as close as possible to universal access to treatment for all those who need it by 2010». This goal was endorsed by United Nations Member States at the High-Level Plenary Meeting of the 60th Session of the United Nations General Assembly in September 2005. At the June 2006 General Assembly High Level Meeting on AIDS, United Nations Member States agreed to work towards the broad goal of "universal access to comprehensive prevention programmes, treatment, care and support" by 2010. Working towards universal access is a very ambitious challenge for the international community, and will require the commitment and involvement of all stakeholders, including governments, donors, international agencies, researchers and affected communities. Among the most important priorities is the strengthening of health services so that they are able to provide a comprehensive range of HIV/AIDS services to all those who need them. This document describes the contribution that the World Health Organization (WHO) will make, as the United Nations agency responsible for health, in working towards universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support in the period 2006-2010. It proposes an evidence-based Model Essential Package of integrated health sector interventions for HIV/AIDS that WHO recommends be scaled up in countries, using a public health approach, and provides an overview of the strategic directions and priority intervention areas that will guide WHO's technical work and support to its Member States as they work towards universal access over the next four years. (excerpt)
The practice of charging user fees at the point of service delivery for HIV / AIDS treatment and care.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2005 Dec.  p. (WHO Discussion Paper; WHO/HIV/2005.11)The global movement to expand access to antiretroviral treatment for people living with HIV/AIDS as part of a comprehensive response to the HIV pandemic is grounded in both the human right to health and in evidence on public-health outcomes. However, for many individuals in poor communities, the cost of treatment remains an insurmountable obstacle. Even with sliding fee scales, cost recovery at the point of service delivery is likely to depress uptake of antiretroviral treatment and decrease adherence by those already receiving it. Therefore, countries are being advised to adopt a policy of free access at the point of service delivery to HIV care and treatment, including antiretroviral therapy. This recommendation is based on the best available evidence and experience in countries. It is warranted as an element of the exceptional response needed to turn back the AIDS epidemic. With the endorsement by G8 leaders in July 2005 and UN Member States in September 2005 of efforts to move towards universal access to HIV treatment and care by 2010, health sector financing strategies must now move to the top of the international agenda. Rapid scale-up of programmes within the framework of the "3 by 5" target has underscored the challenge of equity, particularly for marginalized and rural populations. It is apparent that user charges at the point of service delivery "institutionalize exclusion" and undermine efforts towards universal access to health services. Abolishing them, however, requires prompt, sustained attention to long-term health system financing strategies, at both national and international levels. (excerpt)
Scaling up HIV / AIDS prevention, treatment and care: a report on WHO support to countries in implementing the “3 by 5” Initiative, 2004-2005.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2006. 143 p.In September 2003, LEE Jong-wook, Director-General of WHO, and Peter Piot, Executive Director of UNAIDS, declared the lack of access to antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS in low- and middle-income countries to be a global health emergency. Shortly after this declaration, WHO and its partners launched a global initiative to scale up antiretroviral therapy with the objective of having 3 million people receiving antiretroviral therapy - representing half the total number of those globally in need - by the end of 2005 ("3 by 5"). Although the actual target of putting 3 million people on antiretroviral therapy was not reached by the end of 2005, countries have made significant progress in the past two years in expanding treatment coverage, strengthening prevention and building the capacity of health systems to deliver long-term, chronic care. Overall, in the two-year period, antiretroviral therapy coverage in low- and middle-income countries increased from 7% of those in need at the end of 2003 (400 000 people) to 20% of those in need at the end of 2005 (1.3 million people). Eighteen countries managed to increase antiretroviral therapy coverage to half or more of the people who needed it, consistent with the "3 by 5" target. (excerpt)
Towards universal access: scaling up priority HIV / AIDS interventions in the health sector. Progress report, April 2007.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2007 Apr. 88 p.Drawing on lessons from the scale-up of HIV interventions over the last few years, WHO, as the UNAIDS cosponsor responsible for the health sector response to HIV/AIDS, has established priorities for its technical work and support to countries on the basis of the following five Strategic Directions, each of which represents a critical area where the health sector must invest if significant progress is to be made towards achieving universal access. Enabling people to know their HIV status; Maximizing the health sector's contribution to HIV prevention; Accelerating the scale-up of HIV/AIDS treatment and care; Strengthening and expanding health systems; Investing in strategic information to guide a more effective response. In this context, WHO undertook at the World Health Assembly in May 2006 to monitor and evaluate the global health sector response in scaling up towards universal access and to produce annual reports. This first report addresses progress in scaling up the following health sector interventions. Antiretroviral therapy; Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT); HIV testing and counseling; Interventions for injecting drug users (IDUs); Control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to prevent HIV transmission; Surveillance of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. (excerpt)
Ensuring the sexual and reproductive health of people living with HIV: Policies, programmes and health services.
Reproductive Health Matters. 2007 May; 15(29 Suppl 1):1-3.IN 2006, there were some 39.7 million people living with HIV, half of them under the age of 25.* People living with HIV have sexual and reproductive health needs and concerns, some of which are related to having HIV and others which they have in common with their noninfected peers. Yet sexual and reproductive health policies, programmes and services often fail to take into consideration the needs and wishes of people living with HIV. Most programmes currently revolve around voluntary testing and counselling for HIV, access to antiretroviral and other AIDS-related treatment, and hospital and home-based care for those with HIV- and AIDS-related illnesses. In relation to sexual and reproductive health care, HIV prevention predominates. There are condom social marketing and other safer sex promotion programmes and recent initiatives to promote family planning for people with HIV. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in antenatal and delivery care has also begun to get greater programmaticattention and support. (excerpt)
CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2007 Jun 5; 176(12):1728-1730.Between the early 1980s and 2000 the prevalence rate of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa increased from less than 1% to 12%, as illustrated in the prevalence maps in Fig. 1. This represents an increase in the number of people living with HIV infection from less than 1 million to 22 million. During this period, neither African governments nor the international donor community sufficiently prioritized HIV/AIDS or allocated adequate resources to help prevent and control its spread. In sub-Saharan Africa, the total amount of official development assistance actually declined in the 1990s, to about $3 per HIV-infected person by 1999. By this time, the international donor community had begun to focus on the HIV/AIDS pandemic and in 2000 began to send billions of dollars to sub-Saharan Africa to tackle the crisis. These investments appear to have had a positive effect: between 2000 and December 2005, HIV prevalence rates among adults were reported to have decreased in more than two-thirds of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa, falling from a mean rate of 10% to 7.5%. (excerpt)
Breaking barriers. Effective communication for universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support by 2010.
Lusaka, Zambia, Panos Southern Africa, Panos Global AIDS Programme, 2006. 25 p.Effective HIV and AIDS communication is central to the achievement of universal access. This paper reviews lessons learned from the response so far and suggests that there is an urgent need to strengthen communication approaches that look beyond narrow, short-term interventions focused on individual behaviours. Development actors must realistically and effectively engage the social, political and economic drivers of the epidemic, in a way that is informed by the experiences and priorities of those most affected. There is also a need to better understand and engage with the distinct communication dynamics of social movements and the neglected area of interpersonal communication - both of which are key to an effective response. The intransigent problems of stigma and discrimination must also be addressed. The challenge is at once social, political and technical, but without this paradigm shift in development and communication practice, universal access will remain elusive. As country-level plans for universal access are being developed in late 2006, it is vital that they explicitly include fully resourced communication strategies, activities and targets that are integrated into programming at all levels. Communication challenges include: the effective coordination of the response; sustained advocacy to tackle the underlying drivers of the epidemic; and the specific communication needs of prevention, treatment and care initiatives that require grassroots ownership and social mobilisation. (excerpt)
CommonHealth. 2005 Spring; 36-43.As defined by the World Health Organization (WHO):2 Palliative medicine is the study and management of patients with active, progressive, far advanced disease for whom the prognosis is limited and the focus of care is the quality of life. [It is] the active total care of patients whose disease is not responsive to curative treatment. Control of pain, of other symptoms, and of psychological, social, and spiritual problems, is paramount. The goal of palliative care is achievement of the best quality of life for patients and their families. Many aspects of palliative care are applicable earlier in the course of the illness, in conjunction with treatment. Palliative care: Affirms life and regards dying as a normal process; Neither hastens, nor postpones, death; Provides relief from pain and other distressing symptoms; Integrates the psychological and spiritual aspects of patient care; Offers a support system to help patients live as actively as possible until death; and Offers a support system to help families cope during a patient's illness and with their own bereavement. In short, palliative care comprehensively addresses the physical, emotional, and spiritual impact a life-threatening illness has on a person, no matter the stage of the illness. It places the sick person and his/her family, however defined, at the center of care and aggressively addresses all of the symptoms and problems experienced by them. Many healthcare providers apply certain elements of the palliative care treatment approach-- such as comprehensive care and aggressive symptom management-- to the care of all of their patients, not only those who are terminally ill, offering the type of care we would all like to receive when we are sick. (excerpt)
Choices. 2004; 6.HIV/AIDS has reached the proportion of a pandemic because human rights continue to be violated on a massive scale. During my term as UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, and in the years since, I have seen first-hand how these rights violations fuel the spread of HIV/AIDS. I have met with women in rural areas across Africa who feared losing their homes and being rejected by their families due to their actual or suspected HIV status. I will never forget the elderly man I met in Delhi who was refused hospital treatment for a broken hip because he was HIV positive, or the discrimination against the gay, lesbian and transsexual community recounted to me by a group in Argentina, every one of whom had a personal story of rejection and hardship. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNDP, . 16 p.The 22 country offices where the We Care programme has been rolled out are taking great strides in making their workplaces truly AIDS competent. We are beginning to understand that HIV/AIDS is not 'out there' but among us -- and that if we are to make a difference in the way the world responds to it, WE MUST BEGIN WITH OURSELVES. Today, the We Care initiative is a global programme aiming at creating HIV/AIDS competence in all country offices, regional offices and headquarters by end of 2005. We Care is promoted together with initiatives spearheaded by other UN agencies, including 'Caring for Us' by UNICEF, the joint Access to Treatment and Inter-Organisational Needs (ACTION) programme facilitated by the UN Secretariat and the 'HIV/AIDS in the Workplace' initiative by WFP and ILO. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNDP, . 16 p.We often assume that as UN employees, especially at Headquarters, we are somehow immune. Immune to being infected or affected by HIV/AIDS, immune from stigma and discrimination, immune from needing care, counselling, testing or treatment. But the truth is, we are as vulnerable as everyone else in society, and just like everyone else, we need to make informed decisions when it comes to HIV and AIDS. We need to be educated, we need to know how we can protect ourselves and how we can have a better quality of life if we happen to be living with HIV. We need to know that we have access to care and treatment and the right to confidentiality and non-discrimination in the workplace. In addition, as UN employees we have a special role to play. Before we can share with the world how HIV/AIDS should be addressed, we need to look into ourselves. Are we really that well informed, that sensitive? Can we talk openly to our co-workers about HIV/AIDS? Are we really sure that we will not be stigmatized if we happen to be living with HIV? Are we afraid of working closely with someone living with HIV? Do we discuss our anxieties and concerns within our families, with our partners, friends and co-workers? The We Care initiative addresses these issues. It helps us recognize that HIV/AIDS is not only 'out there' but also among us. And that if we are to create an environment that is empowering and respectful of the rights and responsibilities of every individual, we must first begin with ourselves. (excerpt)
Joint ILO / WHO guidelines on health services and HIV / AIDS. Tripartite Meeting of Experts to Develop Joint ILO / WHO Guidelines on Health Services and HIV / AIDS.
Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, 2005.  p. (TMEHS/2005/8)These guidelines are the product of collaboration between the International Labour Organization and the World Health Organization. In view of their complementary mandates, their long-standing and close cooperation in the area of occupational health, and their more recent partnership as co-sponsors of UNAIDS, the ILO and the WHO decided to join forces in order to assist health services in building their capacities to provide their workers with a safe, healthy and decent working environment, as the most effective way both to reduce transmission of HIV and other blood-borne pathogens and to improve the delivery of care to patients. This is essential when health service workers have not only to deliver normal health-care services but also to provide HIV/AIDS services and manage the long-term administration and monitoring of anti-retroviral treatments (ART) at a time when, in many countries, they are themselves decimated by the epidemic. (excerpt)
Toronto, Canada, International Council of AIDS Service Organizations [ICASO], 1998 Jun. 16 p.Over the past few years, the International Council of AIDS Service Organizations (ICASO) and its component networks and organizations have undertaken a process to determine how best to highlight human rights activities within the work it does on HIV/AIDS. This process included the ICASO Inter-Regional Consultation on Human Rights, Social Equity and HIV/AIDS, which was held in Toronto, Canada, in March 1998. This consultation constituted the first ever international meeting specifically focussing on HIV/AIDS and human rights, social equity and community networking issues. The plan described in this document is an important milestone in this process. It is part of ICASO’s ongoing efforts to provide a framework that will be useful in the work of community-based HIV/AIDS organizations. The consultation also formally endorsed the International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights issued by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner on Human Rights. Participants to the Consultation believe that the Guidelines provide a platform for the development of activities and initiatives, including advocacy education. Community-based organizations (CBOs) would need to prioritize and select specific issues they feel are critical to their efforts in prevention of HIV/AIDS, and in the care and support of those living and affected by HIV/AIDS. Section 2.0 of the document describes the links between human rights and HIV/AIDS. Section 3.0 outlines a framework for the work ICASO will be doing over the next several years in the area of human rights, social equity and HIV/AIDS. The framework consists of guiding principles, role statements, goals, objectives, activities and structures. The framework has been prepared primarily from a global perspective. Finally, Section 4.0 contains work-plans from three of the five regions of ICASO (Asia/Pacific, Africa, and Latin America and the Caribbean) showing how human rights issues will be incorporated into their work. (excerpt)
South African Medical Journal. 2004 Jan; 94(1):20.The Global Fund to fight AIDS, TB and malaria is providing support to initiatives in South Africa in the form of grants for specific projects, including: Enhancing the Care of HIV/AIDS-infected and -affected patients in resource-constrained settings in KwaZulu-Natal. The goals of this project include complementing and expanding the strategies that prevent the further spread of HIV/AIDS in KwaZulu-Natal and improving the quality of life for those with HIV/AIDS through the provision of a continuum of care, treatment and support. Strengthening national capacity for treatment, care and support related to HIV and TB, building on successful behaviour change initiatives in South Africa (Soul City). The Institute for Health and Development Communication (Soul City:IHDC) is a non-governmental organisation which was established 11 years ago in South Africa. It is a social change project which aims to make an impact on individuals and communities through edutainment. The goal is to decrease the incidence of HIV/AIDS in South Africa, as well as to decrease stigma and to improve the standards of care and support for those infected or affected by HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2003 Sep 1; 3(9):530.According to Raviglione the antituberculosis drugs used with the directly observed therapy short-couse (DOTS) made it possible to cure tuberculosis in over 80 000 Africans living with HIV last year. However more than 200 000 Africans with HIV died from tuberculsosis because they had no access to anti-tuberculosis drugs and DOTS. Tuberculosis was notably absent from the scientific programme at the HIV meeting. “In Africa it strikes us as peculiar how politicians and academics can speak of their ‘AIDS initative’ or ‘their tuberculosis programme’ as if the two diseases are not related,” said Winstone Zulu, a Zambian man infected with HIV, who had been recently cured of tuberculosis. “We see them together conspiring and collaborating to steal away our health.” (excerpt)
The new lepers. HIV-positive people are treated as social outcasts while the government fails to cope.
London, England, Institute for War and Peace Reporting [IWPR], 2003 Aug 8. 3 p. (Belarus Reporting Service No. 28)More and more people in Belarus are finding themselves in her position – 50 or 60 new HIV cases are recorded every month. At the beginning of August, the number of people carrying the virus reached 5,150, and experts fear that the figure will be more than double that in 2005. More worryingly, some say the recorded figures should be multiplied by a factor of three or more since they fail to capture drug users who have not been seen by the health authorities. Although HIV and AIDS are advancing rapidly, neither the government nor society in general appear able to come to terms with it. A survey conducted jointly by the United Nations and the Centre for Sociological and Political Research in Minsk found that three quarters of the people polled thought people with HIV should not be allowed to care for their own children, and more than 40 per cent said they should not be allowed to travel around the country or choose where they want to live. (excerpt)
Unintended consequences: drug policies fuel the HIV epidemic in Russia and Ukraine. A policy report prepared for the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs and national governments.
New York, New York, Open Society Institute, International Harm Reduction Development program, 2003. 16 p.Taking action now to reduce HIV transmission rates and treat those already infected is critical. With the goal of avoiding adverse effects on social welfare and public health, the Russian and Ukrainian governments should reconsider how they interpret international treaties. Policy changes should be made in the following areas: Harm reduction. The governments should play an active role in establishing and supporting a large, strategically located network of harm reduction programs that provide services for IDUs, including needle exchange, HIV transmission education, condom distribution, and access to viable treatment programs such as methadone substitution. Similar services should be available in all prisons. Education. Simple, direct, and dear information about HIV transmission should be made available to all citizens-especially those most at risk. Similarly, society at large should be educated about the realities of drug use and addiction as part of an effort to reduce stigma. Discrimination and law enforcement abuse. Public health and law enforcement authorities should take the lead in eliminating discrimination, official and de facto, toward people with HIV and marginalized risk groups such as drug users. Authorities must no longer condone or ignore harassing and abusive behavior, including physical attacks, arrest quotas, arbitrary searches, detainment without charges, and other violations of due process. HIV-positive people, including IDUs, should be included in all policy discussions related to them in the public health and legal spheres. Legislation. Laws that violate the human rights of people with HIV and at-risk groups should be repealed or restructured to better reflect public health concerns. Moving forward with the above strategies may make it appear that the governments are backing away from the goals and guidelines of the UN drug conventions. They may be criti- cized severely by those who are unable or unwilling to understand that meeting the goals of the conventions, some of which were promulgated more than 40 years ago, is far too great a price to bear for countries in the midst of drug use and HIV epidemics. Governments ultimately have no choice, though, if they hope to maintain any semblance of moral legitimacy among their own people. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 1995.  p.People living with HIV/AIDS (PHA), nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and representatives from the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) met in Geneva in July 1995 to discuss ways to collaborate. This meeting report provides a synthesis of the discussions and work accomplished over those four days, including ideas emanating from the plenary and working group sessions. The meeting was developed in two parts: the first two days were for discussions among the PHA/NGO participants, and the second two days for consultation between the PHA/NGOs and UNAIDS. The issues discussed include access to care and support, human rights, enabling community voices to be heard at all levels, greater involvement of PHA, information and global leadership, women’s participation, development strategies that focus on egalitarianism, and communications.