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  1. 1

    Reviewing World Bank-financed health projects in Asia.

    Krishnamurthy R

    ARROWs for Change. 2003; 9(3):12.

    The World Bank is financing health sector reforms in low-income and middle-income countries of Asia. A review of community participation and accountability strategies within nine World Bank-financed projects (see table) spanning nine Asian countries reveals that most of them envisage some form of community and NGO participation and accountability. Women constitute an important target group of all the nine projects, with maternal and child health services being a priority in eight and improving access to contraception in five. However, few projects envisage community participation in design and policy formulation, provision of comprehensive sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, and services for adolescents, men and sex workers. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Strengthening health care systems for scaling up HIV and AIDS responses.

    Sadia C

    Contact. 2004 Jan; (177-178):21-22.

    The scaling up HIV and AIDS response as a strategy for improving access to prevention, care and treatment as well as mitigating the socioeconomic impact of HIV/ AIDS is a noble idea. Providing more quality benefits to more people over a wider geographical area more quickly, more equitably and more lasting should be the basic principle. The three by five (3x5) initiative by WHO offers a great opportunity to examine community participation and its nobility cannot be down played yet there are gaps and areas to be addressed in order to achieve the desired objectives. The historical events cannot be left out while considering scaling up strategies. Mobilizing communities is a principle which is well known following the Alma-Ata Declaration in 1979, but which has been applied differently by different stakeholders. Some of the initiatives served the communities well for a good number of years with many benefits, but later the initiatives were difficult to sustain for various reasons. It is therefore imperative that the lessons learnt in the Primary Health Care (PHC) concept be analyzed and used if similar concepts are being used in scaling up. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    The ICASO Plan on Human Rights, Social Equity and HIV / AIDS.

    Garmaise D

    Toronto, Canada, International Council of AIDS Service Organizations [ICASO], 1998 Jun. 16 p.

    Over the past few years, the International Council of AIDS Service Organizations (ICASO) and its component networks and organizations have undertaken a process to determine how best to highlight human rights activities within the work it does on HIV/AIDS. This process included the ICASO Inter-Regional Consultation on Human Rights, Social Equity and HIV/AIDS, which was held in Toronto, Canada, in March 1998. This consultation constituted the first ever international meeting specifically focussing on HIV/AIDS and human rights, social equity and community networking issues. The plan described in this document is an important milestone in this process. It is part of ICASO’s ongoing efforts to provide a framework that will be useful in the work of community-based HIV/AIDS organizations. The consultation also formally endorsed the International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights issued by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner on Human Rights. Participants to the Consultation believe that the Guidelines provide a platform for the development of activities and initiatives, including advocacy education. Community-based organizations (CBOs) would need to prioritize and select specific issues they feel are critical to their efforts in prevention of HIV/AIDS, and in the care and support of those living and affected by HIV/AIDS. Section 2.0 of the document describes the links between human rights and HIV/AIDS. Section 3.0 outlines a framework for the work ICASO will be doing over the next several years in the area of human rights, social equity and HIV/AIDS. The framework consists of guiding principles, role statements, goals, objectives, activities and structures. The framework has been prepared primarily from a global perspective. Finally, Section 4.0 contains work-plans from three of the five regions of ICASO (Asia/Pacific, Africa, and Latin America and the Caribbean) showing how human rights issues will be incorporated into their work. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    Promoting the participation of indigenous women in World Bank-funded social sector projects: an evaluation study in Mexico. [Promoción de la participación de las mujeres indígenas en los proyectos del sector social fundados por el Banco Mundial: estudio de evaluación en México]


    Washington, D.C., International Center for Research on Women [ICRW], Promoting Women in Development [PROWID], 1999. 4 p. (Report-in-Brief; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. FAO-A-00-95-00030-00)

    Mexico has long been one of the World Bank’s primary clients and is currently its largest cumulative borrower, with loan commitments of up to $5.5 billion approved for 1997-99 (World Bank 1996). During the past 15 years, the focus of the Bank’s lending program in Mexico has shifted away from structural adjustment towards poverty reduction, a strategy that emphasizes investment in health and education. As elsewhere around the world, gender differences in these sectors in Mexico are prevalent with regard to access to and control over resources and decision-making. Given the multiple roles that women play in production, reproduction, child rearing, and household maintenance, social sector projects that target women generate economic and social benefits both for individuals and countries as a whole. Consequently, the Bank has increasingly funded projects that aim to strengthen the participation and position of women in development. The Bank’s publications, official policies, and project guidelines also acknowledge the importance and benefits of promoting women’s roles and empowerment (Women’s Eyes on the World Bank, U.S. 1997; World Bank 1994, 1995, 1997). However, little has been done to evaluate what resources and opportunities are needed to improve the actual standing and participation of women in both Bank-funded programs and society as a whole. While the Bank launched a Gender Action Plan for Central America and Mexico in 1996, this Plan does not clearly define gender impact and assumes that strategies aimed at communities will affect men and women in similar ways. Further, the Bank’s effectiveness in applying its own guidelines on gender and community participation to policy, project design, and implementation on the ground has not been systematically assessed. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    Financial resource flows for population activities in 2000.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2002. x, 103 p.

    Financial Resource Flows for Population Activities in 2000 is the fourteenth edition of a report previously published by UNFPA under the title of Global Population Assistance Report. The United Nations Population Fund has regularly collected data and reported on flows of international financial assistance to population activities. The Fund’s annual Reports focused on the flow of funds from donors through bilateral, multilateral and non-governmental channels for population assistance to developing countries1 and countries with economies in transition. Also included were grants and loans from development banks for population activities in developing countries. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    Initial steps in rebuilding the health sector in East Timor.

    Tulloch J; Saadah F; de Araujo RM; de Jesus RP; Lobo S

    Washington, D.C., National Academies Press, 2003. xii, 57 p.

    The present monograph--on rebuilding the health sector in East Timor following the nation's struggle for independence--is the second in this series. It provides an overview of the state of the health system before, during, and after reconstruction and discusses achievements and failures in the rebuilding process, using an informative case study to draw conclusions for potential improvements to the process in other post-conflict settings. Other topics under consideration in the series include reviews of current knowledge on psychosocial issues, reproductive health, malnutrition, and diarrheal diseases, as well as other case studies. (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    Better health in Africa.

    World Bank. Africa Technical Department. Human Resources and Poverty Division

    [Unpublished] 1993 Dec. xii, 217, [2] p. (Report No. 12577-AFR)

    The World Bank has recommended a blueprint for health improvement in sub-Saharan Africa. African countries and their external partners need to reconsider current health strategies. The underlying message is that many African countries can achieve great improvements in health despite financial pressure. The document focuses on the significance of enhancing the ability of households and communities to identify and respond to health problems. Promotion of poverty-centered development strategies, more educational opportunities for females, strengthening of community monitoring and supervision of health services, and provision of information on health conditions and services to the public are also important. Community-based action is vital. The report greatly encourages African governments to reform their health care systems. It advocates basic packages of health services available to everyone through health centers and first referral hospitals. Health care system reform also includes improving management of health care inputs (e.g., drugs) and new partnerships between public agencies and nongovernmental health care providers. Ministries of Health should concentrate more on policy formulation and public health activities, encourage private voluntary organizations, and establish an environment conducive to the private sector. African countries need more efficient allocation and management of public financial resources for health to boost their effect on critical health indicators (e.g., child mortality). Public resources should also be reallocated from less productive activities to health activities. More commitment from governments and domestic sources and an increase of external assistance are needed for low income African countries. The first action step should be a national agenda for health followed by action planning and setting goals to measure progress.
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  8. 8

    HIV / AIDS NGO Support Programme: programme description.

    Berkley S

    [Unpublished] 1992. 12, [11] p.

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have been shown to play an essential and often unique role in HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and community support. However, the capacity of developing country NGOs to initiate, improve or expand HIV/AIDS activities depends on their access to appropriate financial, technical, and managerial resources. In response to the need for increased and improved support to developing country NGOs working on HIV/AIDS, a donor sub-group was formed that included agencies from Germany, the US, the European Union, WHO/GPA, and the Rockefeller Foundation. These donor sub-groups organized the NGO Support Programme to improve the access of indigenous NGOs to appropriate financial, technical, and managerial assistance. This document outlines the overall goals and objectives of the program, as well as the specific tasks for the start-up period. Among the start-up tasks are the development of appropriate and effective systems and guidelines for providing support to developing country NGOs.
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  9. 9

    Report of the meeting of PHA / NGOs and UNAIDS, 16-19 July 1995, Geneva.

    Lucas S; Senturias E; Burzynski R

    [Unpublished] 1995. [32] p.

    People living with HIV/AIDS (PHA), nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and representatives from the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) met in Geneva in July 1995 to discuss ways to collaborate. This meeting report provides a synthesis of the discussions and work accomplished over those four days, including ideas emanating from the plenary and working group sessions. The meeting was developed in two parts: the first two days were for discussions among the PHA/NGO participants, and the second two days for consultation between the PHA/NGOs and UNAIDS. The issues discussed include access to care and support, human rights, enabling community voices to be heard at all levels, greater involvement of PHA, information and global leadership, women’s participation, development strategies that focus on egalitarianism, and communications.
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  10. 10

    Zimbabwe AIDS directory -- 1995: non-governmental organisations, AIDS service organisations, support groups, funders, resources.

    Zimbabwe AIDS Network; Southern Africa AIDS Information Dissemination Service [SAfAIDS]

    Harare, Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe AIDS Network, 1995. ix, 126 p.

    As the AIDS epidemic has unfolded in Zimbabwe, a number of organizations have developed AIDS programs for awareness and prevention and to help people cope with HIV infection. This Directory aims to provide information on the nongovernmental organizations (NGO), AIDS service organizations, support groups and donors involved in AIDS work in Zimbabwe. It also identifies information sources and materials available internationally, particularly those available free or at low cost, and with special relevance for Africa. Entries are listed alphabetically by name and acronym. It is hoped that the Directory will assist many organizations within the NGO community and beyond to identify resources and improve links with sister organizations, donors, and others responding to the demands of the AIDS epidemic. Most importantly, it is hoped that it will help people directly affected by or infected with HIV/AIDS to gain better access to services and support.
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  11. 11

    Youth and Reproductive Health in Countries in Transition: report of a European regional meeting, Copenhagen, Denmark, 23-25 June 1997.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]; Denmark; World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Europe

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1997. vii, 70 p.

    A report of a European meeting is presented in this document. The youth and reproductive health meeting held in Copenhagen, Denmark, June 23-25, 1997, was one of the regional meetings organized by the UN Population Fund to enhance the active participation of young people in discussing issues and formulating reproductive and sexual health programs. 67 participants attended the meeting, representing the countries of central and eastern Europe, countries in the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Baltic States; government and nongovernmental organizations from the aforementioned areas; and the national youth organization. This document is subdivided into 6 parts: 1) introduction; 2) opening session; 3) summary of presentation, which includes challenges to adolescent reproductive health; 4) key issues in reproductive and sexual health, which includes unprotected sexual relations and their consequences, sexual abuse, exploitation and violence against young women, lack of clear policies and programs, inadequate social support system, lack of knowledge and skills, lack of sound and relevant information services, lack of human and financial resources, and concluding observations; 5) strategies for action, which include the framework, and the proposed interventions; and 6) concluding remarks.
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  12. 12

    NGO contributions to sexual and reproductive health and rights in Latin America. Recommendations from civil society for improved follow-up of the Cairo and Beijing commitments.

    de Schutter M; Alcala MJ

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1998. [6], 27 p.

    This is a report on a regional meeting sponsored by the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) in collaboration with the Latin American and Caribbean Women's Health Network (LACWHN) and PAHO. The meeting was convened in order to draft recommendations to facilitate implementation of the agreements made at the Cairo and Beijing world conferences. This can be done, it was concluded at the meeting, by implementing or strengthening mechanisms for coordination and /or collaboration between government bodies, NGOs, and international cooperation agencies in the area of sexual and reproductive health and rights. Discussion and analysis focused mainly on the following areas: promoting sexual/reproductive rights, adolescent sexual/ reproductive health, promoting shared responsibilities/ male participation, and incorporating a gender perspective into reproductive health services. The observations and recommendations of the 50 participants are summarized.
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  13. 13

    Steaming ahead in Guatemala.

    JOICFP NEWS. 1997 Oct; (280):6.

    In cooperation with local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), the JOICFP Integrated Project in Solola State, where it is implemented by the Family Welfare Association of Guatemala (APROFAM), has been refocused on reproductive health (RH) and family planning (FP) within the predominately Mayan communities of Panajachel, San Pedro la Laguna, and San Lucas Toliman. Emphasis has been placed on sensitivity to cultural and gender issues. Mayan professionals, including a Mayan doctor who provides 2 days of service to clinics on a rotational basis, are employed. A clinic has been added in San Pedro la Laguna and another in Panajachel; the latter serves as the project's headquarters. Training of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and of community-based distribution agents (CBDs) has been increased in order to broaden project coverage. 31 CBDs have been recruited from project communities to counsel and to educate clients in the local language, to provide referrals, and to sell low-cost contraceptives. A Japanese public health nurse serves as a Japanese Overseas Cooperation Volunteer at the APROFAM clinic in Solola. Six TBAs have received follow-up training in natural and modern FP. The project's Mayan doctor works closely with these health personnel. 28 CBDs have been trained to provide Depo-Provera; acceptance of this method has increased by 42%. Contraceptive acceptance between January and June of this year is greater than the total for all of 1996. Two UN Population Fund (UNFPA) representatives, Dr. Sergio de Leon (program officer) and Dr. Ruben Gonzalez (national coordinator of the project to reduce maternal mortality), visited during a monitoring/technical support mission in July and August.
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