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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Healthy aging in cities.

    Quinn A

    Journal of Urban Health. 2008 Mar; 85(2):151-153.

    In the coming decades, the global population will urbanize and age at high rates. Today, half of the world's populations lives in cities.1 By 2030, that proportion will rise to 60%, and urbanization will occur most greatly in developing countries. At the same time, the world's population aged 60 and over will double from 11% to 22% by 2050, and that growth will be concentrated in urban areas in less developed countries. All of these trends challenge public health workers, doctors, researchers, and urban planners to ensure healthy livable cities for older people. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Implementation of the global strategy for Health for All by the Year 2000, second evaluation; and eighth report on the world health situation.

    World Health Organization [WHO].

    [Unpublished] 1992 Mar 6. 171 p. (A45/3)

    This 2nd evaluation of the global strategy for health for all (HFA) by 2000/8th report on the world health situation indicates a need for a new approach for sustainable health development which includes mobilizing resources for high priority populations and health needs, more effective and intersectoral health promotion and protection, and improving access to primary health care (PHC) via higher quality services and integrating health services into all social services. The data cover 96% of the world's population and the years 1985-90. The 1st chapter looks at the interaction among political, economic, demographic, and social development trends and their effects on health. It mentions the health development trend of increased involvement of individuals, communities, professional groups, and development agencies. The 2nd chapter centers on the progress of countries towards reaching HFA by examining the differences between the haves and the have nots. The 3rd chapter examines improvement and obstacles in health care coverage, PHC coverage, and quality of care. Chapter 4 reviews health resources including financial and human resources and health technology. The next chapter focuses on trends in mortality, morbidity, and disability and life style factors of health such as smoking. Chapter 6 examines policies and programs of environmental health, evaluation, and monitoring of environmental health hazards and risks, and environmental resources management. The 7th chapter brings together highlights and implications expressed in the previous chapters and states that health improvements have indeed occurred such as increased life expectancy. The last chapter uses the information in the preceding chapters to project future trends and mentions 5 challenges facing the world today.
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  3. 3

    [International] Covenant on Civil and Political Rights [status].

    United Nations

    In: Multilateral treaties, index and current status, Ninth Cumulative Supplement, compiled by M.J. Bowman and D.J. Harris. Nottingham, England, University of Nottingham Treaty Centre, 1992. 181.

    The following countries became parties to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights in 1989-1991: a) Albania, 4 October 1991; b) Algeria, 12 September 1989 c) Burundi, 9 May 1990; d) Estonia, 21 October 1991; e) Grenada, 6 September 1991; f) Haiti, 6 February 1991; g) Ireland, 8 December 1989, h) Israel, 3 October 1991; i) Lithuania, 20 November 1991; j) Malta, 13 September 1990; k) Nepal, 14 May 1991; l) Republic of Korea, 10 April 1990; m) Somalia, 24 January 1990; and n) Zimbabwe, 13 May 1991. The Covenant contains human rights provisions relating to equality of the sexes, freedom of movement, freedom from arbitrary and unlawful interference with the home and family, protection of children and the family, the right to marry and found a family, and equality of spouses within marriages. In addition, the following of the above countries also became parties to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights on the same dates: Albania, Estonia, Grenada, Haiti, Israel, Lithuania, Malta, Nepal, and Zimbabwe. This Covenant contains human rights provisions relating to equality of the sexes, equal pay for equal work, maternity benefits, housing, education, health care, and protection of the family, children, and mothers. See Multilateral Treaties, Index and Current Status, p. 181.
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  4. 4

    Covenant on Economic, Social, Cultural Rights. [Additional parties and location].

    United Nations

    In: Multilateral treaties, index and current status, 8th cumulative suppl., compiled by M.J. Bowman and D.J. Harris. Nottingham, England, University of Nottingham Treaty Centre, 1991. 158.

    Since 1983, the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights has been ratified by the following countries: Algeria, 12 September 1989; Argentina, 8 August 1986; Burundi, 9 May 1990; Cameroon, 27 June 1984; the Congo, 5 October 1983; Equatorial Guinea, 25 September 1987; Ireland, 8 December 1989; the Republic of Korea, 10 April 1990; Luxembourg, 18 August 1983; Niger, 7 March 1986; the Philippines, 23 October 1986; San Marino, 18 October 1985; Somalia, 24 January 1990; Sudan, 18 March 1986; Togo, 24 May 1984; Democratic Yemen, 9 February 1987; and Zambia, 10 April 1984. Provisions of the covenant guarantee equal rights for men and women, pay equity, maternity benefits, social protection for children and the family, and the rights to housing, education, and health care, among other things.
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  5. 5

    Demographic trends and their development implications.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    In: Third Asian and Pacific Population Conference (Colombo, September 1982). Selected papers. Bangkok, Thailand, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1984. 9-40. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 58)

    This report summarizes the recent demographic situation and considers prospective trends and their development implications among the 39 members and associate members of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). It presents data on the following: size, growth, and distribution of the population; age and sex structure; fertility and marriage; mortality; international migration; growth and poverty; food and nutrition; households and housing; primary health care; education; the working-age population; family planning; the elderly; and population distribution. Despite improvements in the frequency and quality of demographic data collected in recent years, big gaps continue to exist in knowledge of the demographic situation in the ESCAP region. Available evidence suggests that the population growth rate of the ESCAP region declined between 1970 and 1980, as compared with the preceding decade, but that its rate of decline was slow. Within this overall picture, there is wide variation, with the most developed countries having annual growth rates around 1% and some of the least developed countries having a figure near 3%. The main factors associated with the high growth rates are the past high levels of fertility resulting in young age structures and continuing high fertility in some countries, notably in middle south Asia. The population of countries in the ESCAP region is expected to grow from 2.5 billion in 1980, to 2.9 billion in 1990, and to 3.4 billion persons by the year 2000. This massive growth in numbers, which will be most pronounced in Middle South Asia, will occur despite projected continuing moderation in annual population growth rates. Fertility is expected to continue its downward trend, assuming a more widespread and equitable distribution of health, education, and family planning services. Mortality is expected to decline further from its current levels, where life expectancy is often at or around 50 years. In several countries, more than 10 in every 100 babies born die before their 1st birthday. The extension of primary health care services is seen as the key to reducing this figure. Rapid population growth and poverty tend to reinforce each other. Low income, lack of education, and high infant and child mortality contribute to high fertility, which in turn is associated with high rates of natural increase. High rates of natural increase feed back to depress socioeconomic development. High population growth rates and their correlates of young age structures and heavy concentrations of persons in the nonproductive ages tend to depress production and burden government expenditure with high costs for social overhead needs. Rapid population growth emerges as an important factor in the persistence of chronic undernutrition and malnutrition. It increases the magnitude of the task of improving the educational system and exacerbates the problem of substandard housing that is widely prevalent throughout Asia.
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  6. 6
    Peer Reviewed

    Community-level nutrition interventions in Sri Lanka: a case study.

    Karunanayake HC

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 1982 Jan; 4(1):7-16.

    This study describes 3 nutrition intervention programs in Sri Lanka; Lanka Jathika Sarvodaya Samgamaya; Redd Barna, the Norwegian Save the Children Program; and the US Save the Children fund. The Sarvodaya Shramadana Sangamaya is a private, nonprofit organization that began in 1958 devoted to mobilizing voluntary labor for village reconstruction. It is now engaged in a series of development projects in over 2,000 villages. One of its main objectives is to mobilize community resources for development. The children's service now integrates pre-school, nutrition, and community health services. There are an estimated 86 day care centers. The main service available in these day care centers, apart from physical care, is the provision of nutrition. Pre-school nutrition programs are also administered. The program costs about Rs230/beneficiary per year. The International Council of Educational Development from the United States was invited to review the program. Recommendations are given. The Norwegian Save the Children (Redd Barna) program in Sri Lanka was started in 1974. Projects are of 2 types: 1) settlement projects; and 2) integrated community development projects which aim to improve the standard of living with particular attention to child welfare. The US Save the Children Fund (SCF), a private, nonprofit voluntary organization, began its 1st project in Sri Lanka in urban community development in a slum and squatter settlement within Colombo. It focused on housing, but also includes other programs such as health and nutrition. These activities are carried out through a pediatric clinic, a home visits register, a nutritional status survey, a supplementary feeding program, nutrition, education, and a day care center. The approximate cost of the nutrition program would be Rs7700/month for an average of Rs13/month, or Rs156/year/beneficiary.
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  7. 7


    Menes RJ

    Washington, D.C., U.S. Office of International Health, Division of Planning and Evaluation, 1976. 144 p. (Syncrisis: the dynamics of health, XIX)

    This report uses available statistics to examine health conditions in Senegal and their interaction with socioeconomic development. Background data are presented, after which population, health status, nutrition, environmental health, health infrastructure, facilities, services and manpower, national health policy and planning, international organizations, and the Sahel are discussed. Diseases such as malaria, measles, tuberculosis, trachoma and venereal diseases are endemic in Senegal, and high levels of infant and childhood mortality exist throughout the country but especially in rural areas. Diarrhea, respiratory infections, and neonatal tetanus contribute to this mortality and are evidence of the poor health environment, and lack of basic services including nutrition assistance, health education, and potable water. Nutrition in Senegal appears to be good in general, but seasonal and local variations sometimes produce malnutrition. Lowered fertility rates would reduce infant and maternal mortality and morbidity and might slow the present decline in per capita food intake. At present the government of Senegal has no population policy and almost no provisions for family planning services. Health services are inadequate and inefficient, with shortages of all levels of health manpower, poor planning, and overemphasis on curative services.
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