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Multinational corporations and health care in the United States and Latin America: strategies, actions, and effects. [Corporaciones multinacionales y atención de la salud en Estados Unidos y América Latina: estrategias, acciones y efectos]
Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 2004; 45 Suppl:136-157.In this article we analyze the corporate dominance of health care in the United States and the dynamics that have motivated the international expansion of multinational health care corporations, especially to Latin America. We identify the strategies, actions, and effects of multinational corporations in health care delivery and public health policies. Our methods have included systematic bibliographical research and in-depth interviews in the United States, Mexico, and Brazil. Influenced by public policy makers in the United States, such organizations as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and World Trade Organization have advocated policies that encourage reduction and privatization of health care and public health services previously provided in the public sector. Multinational managed care organizations have entered managed care markets in several Latin American countries at the same time as they were withdrawing from managed care activities in Medicaid and Medicare within the United States. Corporate strategies have culminated in a marked expansion of corporations' access to social security and related public sector funds for the support of privatized health services. International financial institution and multinational corporations have influenced reforms that, while favorable to corporate interests, have worsened access to needed services and have strained the remaining public sector institutions. A theoretical approach to these problems emphasizes the falling rate of profit as an economic motivation of corporate actions, silent reform, and the subordination of polity to economy. Praxis to address these problems involves opposition to policies that enhance corporate interests while reducing public sector services, as well as alternative models that emphasize a strengthened public sector. (author's)
Preventing violence: a guide to implementing the recommendations of the World Report on Violence and Health.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Department of Injuries and Violence Protection, 2004.  p.Interpersonal violence is violence between individuals or small groups of individuals. It is an insidious and frequently deadly social problem and includes child maltreatment, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence and elder abuse. It takes place in the home, on the streets and in other public settings, in the workplace, and in institutions such as schools, hospitals and residential care facilities. The direct and indirect financial costs of such violence are staggering, as are the social and human costs that cause untold damage to the economic and social fabric of communities. With the publication in 2002 of the World report on violence and health, an initial sense of the global extent of the interpersonal violence problem was provided, and the central yet frequently overlooked role of the health sector in preventing such violence and treating its victims was made explicit. The report clearly showed that investing in multi-sectoral strategies for the prevention of interpersonal violence is not only a moral imperative but also makes sound scientific, economic, political and social sense, and that health sector leadership is both appropriate and essential given the clear public health dimensions of the problem and its solutions. The report also reviewed the increasing evidence that primary prevention efforts which target the root causes and situational determinants of interpersonal violence are both effective and cost-effective. In support of such approaches, the report recommended six country-level activities, namely: 1. Increasing the capacity for collecting data on violence. 2. Researching violence – its causes, consequences and prevention. 3. Promoting the primary prevention of violence. 4. Promoting gender and social equality and equity to prevent violence. 5. Strengthening care and support services for victims. 6. Bringing it all together – developing a national action plan of action. (excerpt)