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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Providing Family Planning Services at Primary Care Organizations after the Exclusion of Planned Parenthood from Publicly Funded Programs in Texas: Early Qualitative Evidence.

    White K; Hopkins K; Grossman D; Potter JE

    Health Services Research. 2017 Oct 20;

    OBJECTIVE: To explore organizations' experiences providing family planning during the first year of an expanded primary care program in Texas. DATA SOURCES: Between November 2014 and February 2015, in-depth interviews were conducted with program administrators at 30 organizations: 7 women's health organizations, 13 established primary care contractors (e.g., community health centers, public health departments), and 10 new primary care contractors. STUDY DESIGN: Interviews addressed organizational capacities to expand family planning and integrate services with primary care. DATA EXTRACTION: Interview transcripts were analyzed using a theme-based approach. Themes were compared across the three types of organizations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Established and new primary care contractors identified several challenges expanding family planning services, which were uncommon among women's health organizations. Clinicians often lacked training to provide intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants. Organizations often recruited existing clients into family planning services, rather than expanding their patient base, and new contractors found family planning difficult to integrate because of clients' other health needs. Primary care contractors frequently described contraceptive provision protocols that were not evidence-based. CONCLUSIONS: Many primary care organizations in Texas initially lacked the capacity to provide evidence-based family planning services that women's health organizations already provided. (c) Health Research and Educational Trust.
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  2. 2

    Making fair choices on the path to universal health coverage [editorial]

    Ottersen T; Norheim OF

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2014; 92:389.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) in 2012 set up a Consultative Group on Equity and Universal Health Coverage. The final report, entitled Making fair choices on the path to universal health coverage, was launched in London on 1 May 2014.5 The report addresses and clarifies the key issues of fairness and equity that arise on the path to univer¬sal coverage and recommends ways in which countries can manage them. (Excerpts)
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    Increased resources for the Global Fund, but pledges fall short of expected demand.

    Kazatchkine MD

    Lancet. 2010 Oct 30; 376(9751):1439-40.

    This commentary discusses how the pledges to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria from countries, the private sector, and innovative funding sources have fallen short of the demand estimates, despite the pledged sum being the largest amount ever mobilized for global health. The US $11.7 billion pledge for the 2011-2013 time range is an increase of more than 20% over 2007-2010 and will go toward maintaining programs at their current scale and support further significant expansion of health services in many countries. It explains that the shortfall to meet the $13 billion will result in challenging decisions about which new programs to support and a slower rate of scale-up for new programs.
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  4. 4

    Health service delivery in early recovery fragile states: lessons from Afghanistan, Cambodia, Mozambique and Timor Leste.

    Zivetz L

    Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 2006 May. [49] p. (USAID Contract No. GHA-I-00-04-00002-00)

    This case study explores some key themes in the emerging literature on service delivery in fragile states in light of the health sector experience in four early recovery countries - Afghanistan, Cambodia, Mozambique, and Timor Leste. The analysis considers the various impacts of foreign assistance on state stewardship of the health sector and the programming implications. The investigation starts with state effectiveness and legitimacy. Findings point to the importance of and structural impediments to donor harmonization in reestablishing health services in a post-conflict context. United Nations (UN) coordination in all four countries was constrained by state avoidance strategies, a spike in aid flows that were out of sync with emerging government capacity, and-in Cambodia and Mozambique-an emphasis on highly visible but largely unsustainable infrastructure projects that were limited by the absence of a planning framework. Harmonization and alignment of aid systems and accountability requirements-current pillars of fragile states programming-were enabled through joint frameworks, common approaches, and trust funds that offered direct budget support that strengthened government systems, accountability, and a common policy framework in Afghanistan and Timor Leste. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    Peer Reviewed

    The World Bank and sub-Saharan Africa?s HIV / AIDS crisis.

    Simms C

    CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2007 Jun 5; 176(12):1728-1730.

    Between the early 1980s and 2000 the prevalence rate of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa increased from less than 1% to 12%, as illustrated in the prevalence maps in Fig. 1. This represents an increase in the number of people living with HIV infection from less than 1 million to 22 million. During this period, neither African governments nor the international donor community sufficiently prioritized HIV/AIDS or allocated adequate resources to help prevent and control its spread. In sub-Saharan Africa, the total amount of official development assistance actually declined in the 1990s, to about $3 per HIV-infected person by 1999. By this time, the international donor community had begun to focus on the HIV/AIDS pandemic and in 2000 began to send billions of dollars to sub-Saharan Africa to tackle the crisis. These investments appear to have had a positive effect: between 2000 and December 2005, HIV prevalence rates among adults were reported to have decreased in more than two-thirds of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa, falling from a mean rate of 10% to 7.5%. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    Tuberculosis. Testimony of Dr. Kent R. Hill, Assistant Administrator for Global Health, U.S. Agency for International Development, before the Subcommittee on Africa and Global Health, Committee on Foreign Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives, March 21, 2007.

    Hill KR

    [Unpublished] 2007. [4] p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No. PD-ACJ-067)

    I know we are here to talk about Africa - where the TB problem is indeed severe -- but it is also important and relevant to keep in mind the global TB situation. Sixty percent of the global burden of TB is in the Asia and the Western Pacific regions - notably in countries such as India, China, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Pakistan, The Philippines, Viet Nam, and Cambodia. While many of these countries have made tremendous progress in recent years, there is still much more that needs to be done to ensure sustainability. In Latin America, while there has been much success in controlling TB, sustaining that progress will require TB services reaching the poorest and marginalized groups in all countries. We also can not forget Eastern Europe and Eurasia, where gaining commitment to internationally recognized TB control standards continues to be an uphill struggle. While the recent outbreak of XDR TB in South Africa has made the headlines and must be urgently and effectively dealt with, 17 of the 21 priority countries identified in the WHO's Global MDR and XDR TB response plan are in Asia and the Western Pacific. We must increase attention to Africa, but we can not overlook the other regions where TB is still a serious problem and where MDR and XDR TB are a looming threat. Between 2000 and 2006, USAID provided about $500 million for TB programs worldwide. Our FY 2006 funding level was about $90 million which supported bilateral TB programs in 37 countries (of which 19 are USAID high priority TB countries), as well as other key activities including global surveillance and research on new anti-TB drugs and diagnostics. In FY 2006, USAID provided $5 million to the STOP TB Partnership's Global TB Drug Facility (GDF), an important mechanism that provides drugs to countries in need. Our programs are fully aligned with the new STOP TB Strategy, which builds on the WHO recommended "Directly Observed Treatment, Shortcourse" or DOTS by giving attention to DOTS quality and as well as expansion, TB/HIV-AIDS and MDR TB, engaging all care providers, empowering people with TB and communities, contributing to health system strengthening, and research. (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    Financing tuberculosis control: the role of a global financial monitoring system.

    Floyd K; Pantoja A; Dye C

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 May; 85(5):325-420.

    Control of tuberculosis (TB), like health care in general, costs money. To sustain TB control at current levels, and to make further progress so that global targets can be achieved, information about funding needs, sources of funding, funding gaps and expenditures is important at global, regional, national and sub-national levels. Such data can be used for resource mobilization efforts; to document how funding requirements and gaps are changing over time; to assess whether increases in funding can be translated into increased expenditures and whether increases in expenditure are producing improvements in programme performance; and to identify which countries or regions have the greatest needs and funding gaps. In this paper, we discuss a global system for financial monitoring of TB control that was established in WHO in 2002. By early 2007, this system had accounted for actual or planned expenditures of more than US$ 7 billion and was systematically reporting financial data for countries that carry more than 90% of the global burden of TB. We illustrate the value of this system by presenting major findings that have been produced for the period 2002-2007, including results that are relevant to the achievement of global targets for TB control set for 2005 and 2015. We also analyse the strengths and limitations of the system and its relevance to other health-care programmes. (author's)
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  8. 8

    Breaking barriers. Effective communication for universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support by 2010.

    Vincent R

    Lusaka, Zambia, Panos Southern Africa, Panos Global AIDS Programme, 2006. 25 p.

    Effective HIV and AIDS communication is central to the achievement of universal access. This paper reviews lessons learned from the response so far and suggests that there is an urgent need to strengthen communication approaches that look beyond narrow, short-term interventions focused on individual behaviours. Development actors must realistically and effectively engage the social, political and economic drivers of the epidemic, in a way that is informed by the experiences and priorities of those most affected. There is also a need to better understand and engage with the distinct communication dynamics of social movements and the neglected area of interpersonal communication - both of which are key to an effective response. The intransigent problems of stigma and discrimination must also be addressed. The challenge is at once social, political and technical, but without this paradigm shift in development and communication practice, universal access will remain elusive. As country-level plans for universal access are being developed in late 2006, it is vital that they explicitly include fully resourced communication strategies, activities and targets that are integrated into programming at all levels. Communication challenges include: the effective coordination of the response; sustained advocacy to tackle the underlying drivers of the epidemic; and the specific communication needs of prevention, treatment and care initiatives that require grassroots ownership and social mobilisation. (excerpt)
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  9. 9

    Getting down to business. Expanding the private commercial sector's role in meeting reproductive health needs.

    Rosen JE; Conly SR

    Washington, D.C., Population Action International, 1999. 76 p.

    Around the world, there is an emerging consensus that private enterprise is the engine of economic growth and development. Market forces are widely accepted as the most dynamic and efficient mechanisms for meeting society's demands for goods and services, especially in the productive economic sectors such as agriculture and industry. Even in the social sectors, where governments have traditionally played a greater role, there is growing recognition that the private for-profit sector can help meet the public's demand for education and health care. In reproductive health, as in other areas of health care, the private sector's potential importance lies in the inadequacy of public funding relative to growing needs. New and innovative approaches involving the private sector are required to bridge this gap between stagnating financial resources and the rapidly increasing demand for reproductive health care. Yet in most developing countries, the private sector is not fulfilling its potential to help meet reproductive health needs, often because governments have not created a sufficiently supportive environment. Developing country governments and international donor agencies do not adequately appreciate the private sector's contribution to reproductive health. Most governments and donors lack awareness of how their own policies and programs either encourage or deter the private sector from playing a larger role in reproductive health. (excerpt)
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  10. 10
    Peer Reviewed

    The World Bank: false financial and statistical accounts and medical malpractice in malaria treatment.

    Attaran A; Barnes KI; Bate R; Binka F; d'Alessandro U

    Lancet. 2006 Jul 15; 368(9531):247-252.

    The World Bank has an annual budget of US$20 billion, and is the largest organisation operating with a mission to reduce poverty worldwide. Malaria destroys about 1 million lives a year; the disease is the leading parasitic cause of death for Africa's children and impoverishment for their families. Here we examine how these factors meet in the new Global Strategy & Booster Program, which is the Bank's plan for controlling that disease in 2005--10.1 We believe this plan is inadequate to reverse the Bank's troubling history of neglect for malaria. In the past 5 years, the Bank has failed to uphold a pledge to increase funding for malaria control in Africa, has claimed success in its malaria programmes by promulgating false epidemiological statistics, and has approved clinically obsolete treatments for a potentially deadly form of malaria. Crucially, the Bank also downsized its malaria staff, so that it cannot swiftly execute the restoration it plans under the Global Strategy & Booster Program. We summarise the evidence, show that the Bank possesses demonstrably little expertise in malaria, and argue that the Bank should relinquish its funding to other agencies better placed to control the disease. (excerpt)
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  11. 11

    Making health care accountable.

    Hecht R; Batson A; Brenzel L

    Finance and Development. 2004 Mar; 41(1):16-19.

    DEVELOPING countries and their international partners are increasingly adopting methods of financing health care activities in developing countries that link the availability of funding to concrete, measurable results on the ground. Such “performance-based” financing was advocated a decade ago in the World Bank’s 1993 World Development Report—Investing in Health and other policy documents in the early 1990s, although relatively little practical experience with this type of financing was available. Since then, much experimentation has taken place, and we are seeing with growing clarity the important potential—as well as the challenges—of performance-based financing for achieving national and global health goals. Governments and partner agencies are interested in performance-based financing for health for a number of reasons. First, there is a growing focus worldwide on achieving measurable results with development assistance, and performance-based financing spotlights such results. In terms of health care, these results are being closely tracked as governments and their partners strive to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The goals include reductions in child and maternal deaths; reductions in rates of infection from HIV, malaria, and tuberculosis; and improvements in the nutritional status of children. Governments and their partners are thus naturally attracted to the idea of providing funds for programs that achieve or make progress toward the MDGs in health or that at least show increases in some of the key services needed to reach the goals. For example, where immunization and prompt treatment of pneumonia are crucial for halting child deaths, funding for health care might be tied to advances in the coverage of these services. (excerpt)
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  12. 12

    34 Million Friends campaign passes $1 million mark.

    Population 2005. 2003 Jun; 5(2):16.

    The founders of the grassroots campaign “34 Million Friends of UNFPA” announced May 1 that it had raised $1 million to support the United Nations Population Fund, mostly in small donations. More than 100,000 Americans have contributed to the campaign to help replace funds withheld by the United States Administration last July. “This campaign highlights the power of individuals to make a difference,” said Thoraya Ahmed Obaid, UNFPA executive director. “It also shows that the American people support the right of all women to have quality health care and to be able to plan their families.” UNFPA will use the campaign’s first million dollars to make pregnancy and childbirth safer for women; reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS; equip hospitals with essential supplies; support adolescents and youth; and prevent and treat obstetric fistula, a debilitating condition that results from obstructed labor. (excerpt)
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  13. 13

    IAEN guest editorial: Is AIDS rewriting the rules?

    Levine R

    [Geneva, Switzerland], International AIDS Economics Network [IAEN], 2003 Apr 17. 4 p.

    Of all the profound changes wrought by the AIDS pandemic, one of the most interesting has been the revolution in thinking about the responsibilities of rich countries toward poor ones. This is easiest to see by looking at the dispute between traditional international health economists and the AIDS advocacy community – a dispute that is quietly played out in academic journals and e-mail exchanges, and loudly reflected in such bold statements as President Bush’s commitment in the State of the Union Address to seek funding for a $15 billion Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. For many years, a large share of health economists working in the field of international health focused in a somewhat single- minded fashion on the following problem: How can limited dollars be allocated to obtain the greatest impact on health in developing countries? Primarily using the tools of cost-effectiveness analysis, combined with epidemiologic data about the leading causes of death and disease in developing countries, recommendations flowed forth from development agencies. With the World Bank leading the charge, Ministries of Health in poor countries were advised to concentrate domestic and external funding on preventive and basic curative services – an “essential package of health services.” They were told to move funding away from high-cost curative, hospital-based services that benefit few to low-cost public health measures that benefit many – and that have the potential to prevent or control many of the leading causes of death in developing countries. Thus, basic childhood vaccinations, prenatal care, TB treatment, home treatment of diarrheal disease to prevent dehydration all were promoted as “best buys,” and eagerly funded by donor agencies. (excerpt)
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  14. 14

    Population assistance and family planning programs: issues for Congress. Updated February 13, 2003. Programas de asistencia a la población y de planificación familiar: temas para el Congreso. Actualización al 13 de febrero de 2003.

    Nowels L

    Washington, D.C., Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, 2003 Feb 13. [19] p. (Issue Brief for Congress)

    Since 1965, United States policy has supported international population planning based on principles of voluntarism and informed choice that gives participants access to information on all methods of birth control. This policy, however, has generated contentious debate for over two decades, resulting in frequent clarification and modification of U.S. international family planning programs. In the mid-1980s, U.S. population aid policy became especially controversial when the Reagan Administration introduced restrictions. Critics viewed this policy as a major and unwise departure from U.S. population efforts of the previous 20 years. The “Mexico City policy” further denied U.S. funds to foreign non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that perform or promote abortion as a method of family planning, regardless of whether the source of money was the U.S. government Presidents Reagan and Bush also banned grants to the U.N. Population Fund (UNFPA) because of its program in China, where coercion has been used. During the Bush Administration, a slight majority in Congress favored funding UNFPA and overturning the Mexico City policy but failed to alter policy because of presidential vetoes or the threat of a veto. President Clinton repealed Mexico City policy restrictions and resumed UNFPA funding, but these decisions were frequently challenged by some Members of Congress. On January 22, 2001, President Bush revoked the Clinton Administration population policy position and restored in full the terms of the Mexico City restrictions that were in effect on January 19, 1993. Foreign NGOs and international organizations, as a condition for receipt of U.S. funds, now must agree not to perform or actively promote abortions as a method of family planning in other countries. Subsequently, in January 2002, the White House placed a hold on the transfer of $34 million appropriated by Congress for UNFPA and launched a review of the organization’s program in China. Following the visit by a State Department assessment team in May, Secretary of State Powell announced on July 22 that UNFPA was in violation of the “Kemp-Kasten” amendment that bans U.S. assistance to organizations that support or participate in the management of coercive family planning programs. For FY2003, the President proposes no UNFPA funding, although there is a “reserve” of $25 million that could be used if the White House determines that UNFPA is eligible for U.S. support in FY2003. The Administration further requests $425 million for bilateral family planning programs, a reduction from the $446.5 million provided in FY2002. H.J.Res. 2, as passed by the Senate on January 23, 2003, includes the FY2003 Foreign Operations Appropriations. It provides $435 million for bilateral family planning aid and $35 million for UNFPA. Last year, the Senate Appropriations Committee (S. 2779) had recommended $450 million for bilateral activities and $50 million for UNFPA. The Senate bill further would have modified the Kemp-Kasten amendment and partially reversed the President’s Mexico City policy for some organizations. The House bill (H.R. 5410) last year provided $425 million for family planning and $25 million for UNFPA, but made no modifications to Kemp-Kasten or to the Mexico City policy. (excerpt)
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  15. 15
    Peer Reviewed

    Global plagues and the Global Fund: challenges in the fight against HIV, TB and malaria.

    Tan D; Upshur RE; Ford N

    BMC International Health and Human Rights. 2003; 3(1):[29] p..

    Background: Although a grossly disproportionate burden of disease from HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria remains in the Global South, these infectious diseases have finally risen to the top of the international agenda in recent years. Ideal strategies for combating these diseases must balance the advantages and disadvantages of 'vertical' disease control programs and 'horizontal' capacity-building approaches. Discussion: The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) represents an important step forward in the struggle against these pathogens. While its goals are laudable, significant barriers persist. Most significant is the pitiful lack of funds committed by world governments, particularly those of the very G8 countries whose discussions gave rise to the Fund. A drastic scaling up of resources is the first clear requirement for the GFATM to live up to the international community's lofty intentions. A directly related issue is that of maintaining a strong commitment to the treatment of the three diseases along with traditional prevention approaches, with the ensuing debates over providing affordable access to medications in the face of the pharmaceutical industry's vigorous protection of patent rights. Summary: At this early point in the Fund's history, it remains to be seen how these issues will be resolved at the programming level. Nevertheless, it is clear that significant structural changes are required in such domains as global spending priorities, debt relief, trade policy, and corporate responsibility. HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria are global problems borne of gross socioeconomic inequality, and their solutions require correspondingly geopolitical solutions. (author's)
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  16. 16

    Statement by Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General of the World Health Organization.

    Brundtland GH

    Environmental Change and Security Project Report. 2002 Summer; (8):199-200.

    We seek the engagement of a range of partners at local and national levels, with civil society, private entities, researchers, and the media joining public sector actors. We encourage them to pursue common strategies: building on best practice while harnessing innovations for the future. (excerpt)
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  17. 17
    Peer Reviewed

    Europe finds US$ 200 million to support African clinical trials.

    Walgate R

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2002; 80(10):843.

    The European Commissioners--the top bureaucrats of the European Union--approved what should be a US$ 200 million four-year program, with more to come if nations and donors, including industry, are prepared to support it. Professor Antoni Trilla of the University of Barcelona is the Coordinator of the EDCTP. He and his colleagues describe its five main objectives as: first, supporting the networking and pooling of trials within the EU (largely Phase I trials); second, supporting the networking and pooling of trials in Africa; third, supporting the development of infrastructures for trials in Africa, especially through capacity building and training; fourth, actually sponsoring new clinical trials, attracting external sources of co-financing, particularly with the European biopharmaceutical industry; and fifth, developing a European, rather than national, presence in international initiatives for research and development to combat HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. (excerpt)
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  18. 18

    A global AIDS and health fund. Fact sheet.

    United Nations Special Session on HIV / AIDS (2001: New York)

    New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Public Information, 2001 Jun. [2] p. (DPI/2214D)

    This fact sheet of the UN Special Session on HIV/AIDS reports details on the first major consultation meeting on the establishment of global funds for the prevention of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. Principles that underline the health funds are included.
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  19. 19

    Updated guidelines for UNFPA policies and support to special programmes in the field of women, population and development.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Special Unit for Women, Population and Development

    [Unpublished] 1988 Apr. [2], 8 p.

    The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) has been mandated to integrate women's concerns into all population and development activities. Women's status affects and is affected by demographic variables such as fertility, maternal mortality, and infant mortality. Women require special attention to their needs as both mothers and productive workers. In addition to integrating women's concerns into all aspects of its work, the Fund supports special projects targeted specifically at women. These projects have offered a good starting point for developing more comprehensive projects that can include education, employment, income generation, child care, nutrition, health, and family planning. UNFPA will continue to support activities aimed at promoting education and training, health and child care, and economic activities for women as well as for strengthening awareness of women's issues and their relationship to national goals. Essential to the goal of incorporating women's interests into all facets of UNFPA programs and projects are training for all levels of staff, participation of all UNFPA organizational units, increased cooperation and joint activities with other UN agencies, and more dialogue with governmental and nongovernmental organizations concerned with the advancement of women. Specific types of projects to be supported by UNFPA in the period ahead are in the following categories: education and training, maternal health and child care, economic activities, awareness creation and information exchange, institution building, data collection and analysis, and research.
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  20. 20

    Prevention and control of intestinal parasitic infections. Report of a WHO Expert Committee.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Expert Committee on Prevention and Control of Intestinal Parasitic Infections


    This report makes a special effort to present practical information on the control of intestinal parasitic infections. It covers the following: public health significance of intestinal parasitic infections (methods of assessment, helminthic infections, and protozoan infections); the costs of not having a control program (nutrition, growth, and development; work and productivity; and medical care); prevention and control strategies (epidemiological foundation, objectives and general approaches, implementation strategies, costs and financing, methodologies and tools, and strategy for prevention and control); national programs (justification; objectives and strategies; planning; program and implementation; training, education, and dissemination of information; program monitoring and evaluation; and technical guidance); and program support (the role of the World Health Organization, technical and research organizations, funding agencies, industry, and information flow). Current experience suggests that intestinal parasite control programs are appropriate and socially advantageous because people can actually see the effects of primary health care intervention and start to learn some simple facts about health care by watching their village or community become healthier as a result of the control measures. There are 3 major areas in which the lack of control program is responsible for significant losses: nutrition, growth, and development; work and productivity; and medical care costs. Countries in which intestinal parasitic infections and diseases constitute a significant health problem need to consider adopting a national policy for their prevention and control. Recent experience in various countries has demonstrated the effectiveness of periodic deworming and standard case management at the primary health care level in reducing most of the problems associated with intestinal parasitic infections. Support can come from outside the country as well as from national authorities. Support from the outside may be available in the areas of management, technical expertise (which includes research), funding, and exchange of relevant information. The World Health Organization can provide both technical and managerial expertise in the design of programs.
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  21. 21

    Health systems research in maternal and child health including family planning: issues and priorities. Report of the meeting of the Steering Committee of the Task Force on Health Systems Research in Maternal and Child Health including Family Planning, New Delhi, 12-15 March 1984.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Family Health. Maternal and Child Health Unit

    [Unpublished] 1985. 23 p. (MCH/85.8)

    In a series of general discussions aimed at establishing health systems research priorities, the Steering Committee of the Task Force on the Risk Approach and Program Research in Maternal-Child Health/Family Planning Care identified 9 major issues: 1) health services and health systems, 2) research and service to the community, 3) involving the community, 4) evaluation, 5) information systems, 6) interdisciplinary nature of health systems research, 7) appropriateness in technology and research, 8) funding and collaboration between agencies, and 9) implications for research program strategies. Background considerations regarding subject priorities for health systems research include the policies, goals, and programs of WHO, especially the goal of health for all by the year 2000. Of particular importance is the joining of training in health systems research with the research itself given the shortage of workers in this area. The sequence of events in the management of research proposals includes approach by an applicant, the WHO response, information to the appropriate WHO regional office, the beginning of technical dialogue, development of protocol, submission of grant application, contractual agreement, initial payments, regular monitoring of progress, proposed training strategy, annual reports, final report, and assistance in disseminating results. 3 subject areas were identified by the Steering Committee for additional scrutiny: 1) the dissemination of results of health systems research in maternal-child health/family planning, 2) the implementation of health services research and the studies to be funded, and 3) the coordination and "broker" functions of the Steering Committee.
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  22. 22

    WHO Programme in Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning. Report of the second meeting of the WHO Programme Advisory Committee in Maternal and Child Health, Geneva, 21-25 November 1983.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Family Health. Maternal and Child Health Unit

    [Unpublished] 1984. 95 p. (MCH/84.5)

    The objectives of the 2nd meeting of the Program Advisory Committee (PAC) for the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Program in Maternal and Child Health, including Family Planning (MCH/FP) were to 1) assess the MCH/FP program's achievements since the 1st PAC meeting in June, 1982, 2) determine the level of scientific and financial resources available for the program, and 3) to examine the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the delivery of MCH/FP services. The committee reviewed the activities and targets of the program's 4 major areas (pregnancy and perinatal care, child health, growth, and development, adolescent health, and family planning and infertility), and developed a series of recommendations for each of these areas. Specific recommendations were also made for each of the major program areas in reference to the analysis and dessimination of information and to the development and use of appropriate health technologies. Upon reviewing the role of TBAs in the delivery of MCH/FP services, PAC recommended that all barriers to TBA utilization be removed and that training for TBAs should be improved and expanded. PAC's examination of financial support for MCH/FP activities revealed that for a sample of 26 countries, the average annual amount allocated to MCH activities was less than US$3/child or woman. This low level of funding must be taken into account when setting program targets. International funding agencies did indicate their willingness to increase funding levels for MCH programs. The appendices included 1) a list of participants, 2) an annotated agenda, 3) detailed information on the proposed activities of the program's headquarters for 1986-87, and 4) a description of the the function, organizational structure, and technical management of the MCH/FP program. Also included in the appendices was an overview of the current status of MCH and a series of tables providing information on infant, child, and maternal health indicators. Specifically, the tables provided information by region and by country on maternal, child, and infant mortality; causes of child deaths; maternal health care coverage; contraceptive prevalence; infant and child malnutrition; the number of low weight births; adolescent health; teenage births; breast feeding prevalence and duration; and the proportion of women and children in the population.
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  23. 23

    Review of family planning aspects of family health with special reference to UNICEF/WHO assistance.


    Paper presented at the Nineteenth Session of the UNICEF/WHO Joint Committee on Health Policy, Geneva, February 1-2, 1972. 40 p

    Family planning is an integral part of the health care of the family and has a striking impact of the health of the mother and children. Many aspects of family planning care require the personnel, skills, techniques, and facilities of health services and is thus of concern to UNICEF and WHO. Once individual governments have determined basic matters of family planning policy and methods, UNICEF and WHO can respond to requests for assistance on a wide range of activities, with the primary goal being the promotion of health care of the family. Emphasis will be placed on achieving this by strengthening the basic health services that already have a solid foundation in the community. The past experience of UNICEF and WHO should provide valuable guidance for assistance to the health aspects of family planning, particularly as they relate to the planning and evaluation of programs; organization and administration; public education; the education and training of all medical personnel; and the coordination of family health activities both inside and outside the health sector. The review recommends that UNICEF and WHO first regard the capacity of the host country to absorb aid and maintain projects, and that specific family planning activities, such as the provision of supplies, equipment, and transport, be introduced only when the infrastructure is actually being expanded. Capital investment should be viewed in relation to the government's ability to meet budgetary and staff requirements the new facilities demand.
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  24. 24

    WHO: Investment in health care offers economic benefits.

    AIDS Policy and Law. 2002 Jan 18; 17(1):4.

    This news article discusses details of the WHO report entitled, "Macroeconomics and Health: Investing in Health for Economic Development". The report asserts that partnership between poorer and richer countries could provide improved access to essential health services and generate economic benefits.
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  25. 25

    Project appraisal document on a proposed loan of US $10.0 million and a proposed credit of SDR 36.8 million to the People's Republic of China for a Health Nine project.

    World Bank. East Asia and Pacific Region. Human Development Sector Unit

    Washington, D.C., East Asia and Pacific Region, Human Development Sector Unit, 1999 Apr 14. [6], 63 p. (Report No. 19141-CHA)

    This project appraisal document of the World Bank details the proposed loan of US $10 million and a proposed credit of special drawing right for nine health projects in the People's Republic of China.
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