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  1. 1
    723567

    Review of family planning aspects of family health with special reference to UNICEF/WHO assistance.

    UNICEF/WHO JOINT COMMITTEE

    Paper presented at the Nineteenth Session of the UNICEF/WHO Joint Committee on Health Policy, Geneva, February 1-2, 1972. 40 p

    Family planning is an integral part of the health care of the family and has a striking impact of the health of the mother and children. Many aspects of family planning care require the personnel, skills, techniques, and facilities of health services and is thus of concern to UNICEF and WHO. Once individual governments have determined basic matters of family planning policy and methods, UNICEF and WHO can respond to requests for assistance on a wide range of activities, with the primary goal being the promotion of health care of the family. Emphasis will be placed on achieving this by strengthening the basic health services that already have a solid foundation in the community. The past experience of UNICEF and WHO should provide valuable guidance for assistance to the health aspects of family planning, particularly as they relate to the planning and evaluation of programs; organization and administration; public education; the education and training of all medical personnel; and the coordination of family health activities both inside and outside the health sector. The review recommends that UNICEF and WHO first regard the capacity of the host country to absorb aid and maintain projects, and that specific family planning activities, such as the provision of supplies, equipment, and transport, be introduced only when the infrastructure is actually being expanded. Capital investment should be viewed in relation to the government's ability to meet budgetary and staff requirements the new facilities demand.
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  2. 2
    072612

    Curb on population growth needed urgently, U.N. says.

    Lewis P

    NEW YORK TIMES. 1992 Apr 30; A12.

    The UN Population Fund's urgent plea for a sustained and concerted program to curb population growth in developing countries is reported. The reasons were to reduce poverty and hunger and to protect the earth's resources. The Fund released current world population figures which place 1992 population at 5.48 billion and project growth to 10 billion in 2050 with a leveling at 11.6 billion in 2150. These figures are 1 billion beyond projections made in 1980. The current rate of growth is at 97 million/year until 2000, 90 million/year until 2025, and 61 million/year until 2050. This rate of growth is the fastest the world has ever experienced. 34% of the rise will occur in Africa, and 97% in developing countries. The projected consequence of this growth is a continued migration to cities, increased hunger and starvation and malnutrition, and an increased pressure on the world's food, water, and other natural resources. This effect amounts to almost crisis conditions which places the world at great risk for future ecological and economic catastrophe. Food production has already lagged behind population growth in 69 of 102 developing countries between 1978-89. An urgent new campaign is called for to promote smaller families, better access to contraception, and better education and health care for women in developing countries. Women's status needs to be raised to allow for women being given property rights and improved access to labor markets. If the effort is successful, the population growth within the next decade could be reduced by 1.5-2 billion. Currently at least 300 million women do no have access to safe and reliable forms of contraception. The number of very poor has risen from 944 million in 1970 to 1.1 billion in 1985. The former strategy of urbanization and rising incomes have been found to be an unnecessary precondition for reducing family size. Poor countries, such as Sri Lanka and Thailand, have nonetheless shown sharp fertility declines with appropriate population policies, e.g., fertility dropped from 6.3 children/women in 1965 to 2.2 children/women in 1987. There have also been similar declines in fertility in China, Cuba, Indonesia, Tunisia and other poor countries. The agency's current budget is $225 million a year, and has been functioning without US aid since the 1976 ban over abortions in China.
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  3. 3
    046408

    Project agreement between the Employers Confederation of the Philippines (ECOP) and ILO/Labour and Population Team for Asia and the Pacific (LAPTAP).

    Employers Confederation of the Philippines [ECOP]; International Labour Office [ILO]. Labour and Population Team for Asia and the Pacific [LAPTAP]

    [Unpublished] 1987. [29] p. (Project No. PHI/87/EO1)

    This project agreement between the Employers Confederation of the Philippines (ECOP) and the International Labor Organization (ILO)/Labor and Population Team for Asia and the Pacific (LAPTAP) continues support to the Population Unit of ECOP for an additional 2 years (July 1987-89). Economic uncertainties in the Philippines resulting from the past period of political turmoil necessitated this extension in ILO funding. After 1989, ECOP will absorb the population education officer into its regular staff. Continued funding of the ECOP program is based on several favorable factors, including the evident commitment of the ECOP directors to population activities, contact made with individual employers and business associations since 1985, and the production high-quality IEC materials. The long-term objective of this project is to promote smaller families through educational and motivational programs that emphasize the close relationship of family planning and living standards and to link such activities with existing health services at the plant level. Specific objectives are to disseminate information on family planning and family welfare to workers and to educate employers in the industrial sector about the relevance of family planning to labor force development. Project activities will include monthly seminars for employers and meetings with member associations of ECOP.
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  4. 4
    046471

    Report on the evaluation of the UNFPA funded project on labour and family welfare education in organized sector in Zambia (September-October 1986).

    Valdivia LA; Friedman M

    Arlington, Virgina, Development Associates, 1986. iii, 71 p.

    This report evaluates the UNFPA-funded Labor and Family Welfare project in the Organized Sector of Zambia, Africa. The project targeted 3 key elements of the Organized Sector--motivation of leaders, training of educators, and in-plant workers' education. The project laid the groundwork for a major expansion of education and services at the workers' level. It has also led to a National Population Policy formulation. 18 recommendations are suggested with priority given to factory-level education and family planning service delivery. Additional funding for companies to motivate and educate workers regarding acceptance of family planning services is suggested, as well as increased training for economics, teachers, psychology teachers, and social workers to enable them to incorporate population education into their curriculums. Training activities were a major focus of the project. Increased training and educational materials about family planning, in the form of posters and handouts, should be produced and disseminated at the factory level, as well as to medical personnel. UNFPA, in accord with the Ministry of Health of Zambia, should ensure an adequate supply of contraceptives to the factories. Existing record keeping, reporting and scheduling practices should be improved, as well as the International Labor Organization (ILO) disbursement system. Short-term ILO consultants should be recruited to improve the project and its management, and 2 additional staff members, provided by the government, could help to implement the program at the plant level. 2 new vehicles should be purchased for full-time field staff to ensure availability to carry out project activities. In addition, the present accounting and recordkeeping of the ILO Lusaka office should be restructured to achieve more accurate monitoring of the use of project funds.
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  5. 5
    045182

    Action area 6: male participation in family planning. IPPF plan 1988-90.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, England, IPPF, 1986 Nov. 17-8.

    In response to increasing recognition of the importance of male participation in family planning decision making and practice and of responsible fatherhood as a key aspect of family life education, the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) has developed a plan to further work in this area. The 1st objective is to increase male contraceptive practice. National activities toward this end will include: a review of service delivery programs, including IEC components, to ensure they meet the needs of both men and women; encouragement of male opinion leaders to support male contraceptive practice; the recruitment and training of more satisfied male acceptors to promote male methods; exploration of more effective approaches to the delivery of male methods; provision of men and women with accurate information about male contraception; and involvement of greater numbers of male community leaders in planned parenthood programs at the local level. International activities will include: identification of successful approaches to planned parenthood programs for men, research on barriers to male acceptance of family planning, and assistance to family planning associations. The 2nd IPPF objective is to increase joint responsibility for family planning. National activities in this area will include: an emphasis on values and traditions that encourage shared responsibilities in family life; encouragement of men to support women's family planning practices; the stimulation of community discussions, promotion of family life education programs; collaboration with parliamentarians, trade unions, and the armed forces; and involvement of men in efforts to promote women's development activities and women's equality. On the international level, IPPF will assist family planning associations in identifying opportunities for the promotion of joint responsibility, including through collaboration with other international organizations that reach male groups.
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  6. 6
    046292

    1,200 FW groups formed in Korea.

    LABOUR AND POPULATION ACTIVITIES IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC. 1984 Dec; (18):4.

    The International Labor Organization/UN Fund for Population Activities-assisted project, "Population/Family Life Education for Young Industrial Workers," reports that 1257 family welfare study groups have been created in 455 industrial establishments in Korea. The purpose of these study groups is to facilitate family welfare education among young workers and to help institutionalize the population/family welfare education and family planning services program in industries. The evaluation team emphasized in its report that labor counselors and training personnel require further training. They also recommended an increase in teaching and resource materials and ongoing support of the program on the part of the UNFPA.
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  7. 7
    040640

    The working together project.

    Stanley JL; Fowler M

    [Unpublished] [1986]. 7 p.

    In San Diego, California's Working Together Project, Planned Parenthood has collaborated with private industry employers to bring family life education into the employment setting for low-income workers. To date, this project has reached 1200 adolescents and adults in industries in San Diego. The target population includes large numbers of Hispanics in the agricultural and textile manufacturing industries and in the hotel and tourist trades. The curriculum includes short, bilingual presentations that provide information on nutrition, communication skills, stress management, and family planning. During the planning phase, support is sought from employer personnel representatives, labor unions, legislators, other family life education providers, school officials, and the ethnic communities. The development of a Leadership Committee has fostered a positive relationship between family planning agencies and the business and civic sectors of the community. A billingual health educator monitors all program materials to ensure that they are culturally appropriate and sensitive. The business community has been responsive to the program because of its potential to reduce employee absenteeism and turnover and to increase morale and productivity. Family life education is promoted as a means of enabling employees to take less time off of work to solve personal problems, recover from stress-related illnesses, and avoid unintended pregnancies. The project's annual budget is US$65,000, which has been funded through grants.
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  8. 8
    202878

    Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia 1966-1986 special issue commemorating the 20th anniversary of the FGAE.

    Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia

    Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia, 1986. 46 p.

    This special report on the Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia (FGAE) covers the years 1966-1986 and commemorates the 20th anniversary of the FGAE. The FGAE, an affiliate member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), has the objectives of 1) enhancing the importance of child spacing to promote family well-being and happiness and 2) promoting public awareness about reproduction, responsible sexual life, fertility regulation, and causes and treatment of infertility problems. The Education Section, formally established in 1976, disseminates information on various topics related to the concept of family planning. In addition to special projects on family life education for youths, family planning education for plantation and textile factory workers, family planning education for adolescents integrated with income generating activities, assistance to the women's self-help program, and men and family planning, the FGAE has conducted 4 training courses of 4 weeks each for health personnel to learn about contraceptive technology and population issues. The FGAE runs only 2 of the 457 clinics that offer family planning services. The FGAE will continue its advocacy role in urging the government and the public to consider family planning as part of overall development. The report also includes 1) special messages, 2) an organizational chart, 3) a list of board, committee, and staff members, and 4) articles on planned parenthood, the role of the IPPF in Africa, sociocultural factors affecting family planning in Ethiopia, communication and motivation in family planning, children's needs and services in Ethiopia, contraceptive methods, sexually transmitted diseases, and highlights of FGAE's years.
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  9. 9
    034509

    Report of a WHO Meeting on Adolescent Sexuality and Reproductive Health: Educational and Service Aspects, Mexico City, 28 April - 2 May 1980.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Unpublished] 1981. 69 p. (MCH/RHA/81.1)

    In 1977, the Maternal and Child Health Unit of the World Health Organization (WHO) collaborated with the International Planned Parenthood Federation in the design and implementation of a cross-cultural survey in an effort to fill the gaps in available country-specific information on the reproductive health needs of adolescents and the information, education, and services available to them. The premise was that the use of a well-designed survey instrument would provide a global picture of the issues surrounding adolescent sexuality and reproductive health. The surveys were used as background information for the WHO Meeting on Adolescent Sexuality and Reproductive Health: Educational and Service Aspects, held in Mexico in May 1980. The objectives of the meeting were: to review the needs and problems related to sexuality and reproductive health of adolescents; to identify priority research issues related to these needs; to identify appropriate approaches including strategies and channels to meet these needs, including education, health, and social services; and to suggest specific follow-up activities to the recommendations of the meeting. To establish a working outline for the discussions which were to take place during the meeting, extensive background material was presented by some of the participants. These papers, included in an annex, focused on the health and social aspects of pregnancy in adolescents and on adolescents in a changing society, especially in the context of their sexuality and reproductive behavior. A system of plenary sessions and small group discussions took place during the meeting. Based on the background papers and the reports of the 4 working groups, the full meeting developed 4 issues for specific consideration: an adolescent overview; a conceptual model; strategies for action; and specific recommendations. These 4 issues are covered in detail in this report of the meeting. The meeting participants repeatedly emphasized the need to involve adolescents, policy makers, and potential service providers in a program which is not predetermined and sufficiently flexible to permit the participation of all concerned. Meeting participants recommended the development of a series of community-based pilot projects on educational and service programs in sexuality and reproductive health for and with adolescents, action research to support the development of the pilot projects, a focus on youth participation in programs addressed to meet the specific needs of adolescents, and attention directed to encouraging youth to assume responsibility in program development. Summary reports of the cross-cultural survey are included in this report.
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  10. 10
    034927

    Private sector family planning.

    Krystall E

    Populi. 1985; 12(3):34-9.

    The US Agency for International Development (USAID) in consultation with the government of Kenya agreed in 1983 to prepare a demonstration family planning project, which would assist the private sector as well as other major nongovernment providers of health services to upgrade their health services, train and augment their nursing and other medical staff, provide family planning equipment and free contraceptives, and establish these health facilities as full-time family planning service delivery points. The Family Planning Private Sector Program (FPPS) will assist 30 private sector firms, "parastatal" organizations, and other private and nongovernment organizations that already provide health services to their workers, their dependents, and in many cases the surrounding communities to upgrade their services and add a full-time family planning facility. As some of the firms or organizations have multiple outlets, the program will create 50 or more new family planning delivery points throughout Kenya, thereby also relieving some of the pressure on government facilities. The FPPS sub-projects are to recruit at least 30,000 new acceptors. FPPS has added a guideline that at least 60% of these new acceptors be retained in the program for at least a period of 2 years. The FPPS program has received an enthusiastic reception from employers, the unions, and nongovernment organizations such as the Protestant Church Medical Association and the Seventh Day Adventists. The FPPS team can provide projects with a variety of services and funds for family planning related equipment, supplies, and activities. These include assistance with project design, training existing medical staff in family planning service delivery, the collection of baseline information, and the provision of funds for equipping family planning clinics. The government has encouraged FPPS to be innovative and to introduce family planning services into as wide a variety of health services as possible. As presently designed, the FPPS program is primarily a service delivery program but is beginning to play an increasingly dynamic role in information and education activities about family planning. From the start, the participating projects demanded assistance in spreading the family planning message to the workers, their families, and the community. It is evident that the program has stimulated management, clinic staff, and workers and has generated competition between projects to reach and exceed their targets of both new acceptors and high continuation rates.
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  11. 11
    033813

    With firm resolve: family planning in China.

    Laquian AA

    Development Forum. 1986 Jan-Feb; 14(1):3.

    China has accelerated its family planning efforts. In 1979 a national policy of 1 child per couple was launched and has been vigorously pursued. Thus far, China's program has had remarkable success. The rate of natural increase was nearly halved in 10 years, from 23.4/1000 in 1972 to 12/1000 in 1982. The average annual population growth rate fell from 2.37% in 1970-75 to 1.17% in 1980-85. Yet, the crisis is far from over. The total population numbers 1.063 billion. The national target is to keep it to 1.2 billion by the end of the century, an increase of less than 20%. On July 1, 1982, after 3 years of intensive preparation, more than 5 million enumerators began the biggest and 1 of the most accurate censuses ever undertaken. The perception of growth which produced the 1 child policy was heightened by the results, which showed China to be the world's 1st "demographic billionaire." The census made it possible to prepare population monographs for each of the 29 provinces and autonomous regions of China. The information gathered has stimulated further development of skills in survey design and analysis, data processing, and publication of population information. 3 new training centers have been opened to supply the demographers and statisticians for further census work. The key to China's population strategy is voluntary family planning practice based on accurate information. The State Family Planning Commission and family planning organizations at national and local levels have mobilized hundreds of thousands of community-based workers in massive family planning publicity and education campaigns. In a country where only 2% of the population has television, face-to-face communication is the norm. An extensive network of trained community-level workers is the basis of China's famous primary health care and preventive medicine system which has been so important in improving the country's health and extending life expectancy from under 40 years in 1950-55 to over 65 in 1980-85. The approach links well with the family planning philosophy. Long before an active family planning program was begun, maternal and child health care had included family planning as 1 means of assuring the health of mothers and children. So vast is China and so great its need that the UN Fund for Population (UNFPA) assistance for family planning is concentrated either on pilot schemes or on a "training of trainers" approach. In the 1st phase of UNFPA assistance, 8 maternal and children's hospitals were selected for UNFPA support in advanced care and training. The biggest share of UNFPA assistance to China in its 2nd phase goes to contraceptive development and production.
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  12. 12
    033650

    IPPF/UNESCO Experts Meeting on Clearing House Facilities for Audio-Visual Aids and Teaching Materials, 20th - 23rd October, 1971, IPPF, London, S.W.1. Background paper.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    [Unpublished] 1971. [33] p.

    Significantly for this International Planned Parenthood Federation/UNESCO Meeting on Clearing House Facilities for Audiovisual Aids and Teaching Materials, the proportion of work and of funding devoted to education, information, and training is steadily increasing. Program activities in need of audiovisual aids and teaching materials include: components designed to motivate people to practice family planning and to persuade opinion leaders to support program objectives (face-to-face communication and mass media outlets); training courses; and the education of government officials, opinion leaders, the community, young people both in and out of school, and family planning acceptors. Discussion of the present state of clearing house facilities for audiovisual aids and teaching materials covers the following: UN agencies, government activities, nongovernment organizations. UNESCO, WHO, FAO, ILO, AND UNICEF have services in audiovisual materials, including the production and distribution of films, photographs, and printed materials. These services illustrate the broad areas of activity of each agency and until the present time family planning and population problems have not featured very prominently in these materials. Many of them are used extensively in family planning programs because they demonstrate the health and socioeconomic development aspects to which family planning is related. Materials produced by the specialized agencies circulate through regional and national offices and are at the disposal of other agencies for loan usually without charge. Donor governments vary in the emphasis they place on educational materials. The Population Council is a nongovernmental organization which has been particularly active in the past in the production and distribution of audiovisual aids and teaching mterials. Among the universities, the Carolina Population Center has established an educational materials unit which produces audiovisual aids for use at home and overseas. The IPPF houses a rapidly growing collection of films, slides, and filmstrips, printed materials, nonprojected aids, and models relating to family planning motivation, training, population, and sex education. Some factors to be taken into account in considering the feasibility of establishing an international clearing house for audiovisual aids and teaching materials include: means of assessing levels of expressed demand; possibility of stimulating demand for audiovisual aids and teaching materials in family planning information and education programs; possiblity of promoting knowledge and understanding of the proposed clearing house at all levels of operation; extent of personnel equipped and trained to utilize audiovisual aids and teaching materials; adaptability of materials to local situations; desirability of a central, regional, or combination structure; and funding. Factors to be considered in formulating a blueprint for an international clearing house include: scope of materials to be handled by clearing house; problems inherent in identification and collection of materials; need for services to support circulation of materials; international transportation of materials; storage; need for a reporting system and evaluation; and policy with regard to meeting clients' equipment requirements and to payment by client.
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  13. 13
    033836

    Report on the evaluation of various family life education projects with particular emphasis on youth in the English-speaking Caribbean: general conclusions and recommendations.

    Corona E; Epps RP; Kodagoda N; Simonen M

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Nov. xii, 39, [7] p.

    Most family life education (FLE) projects included in this evaluation have the longterm objectives of reducing the incidence of teenage prognancy, and promotion of self-reliance and positive, responsible behavior among youth. The immediate objectives and project strategies are also very similar across projects, e.g., in-school and out-of-school FLE, comprehensive youth services, including family planning (FP) and training. The evaluation shows that project design has improved over the years (clearer and measurable formulation of objectives, more comprehensive workplans and better explanation of budgetary items) and projects have moved from addressing a wide variety of broad issues to a more focused consideration of adolescent fertility. However, the Evaluation Mission in concerned that due to the similarities in project design, country-and-time-specific factors have not always been adequately taken into consideration. Other concerns include the lack of systematic needs assessment and use of baseline data to guide implementation. All the projects evaluated have contributed to the training in FLE/FP of a large number of family life educators, teachers and nurses and have thus significantly strengthened professional national capability. Nevertheless, training needs still exist in motivational/attitudinal variables, sex roles, teaching/learning technics. The projects have made a significant contribution to the introduction of FLE into schools and teacher training institutions. The focus at present should be the institutionalization of FLE within the in-school sector, including the development of a policy approving FLE in schools. The development of community-based health centers was often the central activity of the out-of-school FLE component of the projects. These centers have contributed to shaping the countries' attitudes by creating an awareness of teenage pregnancy, by developing an acceptable strategy, by providing a focal point for discussing sensitive issues, and by becoming a mechanism for community mobilization. The projects have also contributed to making FP services available and specialized services for adolescents are being established. The emphasis has been more on education and awareness creation than on contraceptive distribution to adolescents. At present the need is to strengthen the service delivery components. The limited availability of data suggests that adolescent pregnancy remains an urgent problem in the region. Sustained and more focused FLE/FP program efforts directed to adolescents continue to be needed in the region. The most important general lesson learnt from the programs is that programs in adolescent fertility can be started and implemented in countries even prior to declaration of policy by governments. However, at a certain stage of implementation the programs cannot be carried further without explicit government policies and control.
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  14. 14
    268448

    Report on the evaluation of various family life education projects with particular emphasis on youth in the English-speaking Caribbean: country reports.

    Corona E; Epps RP; Kodagoda N; Simonen M

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Nov. xiv, 89 p.

    UNFPA has provided funding for various family life education (FLE) projects with particular emphasis on youth in the English-speaking Caribbean since the mid-1970s; this report is an independent evaluation of the projects in Antigua, Barbados, Dominica, Jamaica, St. Lucia, and St. Christopher and Nevis. Although birth rates are relatively low in the English-speaking Caribbean, the incidence of adolescent pregnancy and the number of births to women under the age of 20 is an important problem in the region. The Mission concluded overall that the projects have contributed to pioneering and groundbreaking efforts demonstrating that it is possible to initiate and make considerable progress in the implementation of FLE/FP programs for adolescents even when adolescent pregnancy and births are still highly sensitive and controversial issues and when there are no official policies in favor of such programs. The Mission concluded also that project design had improved over the years and projects have moved from addressing a wide variety of broad issues to a more focused consideration of adolescent fertility. All the projects included in the evaluation have contributed to the training in FLE/FP of a large number of family life educators, teachers, and nurses and, as a result, have significantly strengthened professional national capability. The projects have shown that despite the lack of official policy approving FLE in schools and generally overcrowded curricula, FLE can be introduced into schools. In the area of FP service delivery, the projects included in the evaluation have contributed to making FP services generally available through integration with the government maternal and child health services. The main management issues across the projects were similar and included staffing, coordination, supervision, monitoring and evaluation. There is a need to adjust project design so that gender separation is minimized and that the FLE content deals better with issues such as self-awareness, sex roles, and self-esteem. The wider impact of the projects included in this evaluation, to be reflected, for example, in reduced incidence of teenage pregnancy, reduced maternal and infant/child morbidity and mortality, and more generally in the life patterns of women, cannot yet be measured.
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  15. 15
    031969

    China: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 May. xii, 156 p. (Report No. 67)

    A Needs Assessment and Program Development Mission visited the People's Republic of China from March 7 to April 16, 1983 to: review and analyze the country's population situation within the context of national population goals as well as population related development objectives, strategies, and programs; make recommendations on the future orientation and scope of national objectives and programs for strengthening or establishing new objectives, strategies, and programs; and make recommendations on program areas in need of external assistance within the framework of the recommended national population program and for geographical areas. This report summarizes the needs and recommendations in regard to: population policies and policy-related research; demographic research and training; basic population data collection and analysis; maternal and child health and family planning services; management training support for family planning services; logistics of contraceptive supply; management information system; family planning communication and education; family planning program research and evaluation; contraceptive production; research in human reproduction and contraceptives; population education and dissemination of population information; and special groups and multisectoral activities. The report also presents information on the national setting (geographical and cultural features, government and administration, the economy, and the evolution of socioeconomic development planning) and demographic features (population size, characteristics, and distribution, nationwide and demographic characteristics in geographical core areas). Based on its assessment of needs, the Mission identified mjaor priorities for assistance in the population field. Because of China's size and vast needs, external assistance for population programs would be diluted if provided to all provincial and lower administrative levels. Thus, the Mission suggests that a substantial portion of available resources be concentrated in 3 provinces as core areas: Sichuan, the most populous province (100,220,000 people by the end of 1982); Guandong, the province with the highest birthrate (25/1000); and Jiangsu, the most densely populated province (608 persons/square kilometer. In all the government has identified 11 provinces needing special attention in the next few years: Anhui, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jilin, Shaanxi and Shandong, in addition to Guangdong, Jiangsu, and Sichuan.
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  16. 16
    039358

    Methodological problems in evaluation of family planning impact of programmes that are integrated with other development sectors.

    Chandrasekaran C

    In: Studies to enhance the evaluation of family planning programmes by United Nations Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division [DIESA] New York, New York, United Nations, 1985. 108-110. (Population Studies No. 87 ST/ESA/SER.A/87)

    Governments of developing countries began to undertake family planning in the 1960s thanks to a sudden availability of funds for programs exaggerating an already existing cleavage between program and general demography professionals. Discussion at the World Population Conference (WPC) in Bucharest recognized social and economic factors as an important element in the use of family planning and attempted to encourage better cooperation between program evaluators and demographers. Separation of family planning effects from development effects has been difficult. The WPC's World Population Plan of Action (WPPA) reiterated that population and population policies were interrelated with and should not be considered substitutes for socioeconomic development policies. Increasingly, governments have been integrating family planning with education and health programs as recommended by the WPPA. Family planning being a relatively new venture, it is necessary to develop a theoretical framework to justify assumptions that family planning and development are productively integrable and synergistic, determining demographic effects and their causal mechanisms, whether social or program related. A careful record of program inputs must be kept. Important issues in education, which generally speaking has an inverse effect on fertility, are: in which sex and age group of the population is education most effective for fertility control allowing for lag time; and what are the intervening effects--age at marriage, better knowledge, or change of attitudes? Some of the simplest integrated programs combine family planning with educational programs in schools, health programs, and agricultural programs. Thus teachers are trained to educate pupils in population problems; health workers educate family health consumers a logical diversity of function that is however limited by the scope of the health program. The benefits of small family size may be incorporated into rural development ideology. Critical evaluation will necessitate demonstration of integration's beneficial effects.
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  17. 17
    024731

    Adolescent fertility: report of an international consultation, Bellagio 1983.

    McKay J

    London, England, IPPF, 1984 May. ii, 59 p.

    The Bellagio consultation was held in July, 1983 on the initiative of the Programme Committee of International Medical Advisory Panel to consider more closely what the needs of adolescents are and what more should be done to meet them. Participants from several countries--within and outside of IPPF--were invited. Before the Consultation, participants exchanged information, experience and ideas in writing as a basis for their discussion. 3 topics were focused on: 1) needs and problems; 2) information, education, and counselling; and 3) reproductive health management. An action plan for the next 3 to 5 years was drawn up. It offers broad suggestions about the kind of activities that would be appropriate for family planning associations and IPPF to take. Adolescents all over the world are in need of much better education and health care related to fertility, these are not the same in each society. A comprehensive approach to adolescent needs is favored. The recommendations form part of a broad discussion about how adolescents can best be helped to behave responsibly. Adolescent fertility has implications for health, psychological, social and economic well being. General program and operational guidelines are given, as are 8 areas for action: 1) creation of awareness and advocacy; 2) youth leadership and participation in adolescent programs; 3) information and education; 4) counseling; 5) fertility-related services; 6) sharing of experience, information and resources; 7) training and skill development; and 8) research. A list of participants and background papers is given.
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  18. 18
    259912

    Health, population and development: more responsible parenthood, proposals for action.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    In: Tokyo International Symposium, April 1977: Action Now Toward More Responsible Parenthood Worldwide. Tokyo, Japan Science Society, 1977, pp. 311-330

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  19. 19
    762151

    Corporate clinics take on a new role.

    Soriano MB

    Initiatives in Population 2(1): 28-35. March 1976.

    The Philippines Department of Labor, in conjunction with the U.N. Fund for Population Activities, is sponsoring a pilot family planning program. The industrial program, supervised by the Labor Management Coordinating Council, aims at integrating family planning services into the health services or clinics of 1000 corporations with at least 200 employees within the 2-year period ending June 1977. Family planning seminars are conducted at 3 levels within the corporations and include training sessions for medical personnel. Companies have found that provision of family planning services is more economical in the long run than provision of family welfare services for employees and families.
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  20. 20
    018148

    Final report to the Regional Council on the Migrant and Planned Parenthood Project.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Europe Region

    London, England, IPPF, Europe Region, 1982. 62 p.

    The final report of the Migrants and Planned Parenthood (MPP) Project, a cooperative effort between the European Region of International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), Pro Familia, and other European Planned Parenthood Associations (PPA), is presented. Increasing contact with migrant clients stimulated Pro Familia to ask IPPF to evaluate existing family planning services for migrants and consider transnational coordination and sociopolitical action in this area. 13 countries were represented in this project: 4 donor countries (Italy, Portugal, Turkey, and Yugoslavia); 7 recipient countries (Belgium, Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom); and 2 through correspondence (France and Ireland). 2 questionnaires were administered. The 1st was aimed at detailing European migratory movements and the ethnicity of target groups in each country; the 2nd explored PPA attitudes toward migrant clients and the need for migrant-specific services. Project conclusions were based on a series of plenaries and sub working group meetings held during 1981-82. (Reports of these meetings are included as Appendices to the final report.) It is recommended that the MMP Project continue until a Regional Policy Statement can be produced. The Regional Council is requested to develop a handbook of general guidelines for migrant work and should nominate a nonsalaried regional migrant ombudsperson. Each PPA is requested to select a liaison person for migrant work. Other tasks proposed for PPAs include: personnel training, production of educational materials for migrants, and cooperation with migrant's organizations. Family planning and health should be integrated into general migrant services offered by other institutions. PPAs in donor countries should consider special programs for groups affected by migration, e.g., wives remaining behind and returning migrants. Discussions are to be held on how to reach illiterate migrants and develop wider channels of materials distribution. Future workshops may be scheduled to train family planning personnel to work with migrants. In terms of services, PPA personnel are warned that problems outside the scope of family planning are likely to be encountered in work with migrants. Attention should be given to making services more accessible. Possible measures include mobile clinics, domiciliary services, provision of interpreters, and child care. The need for sex segregation and use of female personnel is also stressed.
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  21. 21
    034499

    Youth projects: 1982.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    [Unpublished] 1983 Oct. [54] p.

    This document summarizes a collection of youth projects and activities undertaken by International Planned Parenthood Federation member Family Planning Associations throughout the world. Some of these projects are undertaken in collaboration with other organizations. The source of information for these projects are the annual reports of of Family Planning Associations for 1982.
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  22. 22
    034297

    Annual report 1982/1983.

    Family Planning Association of Hong Kong

    Hong Kong, Family Planning Association of Hong Kong, 1983. [93] p.

    This 1982-83 Annual Report of the Family Planning Association (FPA) of Hong Kong reports on the following: program administration; activities of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF); personnel; clinical services; surgical services; laboratory services; affiliated volunteer groups; education; information; library services; motivation and promotion; statistics and evaluation; training; the Vietnamese Refugees Project; and the Youth Advisory Service. The Association's services are managed by 133 full-time and 21 part-time staff. The clinic attendance figures quoted are for the 1982 calendar year; otherwise, the report refers to the current financial year. There were 43,818 new cases and 51,031 old cases making a total clinic attendance figure of 257,185. Of the 772 female applicants for sterilization, 599 female clients were treated for sterilization in 1982, 502 having mini-laparotomy and 97 having culdoscopic sterilization. 367 vasectomies were performed, representing an increase of 8.6% over the previous year. Educational efforts took the form of Working Youth's Programs, Sexual Awareness Seminars, Sex in Marriage Seminars, Family Planning Talks, and talks and lectures on various topics related to family planning and sex education. Information activities included exhibitions, columns in newspapers and magazines, media coverage and advertisements, and talks by Association staff to various service clubs and community organizations and universities. Resource development efforts took the form of the production of new family life education resources as well as other resource materials; film, slide, and video production; and audiovisual services. The 1982 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Survey revealed that 59.2% of the 1403 currently married women interviewed approved, with or without reservation, of the provision of a contraceptive services to the unmarried. 30.5% disapproved of it, and 10.4% had no idea or gave no answer. Studies of the termination of pregnancy and a family life education survey also were conducted. Training efforts included sex education seminars for social workers, a sex education course for secondary school teachers, a sex education seminar for student guidance officers, and an advanced course on human sexuality for social workers and teachers. Total clinic attendance recorded for the Vietnamese Refugees project was 2680; 580 were new cases. The Youth Advisory Service recorded a big increase in the number of new clients (1723), old clients (270), with a total attendance of 3901.
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  23. 23
    047792

    The population project: organization and inputs.

    Prasartkul P; Sethaput C; Havanon N

    In: Impact, effectiveness and efficiency of the AFPH programs on family planning status in 20 provinces, [compiled by] Mahidol University. Institute for Population and Social Research [IPSR]. Bangkok, Thailand, Mahidol University, IPSR, 1983. 3-9. (IPSR Publication No. 76)

    The Population Project, implemented by the Ministry of Public Health of Thailand, has as its goal the integration of family planning with existing public health services. 20 provinces were selected for the project from 1979-1982. Thailand's population policy, instituted in 1970, was aimed at reducing the growth rate, which had inhibited national development. The plan featured 2 5-year plans, and the Population Project was designed to meet the goals of these plans. The strategies to achieve these goals include: expansion and improvement of family planning services; training of public health personnel; expansion of information services; and increased evaluation and research on family planning. Financial aid for the project came from the World Bank, as well as various international governmental aid agencies. It was estimated that to achieve the reduced growth rate goal, 3 million new contraceptive acceptors and 1.6 million continuing users were required. The project operated on 2 levels, national and provincial. On the national level, training of non-medical personnel and expansion of family planning services were the aims. On the provincial level, the project's objective was to accelerate the expansion of family planning services in rural areas of 20 provinces that were characterized by low rates of family planning practice. The project was administered by the ministry of Public Health, with operation of the project under the Central Operation Unit, Provincial Operation Unit, and the Central Coordination Unit. The 5 levels of operation were: village; tambon; district; provincial; and national. Activities included service, training, communication, evaluation and research, and administrative management. By September 1981, the project realized an increase in health centers in rural areas, an increase in non-medical personnel, and the provision of additional vehicles. These inputs were realized across all 20 provinces participating in the project.
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