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Human development report 2003. Millennium Development Goals: a compact among nations to end human poverty.
New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 2003. xv, 367 p.The central part of this Report is devoted to assessing where the greatest problems are, analysing what needs to be done to reverse these setbacks and offering concrete proposals on how to accelerate progress everywhere towards achieving all the Goals. In doing so, it provides a persuasive argument for why, even in the poorest countries, there is still hope that the Goals can be met. But though the Goals provide a new framework for development that demands results and increases accountability, they are not a programmatic instrument. The political will and good policy ideas underpinning any attempt to meet the Goals can work only if they are translated into nationally owned, nationally driven development strategies guided by sound science, good economics and transparent, accountable governance. That is why this Report also sets out a Millennium Development Compact. Building on the commitment that world leaders made at the 2002 Monterrey Conference on Financing for Development to forge a “new partnership between developed and developing countries”—a partnership aimed squarely at implementing the Millennium Declaration—the Compact provides a broad framework for how national development strategies and international support from donors, international agencies and others can be both better aligned and commensurate with the scale of the challenge of the Goals. And the Compact puts responsibilities squarely on both sides: requiring bold reforms from poor countries and obliging donor countries to step forward and support those efforts. (excerpt)
In: Population distribution and migration. Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Distribution and Migration, Santa Cruz, Bolivia, 18-22 January 1993. Convened in preparation for the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994, compiled by United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1998. 364-9. (ST/ESA/SER.R/133)This paper discusses the health risks that urbanization has brought to developing countries. Urban dwellers, particularly children, women, and elderly people, are vulnerable to health threats associated with overcrowding, pollution, and a host of familiar urban problems that include mental and physical diseases, homelessness, drug abuse, and sexually transmitted diseases as well as violence and social alienation. The evidence available indicates that poor populations have higher rates of maternal mortality and infant mortality and morbidity. Environmental conditions influence certain health risks. The environment exposes children to a high risk of diarrheal diseases and parasitic diseases such as Chaga's disease, filariasis, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis. Moreover, urban malaria has become an urgent problem in countries where the disease is endemic. In addition, there is a high risk of accidents and injuries caused by unsafe and overcrowded transport systems. The impact of these problems on the health of urban dwellers requires an assessment of environmental health services and a revitalized role of public health in solving them. The WHO continues to play a role in the development of the concept of adopting a holistic and integrated approach to improving the health status of the population.
Targets for health for all. Targets in support of the European regional strategy for health for all.
Copenhagen, Denmark, WHO, Regional Office of Europe, 1985. x, 201 p.This book sets out the fundamental requirements for people to be healthy, to define the improvements in health that can be realized by the year 2000 for the peoples of the European Region of the World Health Organization (WHO), and to propose action to secure those improvements. Its purposes are as follows: propose improvements in the health of the people in order to achieve health for all by the year 2000; indicate where action is called for, the extent of the collective effort required, and the lines along which it should be directed; provide a tool for countries and the Region to Monitor progress toward the goal and revise their course of action if necessary. The targets proposed are intended to indicate the improvements that could be expected if all the will, knowledge, resources, and technology already available were pooled in the pursuit of a common goal. The target levels set are based on historical trends in the fields concerned, their expected future evolution, and the knowledge available on the probable effects of intervention. These levels are intended to inspire and motivate Member States when they are determining their own priorities, targets, and capabilities and thus the degree to which they can contribute to reaching the regional targets. The base year for all the targets in 1980. The year 2000 is the completion data retained for all targets related to health improvements. Targets related to lifestyles, the environment and care respectively have 1990 or 1995 as their date of completion unless specific problems justify the allocation of a later year. Targets embodying measures to bring about the changes in research and health development support should be reached before 1990. The aim is to give people a positive sense of health so that they can make full use of their physical, mental, and emotional capacities. A well informed, well motivated, and actively participating community is a key element to the attainment of the common goal. The focus of the health care system should be on primary health care -- meeting the basic health needs of each community through services provided as close as possible to where people live and work, readily accessible and acceptable to all, and based on full community participation. Health problems transcend national frontiers.