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  1. 1
    074975

    Implementation of the global strategy for Health for All by the Year 2000, second evaluation; and eighth report on the world health situation.

    World Health Organization [WHO].

    [Unpublished] 1992 Mar 6. 171 p. (A45/3)

    This 2nd evaluation of the global strategy for health for all (HFA) by 2000/8th report on the world health situation indicates a need for a new approach for sustainable health development which includes mobilizing resources for high priority populations and health needs, more effective and intersectoral health promotion and protection, and improving access to primary health care (PHC) via higher quality services and integrating health services into all social services. The data cover 96% of the world's population and the years 1985-90. The 1st chapter looks at the interaction among political, economic, demographic, and social development trends and their effects on health. It mentions the health development trend of increased involvement of individuals, communities, professional groups, and development agencies. The 2nd chapter centers on the progress of countries towards reaching HFA by examining the differences between the haves and the have nots. The 3rd chapter examines improvement and obstacles in health care coverage, PHC coverage, and quality of care. Chapter 4 reviews health resources including financial and human resources and health technology. The next chapter focuses on trends in mortality, morbidity, and disability and life style factors of health such as smoking. Chapter 6 examines policies and programs of environmental health, evaluation, and monitoring of environmental health hazards and risks, and environmental resources management. The 7th chapter brings together highlights and implications expressed in the previous chapters and states that health improvements have indeed occurred such as increased life expectancy. The last chapter uses the information in the preceding chapters to project future trends and mentions 5 challenges facing the world today.
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  2. 2
    102413

    Immediate and growing needs for help to a fragile new democracy: health in the Russian Federation with emphasis on children and women. Report of a UNICEF / WHO collaborative mission with the participation of UNFPA, UNDP, and WFP, 17 February - 2 March 1992.

    UNICEF; World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Unpublished] 1992 Mar 17. [2], 45, [19] p.

    From February 17 to March 2, 1992, the World Health Organization and UNICEF conducted a fact-finding mission to the Russian Federation to assess the health of the population, particularly of women and children. These international agencies found a unique situation in which economic adjustment to a market economy has created shortages in this developed nation similar to those encountered in developing countries. After an introductory section, the second section of this report provides background information on the Russian Federation, its economic situation, social protection mechanisms, and social statistics. Section 3 provides an assessment of the state of the health services, immunization programs, pharmaceuticals and equipment, nutrition, and the food situation. The next section discusses the organization of the public school system which may be used to provide nutritional supplements and health education. The rapid decline in environmental quality is then discussed, and examples are provided of some of the effects of this deterioration. The sixth section briefly mentions the three types of nongovernmental organizations available for partnerships and strategic alliances with international donors. Section 7 summarizes the recommendations of the mission. Six areas of assistance (each with several related recommendations) were identified: 1) to support those activities which will allow economic transition to be sensitive to the needs of vulnerable groups and social issues; 2) to provide emergency supplies to the health system through international channels and to foster the rapid rehabilitation of selected national production and distribution systems; 3) to provide technical assistance for the restructuring of the health system; 4) to establish monitoring systems to identify and protect vulnerable groups; 5) to engender support for donor coordination and the facilitation of international assistance; and 6) to support nongovernmental organizations and private partnerships as they attempt to strengthen social safety nets. A basic budget (which totals US $164 million and is separated into urgent and priority needs) is provided. Annexed information includes the construction and utilization of a food basket to monitor food prices, data on breastfeeding, and the highest priority needs for vaccines, drugs, and supplies.
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  3. 3
    068657

    Population and the environment: the challenges ahead.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1991. 44 p.

    When discussing issues of population and the environment, 2 factors stand out: 1) poverty is continuing to grow, rather than shrink. Worldwide over 1 billion people live in absolute poverty and the total international debt of low-income countries is over $1,000 billion and growing; 2) social sector programs designed to maintain health, family planning services, housing, and education are constantly underfunded and do not receive the priority that they merit in national and international development programs. This report from the UNFPA contains discussions of sustainable development, the problem of growing urban populations, the balance between population and resources, land degradation, tropical forest destruction, loss of biodiversity, water shortages, population impacts on quality of life, and policy considerations.
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