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  1. 1

    [Resolution No.] 47/95. Implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women [16 December 1992].

    United Nations. General Assembly


    This document contains the text of a 1992 resolution of the UN General Assembly on implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women. The resolution calls for an improved pace in the implementation of the Strategies because the cost of failing to implement the Strategies would include slowed economic and social development, inadequate use of human resources, and reduced progress. Thus, governments, international organizations, and nongovernmental organizations are urged to implement the recommendations, and member states are asked to give priority to programs which improve women's employment, health, and education (especially literacy). The central role of the Commission on the Status of Women is reaffirmed, and the Commission is asked to pay particular attention to women in the least developed countries. Other issues which require urgent attention include promoting the total integration of women in the development process and redressing socioeconomic inequities at the national and international levels. The Secretary-General is asked to perform specific tasks including the continued updating of the "World Survey on the Role of Women in Development."
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  2. 2

    The state of world population 1989.

    Sadik N

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund, 1989. 34 p.

    Women are at the heart of development. They control most of the non- money economy (subsistence agriculture, bearing and raising children, domestic labor) and take an important part in the money economy (trading, the informal sector, wage employment). Women always have 2 jobs--inside the home and outside it. Much os this work is unrecognized and those who do it can expect no support. Their health suffers, their work suffers, their children suffer. Development itself is held back as a result. This report demonstrates some of the costs of ignoring the needs of women: 1) uncontrolled population growth, 2) high infant and child mortality, 3) weaker economies and agriculture, 4) a degraded environment, and 5) a poorer quality of life. This report also demonstrates that social investments in women--family planning, health services, education--help women do a much better job of what they are already doing. A change in any aspect of a women's life produces change in every other aspect. Recommendations to endure the full participation of women in development include 1) documenting and publicizing women's vital contribution to development, 2) increasing the productivity of women and lessening the double burden of women, 3) providing family planning, 4) improving the health of women, 5) expanding education, 6) increasing equality of opportunity, and 7) some specific goals for the year 2000, such as increasing international assistance for family planning programs.
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  3. 3

    Compendium of approved projects, as of 30 September 1985.

    United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1986. vii, 483 p. (UNDP/Series A/No. 16)

    The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) Compendium of Approved Projects contains a listing of ongoing UNDP-assisted projects financed under the Indicative Planning Figures (IPF), Special Program Resources, Special Measures Fund for Least Developed Countries, and Special Industrial Services. Part I of the Compendium presents summary tables for the program as a whole, classified by source of funds, type of project, sector, executing agency, region, and by country within each region. In Part II the following information is shown for each approved project, listed by country: Executing agency; date of approval; estimated completion date; and estimated project cost in US dollars, equivalent, including UNDP contribution, 3rd-party and government cost-sharing, and government contribution in cash and kind. The cost-sharing component of projects has been separated from "government inputs in cash and in kind" in Part II. Part III provides information on approved intercountry projects (regional, interregional, and global). Following Part III is detailed information on the participants in intercountry projects. Part IV presents a detailed listing of all projects with 3rd-party cost sharing and the donor. Program categories include: political affairs; general development issues, policy, and planning; natural resources; argriculture, forestry, and fisheries; industry; transport and communications; international trade and development; population; human settlements; healthl; education; employment; humanitarian aid and relief; social conditions and equity; culture; and science and technology.
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  4. 4

    General overview. A. Population, resources, environment and development: highlights of the issues in the context of the World Population Plan of Action.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 63-95. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)

    The acceptance by the international community of the importance of the interrelations between population, resources, environment, and development has been in large measure an outgrowth of the search for development alternatives that would reduce the disparities between developed and developing countries and ameliorate poverty within countries. Possibly the most important task of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment, and Development is to identify more clearly the role of population within these interrelationships, i.e., to identify through which mechanisms population characteristics condition and are conditioned by resource use, environmental effects, and the developmental structure. To a considerable extent the incidence of poverty forms the root cause of many of the problems derived from the interrelationships between population, resources, environment, and development in developing countries. Affluence appears to be the major cause of many of the environmental and resource problems in the developed countries. The first 2 sections are devoted to issues considered crucial in the alleviation of poverty. Lack of food, adequate nutrition, health care, education, gainful employment, old age security, and adequate per capita incomes perpetuate poverty of large numbers of people in developing countries and therefore also their production and consumption patterns, which undermine, through environmental and resource degradation, the very resources on which they depend for their livelihood. The discussion of environment as a provider of resources first considers supplies of minerals, energy, and water. Attention is then directed to the stock of agricultural land that can be expanded through fertilization and irrigation and which may be reduced as a result of desertification, deforestation, urbanization, salinization, and waterlogging. Another section focuses on the need for integrating population variables into development planning. In the formulation of longterm development objectives, population can no longer be regarded as an exogenous force, but rather becomes an endogenous variable which affects and is affected by development policies, programs, and plans.
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  5. 5

    Country statement: Ethiopia.

    [Unpublished] 1984. Presented at the Second African Population Conference, Arusha, Tanzania, January 9-13, 1984. 21 p.

    This discussion of Ethiopia focuses on: sources of demographic data; population size and age-sex distribution; urbanization; fertility; marital status of the population; mortality and health; rate of natural increase; economic activity and labor force activity rates; food production; education; population policies and programs; and population in development planning. As of 1983, Ethiopia's population was estimated at 33.7 million. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy. Ethiopia has not yet conducted a population census, however, the 1st population and housing census is planned for 1984. The population is young with children under 15 years of age constituting 45.4% of the total population; 3.5% of the population are aged 65 years and older. The degree of urbanization is very low while the urban growth rate is very high. Most of the country is rural with only 15% of the population living in localities of 2000 or more inhabitants. In 1980-81 the crude birthrate was 46.9/1000. The total fertility rate was 6.9. Of those aged 15 years and older, 69.2% of males and 71.3% of females are married. According to the 1980-81 Demographic Survey the estimates of the levels of mortality were a crude death rate of 18.4/1000 and an infant mortality rate of 144/1000. At this time 45% of the population have access to health services. It is anticipated that 80% of the population will be covered by health care services in 10 years time. Ethiopia is increasing at a very rapid rate of natural increase; the 1980 estimation was 2.9% per annum. Despite the rich endowments in agricultural potential, Ethiopia is not self-sufficient in food production and reamins a net importer of grain. Enrollment at various levels of education is expanding rapidly. There is no official population policy. Financial assistance received from the UN Fund for Population Activities and the UN International Children's Emergency Fund for population programs is shown.
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  6. 6

    What population changes portend.

    Salas RM

    Atlas World Press Review. 1978 Dec; 25(12):15-8.

    This article is excerpted from the UNFPA's Annual Report. It discusses the history of population control, fertility transitions occuring all over the world, the effectiveness of family planning programs, increased literacy programs, improvement of the status of women, international migration, food supply and the Green Revolution, and health services delivery promoting lower infant mortality rates. Also stressed is the urgent need for the recognition of national programs to control the population growth that is expected for the next 2 decades. Several concerns, such as the aging of children and adults in both developed and developing countries, will require special social needs such as education and employment. The changing family structure needs further investigation and will affect the formulation of future policies. It is emphasized that it is more useful to assist governments in realizing their aspirations than to try to change them.
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  7. 7

    General survey of the reports relating to conventions nos. 97 and 143 and recommendations nos. 86 and 151 concerning migrant workers. (International Labour Conference, 66th Session, 1980) Report III (Part 4B).

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, 1980. 189 p.

    In accordance with article 19 of the International Labor Office (ILO) Constitution, the Governing Body decided at its 201st Session (November 1976) to request reports on the Migration for Employment Convention (Revised), 1949 (No. 97), and the Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1975 (No 143) from governments which have not ratified them, as well as reports on the Migration for Employment Recommendation (Revised), 1949 (No. 86), and the Migrant Workers Recommendation, 1975 (No. 151). These reports, dealing with the state of law and practice in relation to the standards laid down by the instruments in question, and the reports supplied under article 22 of the Constitution by govenments that have ratified 1 or both of the Conventions, have enabled the Committee of Experts to make a general survey of the situation. Reports have been received from 109 countries either under article 19 of the Constitution of the ILO on Conventions Nos. 97 and 143 and Recommendations Nos. 86 and 151 or under article 22 on the 2 Conventions when they have ratified them. An appendix provides detailed information on the countries that have communicated reports. The plan adopted for this present survey is as follows: preliminary measures of protection--information and assistance and recruitment, introduction, and placement of migrant workers; protection against abusive conditions (migrations in abusive conditions, the illegal employment of migrant workers, and minimum standards of protection); equality of opportunity and treatment and social policy; and certain aspects of the employment, residence, and departure of migrant workers. The vast range of subjects covered illustrates the complexity of the subject of migration for employment. The measures needed for the protection of migrant workers extend beyond their period of actual employment and must cover the initial phase of information, recruitment, travel, and settlement into the country of employment and the regulation of rights arising out of the employment but continuing after its termination. During the period of employment, they go beyond measures dealing exclusively with conditions of work to cover various other aspects of conditions of life which affect the context in which the migrant worker has to work and form the broader framework of the conditions of work and life of migrant workers. Thus, it is possibly understandable that few governments have covered all the subjects dealt with in the instruments in their reports. Convention No. 97 has been ratified to date by 34 countries and Convention 143 has been ratified by 8 States. Problems exist in many member States in affording to migrant workers the guarantees provided for in the instruments.
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  8. 8

    Migrant workers: summary of reports on conventions nos. 97 and 143 and recommendations nos. 86 and 151 (Article 19 of the Constitution). (International Labour Conference, 66th Session, 1980) Report III, part 2.

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, 1980. 151 p.

    Article 19 of the Constitution of the International Labor Organization (ILO) provides that Members shall report to the Director General at appropriate intervals on the position of their law and practice in regard to the matters dealt with in unratified Conventions and Recommendations. The reports summarized in this volume concern the Migration for Employment Convention (Revised) (No. 97) and Recommendation (Revised) (No. 86), 1949, Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1975 (No. 143) and Migrant Workers Recommendation, 1975 (No. 151). The governments of member States were asked to send their reports to the ILO Office by July 1, 1979, and this summary covers country reports received by the Office up to November 1, 1979. Reports are included for the following countries: Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Cameroon, Colombia, Congo, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, German Democratic Republic, Guyana, Hungary, India, Japan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Surinam, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Turkey, USSR, UK, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Zambia.
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  9. 9

    Sixth report on the world health situation. Pt. 1. Global analysis.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1980. 290 p.

    This Sixth Report on the World Health Situation tries to bring out the main ideas on health and health care issues and how to deal with them that arose during the 1973-1977 period. The primary sources of information used in the preparation of the report were the following: information routinely passed on by Member Governments to the World Health Organization (WHO); country reviews specially submitted by Member Governments for the Sixth Report; information routinely collected by other organizations of the United Nations system; and information for the reference period collected by WHO on an "ad hoc" basis to meet specific policy and program requirements. A background chapter focuses on general considerations, population, food and nutrition, education, social changes, economic trends, employment, poverty, health-related behavioral factors, evaluation of development progress and data needs, and policy issues. Subsequent chapters examine health status differentials, health action, research, and the outlook for the future in terms of demographic prospects, social and economic aspects, health status trends, health manpower supply and demand, and world health policies. Most significant during the 1973-1977 period was the explicit recognition of the view that health development is a reflection of conscious political, social, and economic policy and planning rather than merely an outcome (or by-product) of technology. The goal of "health for all by the year 2000" expresses the political commitment of health services and the agencies responsible for them to a "new Health order." Primary health care is the most important vehicle for achieving this new health order. The most important social trends during the report period are reflected in the still low and in some areas worsening nutritional level of the majority of the population. The overall picture with regard to mortality continues to be mixed, with a few notable cases of marked decline and many of continuing unspectacular decline. The data on morbidity are even less reliable than those on mortality, but it appears that there has been a significant increase or resurgence of certain communicable diseases. There is evidence of decreasing dependence on physicians in some parts of the world and a related strengthening of various paramedical and auxiliary groupings. Some of the important new health programs are to be found in the area of family health. The overall role and importance of primary health care are emphasized in many parts of the report. There are some specific indications of ways in which primary health care activities are being integrated with the more traditional activities of the health sector.
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  10. 10

    A proposed plan of action for the integration of women in the development of the Eastern Mediterranean region.

    Badran H

    In: Kjurciev A, Farrag AM, ed. Population-education-development in the Arab countries. Beirut, Lebanon, Unesco Regional Office for Education in the Arab Countries, 1977. 281-95.

    The attempt is made to try to relate the situation of women in the Eastern Mediterranean Region to women's worldwide problems, and, on this basis, propose resolutions as adopted in the Mexico Conference. This discussion will be used in proposing a Regional Plan of Action within the context of the Mexico Conference. It is hoped that the proposed regional Plan will be discussed and adopted by Arab countries represented at the next meeting of the Women's Committee of the League of Arab states. The problems of women, population, and food are found to be particularly interrelated, and there is a relationship between these problems and the existing international economic order. For this region among others, the integration of women in the development process is conceptualized in terms of their roles as reproducers, producers, and citizens. The crux of the problem is the balance and coordination between these 3 roles. The following areas, which have been the focus of studies and meetings in this region as well as at the international Women's Year Conference, are reviewed: education and training; employment; population, health and social services; family roles and legislation; public participation; mass media; and research. The aim of the proposed plan is to achieve the maximum possible equality between men and women in this region for the purpose of national development. To reach this goal, 2 major objectives are identified: to improve women's skills, capabilities, and potentialities, through higher levels of literacy, education, and training on appropriate jobs; and to reduce existing prejudices aginst women, through improved attitudes in all circles. To this end, 2 types of action must be undertaken at the national level: a longterm effort to introduce structural and substantive changes in society and its systems; and increasing the relevance and extending already existing programs for the advancement of women. Most countries of the region have often indicated the need to improve the status of women, but no major steps have been taken thus far towards formulation of a comprehensive plan for such improvement. A comprehensive plan dealing with women's problems in an integrated fashion is very much needed in every Arab country. The requisites for devising the plan in each country are outlined. On the local level, the role of the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund should be related to long-term and short-term activities. UNICEF may grant financial assistance, and once a comprehensive plan has been outlined it should specify clearly its inputs according to both the country's priorities and UNICEF's policy for women's promotion.
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  11. 11

    The world's main health problems. from WHO's Sixth report on the world health situation.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    World Health Forum. 1981; 2(2):264-80.

    This 6th report on the world health situation covers the 1973-1977 period and corresponded to the World Health Organization's (WHO) Fifth General Program of Work. Attention is directed to broad population trends, the socioeconomic situation, poverty, employment, mortality and morbidity, cardiovascular diseases, diseases in developing countries, national mortality projections, special health risks--children, mothers, adolescents--health care delivery infrastructure, reorientation of health services, and awareness of health problems. The population of the world increased in the 1970s at an annual rate of 1.9% and exceeded 4000 million in 1977. By the end of the period under review, the rate of growth seems to have somewhat slowed down. The 1 common feature of recent health trends in all parts of the world appears to be a slow down in progress in the reduction of mortality. Possibly the most interesting recent health trend in the more developed countries concerns the cardiovascular diseases. During recent years, the general trend in the age groups 35 and older has been for mortality from cardiovascular disease to decline. Regarding the many diseases plaguing the developing countries, there appears to have been little or no progress in recent years in reducing either their incidence or their prevalence. Malnutrition is the most widespread condition affecting the health of the world's children, particularly children in the developing countries. In countries that have well developed health care systems and good health statistics, the maternal mortality rate is of the magnitude of 5-30/100,000 live births and is continuously decreasing. The situation is much worse in most of the developing countries.
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  12. 12

    Country profile: Sierra Leone.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation. Africa Region; Planned Parenthood Federation of Sierra Leone

    [Nairobi, Kenya], International Planned Parenthood Federation, Africa Region, [1983]. 28 p.

    This profile of Sierra Leone discusses the following: geographical features; neighboring countries; ethnic and racial groups and religion; systems of government; population, namely, size, distribution, age/sex distribution, and women of reproductive age; socioeconomic conditions -- agriculture, industry, exports, imports, employment, education, health, and social welfare; family planning/population -- government policies, programs, Planned Parenthood Association of Sierra Leone (PPASL), nongovernment organizations and voluntary agencies, private organizations, sources of funding, and future trends of policies and programs; and the history, constitution, and structure and administration of the PPASL. According to the 1974 census, the population of Sierra Leone totaled 2,735,159. In 1980 it was estimated to have grown to 3,474,000. With an average annual growth rate of about 2.7%, it is expected to reach 6 million in 2000 and to have doubled in 27 years. Sierra Leone has a population density of 48 people/sq km. In 1974, 27.5% of the population lived in urban centers with 47% living in Freetown alone. The indigenous population includes 18 major ethnic groups; the Temne and Mende are the largest of these. The percentage of nonnationals increased from 2.7% in 1963 to 2.9% in 1974 and includes nationals mainly from the West African subregion with a sprinkling of British, Lebanese, Americans, Indians, and others. In 1974 the sex ratio was 98.8 males/100 females. In 1981 it was estimated that 41% of the total population was under age 15 and 5% over age 65, making the dependency burden very high. Agriculture is now the main focus of the government's development policy. Minerals are an important source of foreign exchange. It was estimated in 1980 that the total economically active population would reach 1.2 million, of whom the majority would be employed in agriculture. Women made up approximately 1/3 of the economically active population in 1970. The adult literacy rate recently has been estimated at 12% of the population. The government allows the PPASL to freely operate in the country, but it has not as yet declared a population policy. In 1973 the government did recognize the effects of rapid population growth on the nation's socioeconomic development. As a pioneering organization in family planning, the PPASL has made considerable effort in promoting the concept of responsible parenthood. Its motivational programs are geared towards informing and educating the public on the need for having only those children whom individuals and couples can adequately provide for in terms of health, nutrition, education, clothing, and all other basic necessities. Family planning services are provided to meet the demand thus created to enable families and individuals to exercise free and informed choice for spacing or limiting of children. Between 1971 and 1983 the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) provided financial assistance to Sierra Leone for population activities in the amount of US$2,659,382.
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