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Real Lives. 2002 Jul; (8):50-51.Afghan refugees first came to Pakistan following the Soviet invasion of the 1980s. Some went to Yaka Ghund camp in the tribal area of Mohmand Agency, 45 kms from Pakistan's border with Afghanistan. But for over 20 years, they lived without schooling or proper health facilities, until the Family Planning Association of Pakistan stepped in January 2002. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 1984. 27 p.The current status of the Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases (CDD) Program was reviewed, and activities related to the evaluation of country control programs, the assessment of potential diarrheal disease control interventions, and the program's operational research activities were examined. In the health services component, ciontinued efforts to promote the preparation of plans of operation for national CDD programs is recommended, as is continued use of the national CDD program managers training course. Concern was expressed that the level of use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) appeared to be modest. Case management was endorsed as the major program strategy. The series of studies on interventions for reducing diarrhea's mortality and morbidity were welcomed. For evaluation purposes, it is recommended that the program develop additional criteria for monitoring increased access to and usage of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and the reduction of diarrheal mortality. Continued accumulaton and publication of information yielded by the program's survey of the impact of ORT in hospitals was recommended. In the research component, the growth of research activities is satisfying. While biomedical aspects have developed well, it might be necessary to relate them gradually to specific control interventions in the future. Further studies of improved ORS formulatons were recommended. High priority should also be given to the promotion of breast feeding, immunization, and water supply and sanitation. The underlying mechanisms that cause the intervention to reduce diarrheal morbidity or mortality should be clarified. Research is recommended on the promotion of personal and domestic hygiene, food hygiene, and improved weaning practices. Emphasis on the development and evaluation of vaccines against the causes of diarrhea is supported. Some changes in the balance of research activities should be made. Epidemiological weak.
International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children: technical statements and selected presentations. Jointly organized by the Government of France and the World Health Organization, Paris, 27-30 November 1989.
[Unpublished] 1991. , 64 p.The International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children was organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) in cooperation with the French Government. Co-sponsors included the United Nations organizations UNDP, UNICEF, and UNESCO, along with the International Labor Organization (ILO), the World Bank, and the Council of Europe. Following assorted introductory addresses, statements by chairmen of the conference's technical working groups are presented in the paper. Working group discussion topics include virology; immunology; epidemiology; clinical management; HIV and pregnancy; diagnoses; implications for health, education, community, and social welfare systems; and economic and demographic impact. Chairman statements include an introduction, discussion of the state of current knowledge, research priorities, implications for policies and programs, and recommendations. The Paris Declaration on Women, Children and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome concluded the conference.
Mexico City, Mexico, MEXFAM, 1988 Feb. , 10 p.During 1987 the Mexican Federation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) continued developing its programs following the same orientation as in the previous year, but at a slower pace intended to achieve a greater degree of consolidation. A permanent mechanism for qualitative evaluation was arranged with the Mexican Institute for Social Studies, an external organization. Work was initiated in 4 new states, bringing the total to 26 of Mexico's 32 states. Activities were suspended in Yucatan because new information revealed that fertility rates were relatively low. MEXFAM does not seek to provide massive family planning coverage but rather to act as a catalyst for family planning activities. MEXFAM is expanding its program of "community doctors", in which it assists young medical school graduates to establish practices in underserved urban areas. In a similar program, "affiliate doctors", physicians already established in their communities, receive technical assistance and materials to begin offering family planning services. During 1987, MEXFAM initiated the "Young People" program to provide sex and family planning education to young people under 20 in schools, clubs, and recreation centers. Various films were made to provide sex education to the Young People program. They were well received in Mexico and some were broadcast in other countries. In 1987, 382,328 new users were served, compared to 174,634 in 1986. 73% of the new users were in MEXFAM programs and the rest were in collaborative programs. Mexico's deteriorating economic situation in 1987 was reflected in increasing resource scarcities for public health organizations. The broad geographic distribution and remoteness of some MEXFAM programs pose a serious challenge for control and supervision. Programs have been grouped into logistic centers with responsibility for supervision assigned on a regional basis. MEXFAM is making great efforts to improve its record system, adapt it to International Planned Parenthood Federation requirements, and make it compatible with the Ministry of Health record system. A certain amount of confusion is anticipated in 1988 as workers become accustomed to new record formats. User payments are the main source of local revenues for MEXFAM. Given Mexico's poor economic situation, the prospects for an increase in local donations are poor, but efforts to raise funds locally are continuous. 4 new external donors were added in 1987. The International Planned Parenthood Federation continues to be the main source of funds. 87% of MEXFAM funds were directly spent on projects and 13% on administration and general services in 1987.
NEW ZEALAND MEDICAL JOURNAL. 1989 Jul 26; 102(872):391.Dr Ross Bailey's letter (NZ Med J 1989; 102:259) should stimulate medical opinion and input in the right direction for AIDS publicity. At the 41st World Health Assembly (May 1988) the WHO resolution urged all organizations engaged in AIDS control to ensure that their programs fully take into account the health needs of all people as well as those of HIV infected people and people with AIDS. The resolution then goes under the protection against discrimination of sufferers. As the incubation period may have a median of 10 years and could be extended again in 2 years, the % of people going down with the disease is very high. Cuba protects all people by nationwide testing, including its soldiers returning from Angola. About 300 HIV +ve and sufferers are now housed in a modern sanatorium, their families are government supported. Cuba is the only country in the world where the number of people with AIDS is diminishing. Can any good thing come from Cuba? (full text)
POPULATION EDUCATION NEWS. 1987 May; 14(5):6-9.Population education incentives, voluntary action, community participation, and improved program management are 5 family planning areas recently redefined by the government of India. Population education, integrated with the educational system, is important in influencing fertility behavior. The Adult Education program, and the nonformal educational system will be strengthened, with aid from UNFPA. Incentives, which are presently available to government employees, will be increased. Economic incentives, rural development program incentives, and insurance, lottery, and bond incentive schemes are being considered. Voluntary organizations will be encouraged to work in the family welfare sphere, and organized sector units will be urged to provide family welfare services to their employees. Cooperatives, which cover 95% of villages, will be used as a means of educating, motivating, and communicating population control objectives on the local level. Tax incentives will be offered to the corporate sector for providing integrated family welfare services. Community participation, which is crucial to the success of the programs, will be addressed on several levels. Popular committees, youth and women's groups, and medical students will increase community involvement through various means. In addition, political and community leaders will be involved in motivational work, and a village Women's Volunteer Corps is planned. Social marketing of contraceptives, although fairly extensive for the last 15 years, leaves much to be desired in creating a large demand. A marketing board will be created to ensure aggressive marketing, advertising, and promotion, with expansion to include oral contraceptives. Reorganization and reorientation toward modern program management will be undertaken, so that policy, planning, implementation, review, and evaluation are carried out efficiently. At the state, district, and the block level, more effective coordination is the goal, as well as strengthening the District Family Welfare Bureau.
POPULATION MANAGER: ICOMP REVIEW. 1987 Jun; 1(1):19-22.Communication plays an essential role in creating the necessary social climate for the development and adoption of population policies and in supporting actions undertaken to implement these policies. To be effective, however, there must be integrated communication for population and development programs. In addition to knowledge of the mass media and community organizations, communicators in the field of population must have the ability to collaborate with other development programs in an intersectoral effort, Toward this end, UNESCO, in collaboration with the Asia-Pacific Institute for broadcasting Development, has organized specialized courses in the management of population communication programs. A review of the situation at the time this program was initiated revealed that IEC directors had minimal knowledge and understanding of the role of IEC in family planning programs, little practical experience in planning and managing multimedia, community-based, interpersonal communication activities, and these programs had no scientifically established data base. As result, a pilot 2-week course comprised of o modules was held in India in 1983. Module 1 focused on a systematic problem-solving approach to IEC program situations, Module ii emphasized human resource management, and Module III was designed to impart specific communication skills. The course was subsequently expanded to 3 weeks, and has in the past 3 years involved 54 persons from 20 countries. Unesco has also developed a population communication course in collaboration with the Arab States Broadcasting Union.
IPPF/UNESCO Experts Meeting on Clearing House Facilities for Audio-Visual Aids and Teaching Materials, 20th - 23rd October, 1971, IPPF, London, S.W.1. Background paper.
[Unpublished] 1971.  p.Significantly for this International Planned Parenthood Federation/UNESCO Meeting on Clearing House Facilities for Audiovisual Aids and Teaching Materials, the proportion of work and of funding devoted to education, information, and training is steadily increasing. Program activities in need of audiovisual aids and teaching materials include: components designed to motivate people to practice family planning and to persuade opinion leaders to support program objectives (face-to-face communication and mass media outlets); training courses; and the education of government officials, opinion leaders, the community, young people both in and out of school, and family planning acceptors. Discussion of the present state of clearing house facilities for audiovisual aids and teaching materials covers the following: UN agencies, government activities, nongovernment organizations. UNESCO, WHO, FAO, ILO, AND UNICEF have services in audiovisual materials, including the production and distribution of films, photographs, and printed materials. These services illustrate the broad areas of activity of each agency and until the present time family planning and population problems have not featured very prominently in these materials. Many of them are used extensively in family planning programs because they demonstrate the health and socioeconomic development aspects to which family planning is related. Materials produced by the specialized agencies circulate through regional and national offices and are at the disposal of other agencies for loan usually without charge. Donor governments vary in the emphasis they place on educational materials. The Population Council is a nongovernmental organization which has been particularly active in the past in the production and distribution of audiovisual aids and teaching mterials. Among the universities, the Carolina Population Center has established an educational materials unit which produces audiovisual aids for use at home and overseas. The IPPF houses a rapidly growing collection of films, slides, and filmstrips, printed materials, nonprojected aids, and models relating to family planning motivation, training, population, and sex education. Some factors to be taken into account in considering the feasibility of establishing an international clearing house for audiovisual aids and teaching materials include: means of assessing levels of expressed demand; possibility of stimulating demand for audiovisual aids and teaching materials in family planning information and education programs; possiblity of promoting knowledge and understanding of the proposed clearing house at all levels of operation; extent of personnel equipped and trained to utilize audiovisual aids and teaching materials; adaptability of materials to local situations; desirability of a central, regional, or combination structure; and funding. Factors to be considered in formulating a blueprint for an international clearing house include: scope of materials to be handled by clearing house; problems inherent in identification and collection of materials; need for services to support circulation of materials; international transportation of materials; storage; need for a reporting system and evaluation; and policy with regard to meeting clients' equipment requirements and to payment by client.
Report on the evaluation of various family life education projects with particular emphasis on youth in the English-speaking Caribbean: general conclusions and recommendations.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Nov. xii, 39,  p.Most family life education (FLE) projects included in this evaluation have the longterm objectives of reducing the incidence of teenage prognancy, and promotion of self-reliance and positive, responsible behavior among youth. The immediate objectives and project strategies are also very similar across projects, e.g., in-school and out-of-school FLE, comprehensive youth services, including family planning (FP) and training. The evaluation shows that project design has improved over the years (clearer and measurable formulation of objectives, more comprehensive workplans and better explanation of budgetary items) and projects have moved from addressing a wide variety of broad issues to a more focused consideration of adolescent fertility. However, the Evaluation Mission in concerned that due to the similarities in project design, country-and-time-specific factors have not always been adequately taken into consideration. Other concerns include the lack of systematic needs assessment and use of baseline data to guide implementation. All the projects evaluated have contributed to the training in FLE/FP of a large number of family life educators, teachers and nurses and have thus significantly strengthened professional national capability. Nevertheless, training needs still exist in motivational/attitudinal variables, sex roles, teaching/learning technics. The projects have made a significant contribution to the introduction of FLE into schools and teacher training institutions. The focus at present should be the institutionalization of FLE within the in-school sector, including the development of a policy approving FLE in schools. The development of community-based health centers was often the central activity of the out-of-school FLE component of the projects. These centers have contributed to shaping the countries' attitudes by creating an awareness of teenage pregnancy, by developing an acceptable strategy, by providing a focal point for discussing sensitive issues, and by becoming a mechanism for community mobilization. The projects have also contributed to making FP services available and specialized services for adolescents are being established. The emphasis has been more on education and awareness creation than on contraceptive distribution to adolescents. At present the need is to strengthen the service delivery components. The limited availability of data suggests that adolescent pregnancy remains an urgent problem in the region. Sustained and more focused FLE/FP program efforts directed to adolescents continue to be needed in the region. The most important general lesson learnt from the programs is that programs in adolescent fertility can be started and implemented in countries even prior to declaration of policy by governments. However, at a certain stage of implementation the programs cannot be carried further without explicit government policies and control.
Report on the evaluation of various family life education projects with particular emphasis on youth in the English-speaking Caribbean: country reports.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Nov. xiv, 89 p.UNFPA has provided funding for various family life education (FLE) projects with particular emphasis on youth in the English-speaking Caribbean since the mid-1970s; this report is an independent evaluation of the projects in Antigua, Barbados, Dominica, Jamaica, St. Lucia, and St. Christopher and Nevis. Although birth rates are relatively low in the English-speaking Caribbean, the incidence of adolescent pregnancy and the number of births to women under the age of 20 is an important problem in the region. The Mission concluded overall that the projects have contributed to pioneering and groundbreaking efforts demonstrating that it is possible to initiate and make considerable progress in the implementation of FLE/FP programs for adolescents even when adolescent pregnancy and births are still highly sensitive and controversial issues and when there are no official policies in favor of such programs. The Mission concluded also that project design had improved over the years and projects have moved from addressing a wide variety of broad issues to a more focused consideration of adolescent fertility. All the projects included in the evaluation have contributed to the training in FLE/FP of a large number of family life educators, teachers, and nurses and, as a result, have significantly strengthened professional national capability. The projects have shown that despite the lack of official policy approving FLE in schools and generally overcrowded curricula, FLE can be introduced into schools. In the area of FP service delivery, the projects included in the evaluation have contributed to making FP services generally available through integration with the government maternal and child health services. The main management issues across the projects were similar and included staffing, coordination, supervision, monitoring and evaluation. There is a need to adjust project design so that gender separation is minimized and that the FLE content deals better with issues such as self-awareness, sex roles, and self-esteem. The wider impact of the projects included in this evaluation, to be reflected, for example, in reduced incidence of teenage pregnancy, reduced maternal and infant/child morbidity and mortality, and more generally in the life patterns of women, cannot yet be measured.
Report on the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to the maternal and child health programme of Malawi: project MLW/78/P03 (February 1984).
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Sep. xi, 36,  p.The 3 initial objectives of the Maternal and Child Health Program of Malawi were health and nutrition education, training of traditional midwives, and immunization against measles and polio. The Evaluation Mission found that the strong points of the project are: the Government's commitment to improve the status of maternal and child health by its expansion of services and its recent acceptance of child spacing as part of its program in maternal child health; the high level of dedication of the personnel in the Ministry of Health; the attention given to strengthening the Health Education section; and the establishment of a good management information framework upon which planning, supervision and monitoring can be further developed. Factors which seem to have hindered the project have been the lack of trained staff at the supervisory and service delivery level caused in large part by the lack of accomodation at the various national training institutions; the failure to appoint international staff to key positions within the project; and the lack of adequate transportation for project personnel. As child spacing will soon be included in project activities, the present organization of the Central Medical Stores to procure and distribute contraceptives and other needed supplies will adversely affect project performance. In total, the evaluation Mission made 19 recommendations addressed mainly to the Government and a number to the World Health Organiation and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities for project management decisions.
Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 1982 Jan; 4(1):7-16.This study describes 3 nutrition intervention programs in Sri Lanka; Lanka Jathika Sarvodaya Samgamaya; Redd Barna, the Norwegian Save the Children Program; and the US Save the Children fund. The Sarvodaya Shramadana Sangamaya is a private, nonprofit organization that began in 1958 devoted to mobilizing voluntary labor for village reconstruction. It is now engaged in a series of development projects in over 2,000 villages. One of its main objectives is to mobilize community resources for development. The children's service now integrates pre-school, nutrition, and community health services. There are an estimated 86 day care centers. The main service available in these day care centers, apart from physical care, is the provision of nutrition. Pre-school nutrition programs are also administered. The program costs about Rs230/beneficiary per year. The International Council of Educational Development from the United States was invited to review the program. Recommendations are given. The Norwegian Save the Children (Redd Barna) program in Sri Lanka was started in 1974. Projects are of 2 types: 1) settlement projects; and 2) integrated community development projects which aim to improve the standard of living with particular attention to child welfare. The US Save the Children Fund (SCF), a private, nonprofit voluntary organization, began its 1st project in Sri Lanka in urban community development in a slum and squatter settlement within Colombo. It focused on housing, but also includes other programs such as health and nutrition. These activities are carried out through a pediatric clinic, a home visits register, a nutritional status survey, a supplementary feeding program, nutrition, education, and a day care center. The approximate cost of the nutrition program would be Rs7700/month for an average of Rs13/month, or Rs156/year/beneficiary.
Impact of population assistance to an African country: Department of State, Agency for International Development. Report to the Congress by the Comptroller General of the United States
U.S. General Accounting Office. Comptroller General, Washington, D.C., United States, 1977. (ID-77-3) v, 65 p.Add to my documents.
Initiatives in Population 2(1): 28-35. March 1976.The Philippines Department of Labor, in conjunction with the U.N. Fund for Population Activities, is sponsoring a pilot family planning program. The industrial program, supervised by the Labor Management Coordinating Council, aims at integrating family planning services into the health services or clinics of 1000 corporations with at least 200 employees within the 2-year period ending June 1977. Family planning seminars are conducted at 3 levels within the corporations and include training sessions for medical personnel. Companies have found that provision of family planning services is more economical in the long run than provision of family welfare services for employees and families.
New York, N.Y., United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]  54 p. (Population Profiles No. 20)This review traces how various population programs in Africa have evolved since the 1960s. Before the establishment of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) in the late 1960s, the efforts of private groups or non-governmental organizations in the areas of family planning, are highlighted. The vital contribution of private donors in facilitating the work of the Fund in Africa is given emphasis throughout the review. Early studies show that family planning activities in Africa, and governmental population policies fall into a definite pattern within the continent and that the distribution of colonial empires was a major determinant of that pattern. In most of Africa, the 1st stirrups of the family planning movement began during the colonial period. During the 1960s there was marked increase in the demand for family planning services. Lack of official government recognition and not enough assistancy from external sources made early family planning programs generally weak. The shortage of trained personnel, the unsureness of government support, opposition from the Roman Catholic Church to population control, and the logistics of supplying folk in remote rural areas who held traditional attitudes, all posed serious problems. The main sectors of the Fund's activities are brought into focus to illustrate the expansion of population-related programs and their relevance to economic and social development in Africa. The Fund's major sectors of activity in the African region include basic data collection on population dynamics and the formulation and implementation of policies and programs. Family planning, education and communication and other special programs are also important efforts within the Fund's multicector approach. The general principles applied by UNFPA in the allocation of its resources and the sources and levels of current finding are briefly discussed and the Fund's evaluation methodology is outlined. A number of significant goals have been achieved in the African region during the past 15 years through UNFPA programs, most prominently; population censuses, data collection and analysis, demographic training and reseaqrch, and policy formulation after identification of need. This monograph seeks to provide evidence for the compelling need for sustained commitment to population programs in Africa, and for continuing international support and assistance to meet the unmet needs of a continent whose demographic dynamism is incomparably greater than that of any other part of the world.