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Boston, Massachusetts, John Snow [JSI], 2017 Mar 31. 21 p.This document highlights the health and situational status of Palestine refugees from Syria (PRS) now living in Jordan, based on a seven-week assessment visit to the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA). The purpose of the assessment was to understand: i) access to maternal health and child health services, as well as treatment and prevention of hypertension and diabetes; ii) access to hospitalization; and, iii) the specific vulnerabilities arising from the current legal, political, and economic status of the PRS to enable UNRWA develop an advocacy strategy. The Palestine refugees from Syria living in Jordan are the most marginalized.The document highlights the focus group methodology used to understand the issues—health, educational, social, livelihoods—that PRS in Jordan face, a profile of participants, key findings and stories from participants. Finally, the recommendations include those on health, education, and microfinance.As the first such qualitative assessment of PRS living in Jordan, the findings will have implications for all those accessing services at health centers, and not just for the PRS. While the focus was intentionally on the health of PRS, the study also sheds light on other aspects of refugee life in Jordan, including children’s education, livelihoods, and the UNRWA assistance program.
Global strategy on human resources for health: Workforce 2030. Draft 1.0. Submitted to the Executive Board (138th Session).
[Unpublished] .  p.In May 2014, the Sixty-seventh World Health Assembly adopted resolution WHA67.24 on Follow-up of the Recife Political Declaration on Human Resources for Health: renewed commitments towards universal health coverage. In paragraph 4(2) of that resolution, Member States requested the Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO) to develop and submit a new global strategy for human resources for health (HRH) for consideration by the Sixty-ninth World Health Assembly. 2. Development of the draft Global Strategy was informed by a process launched in late 2013 by Member States and constituencies represented on the Board of the Global Health Workforce Alliance, a hosted partnership within WHO. Over 200 experts from all WHO regions contributed to consolidating the evidence around a comprehensive health labour market framework for universal health coverage (UHC). A synthesis paper was published in February 2015(1) and informed the initial version of the draft Global Strategy. 3. An extensive consultation process on the draft version was launched in March 2015. This resulted in inputs from Member States and relevant constituencies such as civil society and health care professional associations. The process also benefited from discussions in the WHO regional committees, technical consultations, online forums and a briefing session to Member States’ permanent missions to the United Nations (UN) in Geneva. Feedback and guidance from the consultation process are reflected in the draft Global Strategy, which was also aligned with, and informed by the draft framework on integrated people-centred health services. 4. The Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health: Workforce 2030 is primarily aimed at planners and policy-makers of WHO Member States, but its contents are of value to all relevant stakeholders in the health workforce area, including public and private sector employers, professional associations, education and training institutions, labour unions, bilateral and multilateral development partners, international organizations, and civil society. 5. Throughout this document, it is recognized that the concept of universal health coverage may have different connotations in countries and regions of the world. In particular, in the WHO Regional Office for the Americas, universal health coverage is part of the broader concept of universal access to health care.
Strengthening the capacity of the public health workforce in support of the essential public health functions and the Millennium Development Goals. Consultation with experts, San Jose, Costa Rica, 16-18 August 2005.
Washington, D.C., PAHO, Health Systems Strengthening Area, Human Resources for Health Unit, 2006 Dec. 50 p. (HR Series No. 45; USAID Award No. LAC-G-00-04-00002-00; USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No. PN-ADJ-697)The main objective of this Consultation is to generate social recognition for the improvement and protection of human resources and the development of the health systems and well being of the populations of the Region of the Americas. There is no clear guiding principle in the conceptualization of human resources in health, or about its relationship to the PHWF. Human resources in health are currently facing a serious crisis, and public health should play a leading role in strengthening the capacities of this key resource in the Region. The causes and the magnitude of the problem are reflected in the lack of certain categories of personnel, the inequitable distribution of resources within countries, and institutional planning, management and education of these resources that are de-contextualized and focused on technical aspects. These considerations call for this presentation of the objectives of the Consultation to be accompanied by a recognition that learning to work together is not easy, but that this is precisely what is needed, i.e. the creation of strong partnerships, and the fact that public health work should be conceived in terms of cooperation in this area. (excerpt)
Oxford, England, Oxfam International, 2006. 122 p.This report shows that developing countries will only achieve healthy and educated populations if their governments take responsibility for providing essential services. Civil society organisations and private companies can make important contributions, but they must be properly regulated and integrated into strong public systems, and not seen as substitutes for them. Only governments can reach the scale necessary to provide universal access to services that are free or heavily subsidised for poor people and geared to the needs of all citizens -- including women and girls, minorities, and the very poorest. But while some governments have made great strides, too many lack the cash, the capacity, or the commitment to act. Rich country governments and international agencies such as the World Bank should be crucial partners in supporting public systems, but too often they block progress by failing to deliver debt relief and predictable aid that supports public systems. They also hinder development by pushing private sector solutions that do not benefit poor people. The world can certainly afford to act. World leaders have agreed an international set of targets known as the Millennium Development Goals. Oxfam calculates that meeting the MDG targets on health, education, and water and sanitation would require an extra $47 billion a year. Compare this with annual global military spending of $1 trillion, or the $40 billion that the world spends every year on pet food. (excerpt)
Measuring progress towards the MDG for maternal health: Including a measure of the health system's capacity to treat obstetric complications.
International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2006 Jun; 93(3):292-299.This paper argues for an additional indicator for measuring progress of the Millennium Development Goal for maternal health—the availability of emergency obstetric care. MDG monitoring will be based on two indicators: the maternal mortality ratio and the proportion of births attended by skilled personnel. Strengths and weaknesses of a third indicator are discussed. The availability of EmOC measures the capacity of the health system to respond to direct obstetric complications. Benefits to using this additional indicator are its usefulness in determining an adequate distribution of services and showing management at all levels what life-saving interventions are not being provided, and stimulate thought as to why. It can reflect programmatic changes over a relatively short period of time and data requirements are not onerous. A measure of strength of the health system is important since many interventions depend on the health system for their implementation. (author's)
Self-reliance of developing countries is UNDP goal for 1990s - United Nations Development Programme.
UN Chronicle. 1989 Sep; 26(3): p..In the 1990s, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) will use its technical aid to continue to build self-reliance in developing nations. Although the Programme will still respond to priorities set by recipient countries, it plans to target action on developing human resources, health, education, and agricultural and rural development. Concluding a year-long overhaul of its goals and policies, the UNDP Governing Council at a high-level 1989 session (New York, 5-30 June) debated its approach to its work in the last decade of the 20th century. The 48-member Council stressed the theme "national capacity-building for self-reliance." It hoped to take on the role of a "facilitator" rather than initiator, urging recipients to take the lead in promoting their own development. (excerpt)
Promoting the participation of indigenous women in World Bank-funded social sector projects: an evaluation study in Mexico. [Promoción de la participación de las mujeres indígenas en los proyectos del sector social fundados por el Banco Mundial: estudio de evaluación en México]
Washington, D.C., International Center for Research on Women [ICRW], Promoting Women in Development [PROWID], 1999. 4 p. (Report-in-Brief; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. FAO-A-00-95-00030-00)Mexico has long been one of the World Bank’s primary clients and is currently its largest cumulative borrower, with loan commitments of up to $5.5 billion approved for 1997-99 (World Bank 1996). During the past 15 years, the focus of the Bank’s lending program in Mexico has shifted away from structural adjustment towards poverty reduction, a strategy that emphasizes investment in health and education. As elsewhere around the world, gender differences in these sectors in Mexico are prevalent with regard to access to and control over resources and decision-making. Given the multiple roles that women play in production, reproduction, child rearing, and household maintenance, social sector projects that target women generate economic and social benefits both for individuals and countries as a whole. Consequently, the Bank has increasingly funded projects that aim to strengthen the participation and position of women in development. The Bank’s publications, official policies, and project guidelines also acknowledge the importance and benefits of promoting women’s roles and empowerment (Women’s Eyes on the World Bank, U.S. 1997; World Bank 1994, 1995, 1997). However, little has been done to evaluate what resources and opportunities are needed to improve the actual standing and participation of women in both Bank-funded programs and society as a whole. While the Bank launched a Gender Action Plan for Central America and Mexico in 1996, this Plan does not clearly define gender impact and assumes that strategies aimed at communities will affect men and women in similar ways. Further, the Bank’s effectiveness in applying its own guidelines on gender and community participation to policy, project design, and implementation on the ground has not been systematically assessed. (excerpt)
Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2003.  p.This educational package is designed for the use of individuals, groups, and organizations involved in promoting adolescent health and development among a variety of audiences. The main target users are primary health care givers - doctors, nurses and midwives - who deal with adolescents in various settings, and who wish to involve their colleagues in advocacy work for and with adolescents. This package can also be useful for programme managers and policy-makers advocating adolescent health and development programmes and policies. In whole or in part, this package can be used to structure workshops and discussions on adolescent health and development issues. Ideally, adolescents should be invited to participate in these activities in order to achieve heightened understanding of their needs and concerns. The image of a butterfly emerging from its cocoon is depicted many times in this package. This symbolizes the metamorphosis that takes place as adolescents go through development. This image serves to remind us of the need to nurture adolescents as they go through this challenging phase. The image also foretells what adolescents can be, as they transform into the future of their countries. (excerpt)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2003 Jul; 81(7):539-545.Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions’ work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions’ efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and human rights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and human rights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and human rights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to address the potential health equity and human rights implications of policies in all sectors affecting health, not only the health sector. (author's)
Health systems research in maternal and child health including family planning: issues and priorities. Report of the meeting of the Steering Committee of the Task Force on Health Systems Research in Maternal and Child Health including Family Planning, New Delhi, 12-15 March 1984.
[Unpublished] 1985. 23 p. (MCH/85.8)In a series of general discussions aimed at establishing health systems research priorities, the Steering Committee of the Task Force on the Risk Approach and Program Research in Maternal-Child Health/Family Planning Care identified 9 major issues: 1) health services and health systems, 2) research and service to the community, 3) involving the community, 4) evaluation, 5) information systems, 6) interdisciplinary nature of health systems research, 7) appropriateness in technology and research, 8) funding and collaboration between agencies, and 9) implications for research program strategies. Background considerations regarding subject priorities for health systems research include the policies, goals, and programs of WHO, especially the goal of health for all by the year 2000. Of particular importance is the joining of training in health systems research with the research itself given the shortage of workers in this area. The sequence of events in the management of research proposals includes approach by an applicant, the WHO response, information to the appropriate WHO regional office, the beginning of technical dialogue, development of protocol, submission of grant application, contractual agreement, initial payments, regular monitoring of progress, proposed training strategy, annual reports, final report, and assistance in disseminating results. 3 subject areas were identified by the Steering Committee for additional scrutiny: 1) the dissemination of results of health systems research in maternal-child health/family planning, 2) the implementation of health services research and the studies to be funded, and 3) the coordination and "broker" functions of the Steering Committee.
Health and health services in Judaea, Samaria and Gaza 1983-1984: a report by the Ministry of Health of Israel to the Thirty-Seventh world Health Assembly, Geneva, May 1984.
Jerusalem, Israel, Ministry of Health, 1984 Mar. 195 p.Health conditions and health services in Judea, Samaria, and Gaza during the 1967-83 period are discussed. Health-related activities and changes in the social and economic environment are assessed and their impact on health is evaluated. Specific activities performed during the current year are outlined. The following are specific facets of the health care system that are the focus of many current projects in these districts; the development of a comprehensive network of primary care programs and centers for preventive and curative services has been given high priority and is continuing; renovation and expansion of hospital facilities, along with improved staffing, equipment, and supplies for basic and specialty health services increase local capabilities for increasingly sophisticated health care, and consequently there is a decreasing need to send patients requiring specialized care to supraregional referral hospitals, except for highly specialized services; inadequacies in the preexisting reporting system have necessitated a continuting process of development for the gathering and publication of general and specific statistical and demographic data; stress has been placed on provision of safe drinking water, development of sewage and solid waste collection and disposal systems, as well as food control and other environmental sanitation activities; major progress has been made in the establishment of a funding system that elicits the participation and financial support of the health care consumer through volunary health insurance, covering large proportions of the population in the few years since its inception; the continuing building room in residential housing along with the continuous development of essential community sanitation infrastructure services are important factors in improved living and health conditions for the people; and the health system's growth must continue to be accompanied by planning, evaluation, and research atall levels. Specific topics covered include: demography and vital statistics; socioeconomic conditions; morbidity and mortality; hospital services; maternal and child health; nutrition; health education; expanded program immunization; environmental health; mental health; problems of special groups; health insurance; community and voluntary agency participation; international agencies; manpower and training; and planning and evaluation. Over the past 17 years, Judea, Samaria, and Gaza have been areas of rapid population growth and atthe same time of rapid socioeconomic development. In addition there have been basic changes in the social and health environment. As measured by socioeconomic indicators, much progress has been achieved for and by the people. As measured by health status evaluation indicators, the people benefit from an incresing quantity and quality of primary care and specialty services. The expansion of the public health infrastructure, combined with growing access to and utilization of personal preventive services, has been a key contributor to this process.
Paper presented at the Nineteenth Session of the UNICEF/WHO Joint Committee on Health Policy, Geneva, February 1-2, 1972. 40 pFamily planning is an integral part of the health care of the family and has a striking impact of the health of the mother and children. Many aspects of family planning care require the personnel, skills, techniques, and facilities of health services and is thus of concern to UNICEF and WHO. Once individual governments have determined basic matters of family planning policy and methods, UNICEF and WHO can respond to requests for assistance on a wide range of activities, with the primary goal being the promotion of health care of the family. Emphasis will be placed on achieving this by strengthening the basic health services that already have a solid foundation in the community. The past experience of UNICEF and WHO should provide valuable guidance for assistance to the health aspects of family planning, particularly as they relate to the planning and evaluation of programs; organization and administration; public education; the education and training of all medical personnel; and the coordination of family health activities both inside and outside the health sector. The review recommends that UNICEF and WHO first regard the capacity of the host country to absorb aid and maintain projects, and that specific family planning activities, such as the provision of supplies, equipment, and transport, be introduced only when the infrastructure is actually being expanded. Capital investment should be viewed in relation to the government's ability to meet budgetary and staff requirements the new facilities demand.
London, England, IPPF, 2001. 32 p. (USAID Grant Agreement No. CCP-G-00-93-00013-08)The sexual and reproductive health (SRH) of young people is a global issue with global importance, and one, which the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) has many years of experience addressing. IPPF's experience in implementing youth SRH programs has shown that the participation of youth in the design, implementation and evaluation of programs, in research, and in decision making at both policy and program level, significantly improves the achievements and results of youth programs. Hence, this document presents and describes IPPF's successes and lessons learned from many different youth programs from around the world, by incorporating the voices, ideas and experiences of young people involved in IPPF's work. The introductory part examines why young people are important in the context of SRH and provide a background to IPPF's rights- based approach in this area. The following five chapters address the rationale and program approaches in advocacy, information and education, reproductive health services, youth participation, and partnerships.
HEALTH FOR THE MILLIONS. 1998 Jul-Aug; 24(4):2.Health promotion is going to be a daunting global challenge in the third millennium. WHO is heading the worldwide health promotion campaign and its global health promotion efforts were reflected in the international conferences and the 51st World Health Assembly in Geneva in May 1998 which emphasized the need for partnerships for health, by forging newer and stronger alliances, based on greater equity in health. The two very important tools in effective health promotion programs are health education and health communication. Health promotion interventions have succeeded or failed depending upon the level of people's involvement in them, generated through these two media. In order for the messages to be understood and accepted by the local communities, health promotion programs should be need-specific and their goals realistic. Overall, the whole approach of health promotion needs to adopt a different paradigm if it is to reach the people for whom it is meant.
In: Multilateral treaties, index and current status, Ninth Cumulative Supplement, compiled by M.J. Bowman and D.J. Harris. Nottingham, England, University of Nottingham Treaty Centre, 1992. 181.The following countries became parties to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights in 1989-1991: a) Albania, 4 October 1991; b) Algeria, 12 September 1989 c) Burundi, 9 May 1990; d) Estonia, 21 October 1991; e) Grenada, 6 September 1991; f) Haiti, 6 February 1991; g) Ireland, 8 December 1989, h) Israel, 3 October 1991; i) Lithuania, 20 November 1991; j) Malta, 13 September 1990; k) Nepal, 14 May 1991; l) Republic of Korea, 10 April 1990; m) Somalia, 24 January 1990; and n) Zimbabwe, 13 May 1991. The Covenant contains human rights provisions relating to equality of the sexes, freedom of movement, freedom from arbitrary and unlawful interference with the home and family, protection of children and the family, the right to marry and found a family, and equality of spouses within marriages. In addition, the following of the above countries also became parties to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights on the same dates: Albania, Estonia, Grenada, Haiti, Israel, Lithuania, Malta, Nepal, and Zimbabwe. This Covenant contains human rights provisions relating to equality of the sexes, equal pay for equal work, maternity benefits, housing, education, health care, and protection of the family, children, and mothers. See Multilateral Treaties, Index and Current Status, p. 181.
In: Multilateral treaties, index and current status, 8th cumulative suppl., compiled by M.J. Bowman and D.J. Harris. Nottingham, England, University of Nottingham Treaty Centre, 1991. 158.Since 1983, the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights has been ratified by the following countries: Algeria, 12 September 1989; Argentina, 8 August 1986; Burundi, 9 May 1990; Cameroon, 27 June 1984; the Congo, 5 October 1983; Equatorial Guinea, 25 September 1987; Ireland, 8 December 1989; the Republic of Korea, 10 April 1990; Luxembourg, 18 August 1983; Niger, 7 March 1986; the Philippines, 23 October 1986; San Marino, 18 October 1985; Somalia, 24 January 1990; Sudan, 18 March 1986; Togo, 24 May 1984; Democratic Yemen, 9 February 1987; and Zambia, 10 April 1984. Provisions of the covenant guarantee equal rights for men and women, pay equity, maternity benefits, social protection for children and the family, and the rights to housing, education, and health care, among other things.
NATURE. 1992 Jan 23; 355(6358):291.Fernando Orrega (Nature 353, 596; 1991) has been carried away by his lack of enthusiasm for the UN Population Fund. We certainly make mistakes--including using wrong per-capita food production figures in our 1991 State of World Population report. But he assumes that our mistake indicates cynicism or criminal carelessness--and that we do not accept. We (and the Food and Agriculture Organization, from which the data came) got the figures right in the 1990 State of World Population. They are not comforting. They support the idea that there is an impending food crisis in developing countries, and that rapid population growth has a lot to do with it. The World Bank--which Orrega quotes--also takes this view. There is a similar crisis in education. Mixing up enrollment figures with children at school does not help. There are 105 million children not at school and this figure will double by the end of the century, according to UNESCO. They may or may not have been enrolled in school at 1 time, as Orrega claims, but they are not at school now. The cost of providing education and health care for children is significant, even in developing countries. That is 1 reason why people in developing countries are having fewer children. India claims to have averted 108 million births. Does anyone--even Orrega--seriously contend that India would be better off if they had been born? That is, if India's population was now 1000 million instead of nearly 900 million? (full text)
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], . , 34 p.Women are the heart of development since they control most of the nonmoney economy including subsistence agriculture, child bearing and raising, as well as play an important part in the money economy. The status of women will be crucial in determining future population growth rates. The woman's dependence offered her some protection in return for her production of sons, leading to practices which have existed for centuries and are woven into society. In developing countries women tend to marry young: 50% in Africa, 40% in Asia, and 30% in Latin America are married by the age of 18. In most societies women's social and economic standing is closely related to child bearing. In 8 out of 9 cultures there is a preference for sons over daughters and parents expect little from a girl once she is married. Childbirth anywhere has its risks but in developing countries the risks are multiplied. The youngest and oldest mothers are the most at risk. Women are normally the collectors of water and firewood. Environmental degradation forces them on long strenuous trips to get these vital resources. Migration is a growing phenomenon in the developing world. 1 in 3 households are without man because of migration. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is having a dramatic impact on women and their children, especially in developing countries where there is a lack of information, advice and service. Most of the health problems in developing countries could be solved by a combination of prevention and cure which centers around women since they are the providers as well as the recipients of health care. Education is a key factor since the more a women receives, the better the chances are for her children's survival. By reducing women's work load and making labor more profitable, family size might decrease which would decrease the load further. Recommendations include publicizing contributions, increasing productivity, providing family planning and health care, and expanding education and equality of opportunity for women.
In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 177-8.The government of Zambia has begun to concern itself with improving the living conditions of its people. Since the Bucharest Population Conference, countries in Africa have experienced a growth in population, in addition to declines in its various economies. The population of Zambia increased at a rate of 3.1% between 1969-1980. If this trend continues, the population will double in 23 years. Thus, the government seeks to implement population programmes which will deal with the rising population variables, while introducing programs which will stimulate economic growth. It is the policy of the government to provide free education, provide free health services, and work to improve the status of women in its society.
1987 report by the Executive Director of the United Nations Population Fund. State of world population 1988. UNFPA in 1987.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1988. 189 p.Of major significance to the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) in 1987 was the fact that the world's population passed the 5 billion mark in that year. Although population growth rates are now slowing, the momentum of population growth ensures that at least another 3 billion people will be added to the world between 1985-2025. This increasing population pressure dictates a need for development policies that sustain and expand the earth's resource base rather than deplete it. Successful adaptation will require political commitment and significant investments of national resources, both human and financial. It is especially important to extend the reach of family planning programs so that women can delay the 1st birth and extend the intervals between subsequent births. Nearly all developing countries now have family planning programs, but the degree of political and economic support, and their effective reach, vary widely. In 1987, UNFPA assistance in this area totalled US$73.3 million, or 55% of total program allocations. During this year, UNFPA supported nearly 500 country and intercountry family planning projects, with particular attention to improving maternal-child health/family planning services in sub-Saharan Africa. As more governments in Africa became involved in Family planning programs, there was a concomitant need for all types of training programs. Other special program interests during 1987 included women and development, youth, aging, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This Annual Report includes detailed accounts of UNFPA program activities in 1987 in sub-Saharan Africa, Arab States and Europe, Asia and the Pacific, and Latin America and the Caribbean. Also included are reports on policy and program coordination, staff training and development, evaluation, technical cooperation among developing countries, procurement of supplies and equipment, multibilateral financing for population activities, and income and expenditures.
In: Proceedings of the Interagency Workshop on Health Care Practices Related to Breastfeeding, December 7-9, 1988, Leavey Conference Center, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C., edited by Miriam Labbok and Margaret McDonald with Mark Belsey, Peter Greaves, Ted Greiner, Margaret Kyenkya-Isabirye, Chloe O'Gara, James Shelton. [Washington, D.C., Georgetown University Medical Center, Institute for International Studies in Natural Family Planning, 1988]. 13 p.. (USAID Contract No. DPE-3040-A-00-5064-00)The World Health Organization's (WHO's) Control of Diarrheal Diseases Program (CDD) is seeking ways to prevent diarrhea and has identified breastfeeding as an important factor. CDD has developed activities in both its research and services components. In the research component, results from recent studies, some of which received support from the program, have shown the strong protective effect of breastfeeding against diarrheal morbidity and mortality. Exclusively breastfed infants are at lower risk of experiencing diarrhea than infants who are partially breastfed, and those who are partially breastfed are at lower risk than those who are not breastfed. Breastfeeding, which also may reduce the severity of the diarrheal illness, has a powerful effect on the risk of diarrhea-associated death. CDD's priorities for research support in the area of infant feeding were reviewed at an April 1988 meeting. Further research that the program feels is needed falls into 2 broad categories: trials of hospital and community-based interventions that aim to promote exclusive breastfeeding in the 1st 4-6 months of life; and evaluation of approaches for implementing tested breastfeeding promotion interventions in the context of national diarrheal disease control programs. CDD's services component has as its basic responsibility collaboration with countries in developing national control programs. It applies the results of research and involves activities in planning, oral rehydration solution (ORS) supply, training, communication, monitoring, and evaluation. It is in the area of training that specific recommendations on breastfeeding have been made. These recommendations are outlined. The training courses are being used to train approximately 5000 supervisory and management staff a year. The program plans to monitor the effectiveness of the training and develop future activities based on that information.
In: The global impact of AIDS. Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Global Impact of AIDS, co-sponsored by the World Health Organization and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, held in London, March 8-10, 1988, edited by Alan F. Fleming, Manuel Carballo, David W. FitzSimons, Michael R. Bailey, Jonathan Mann. New York, New York, Alan R. Liss, 1988. 329-34.A study of 30 national Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) programs and control plans suggests an auspicious beginning in the effort to mobilize an array of organizations focusing on AIDS prevention and control. The Global Program on AIDS (GPA) of the World Health Organization has assisted National AIDS Committees in over 100 countries to develop short-term plans (6-18 months) or longterm plans (3-5 years) for AIDS prevention and control. Information and education programs are a key element of each plan. In its effort to support these programs, the Global Program on AIDS maintains a worldwide profile of the scope and impact of information and education programs to combat AIDS. To prepare an analytical frame of reference for this profile, 30 national AIDS Prevention and Control Plans were studied to identify recurring target audiences and collaborating institutions. 10 plans were included from countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, 5 plans from the Americas, 5 from the Middle and Near-East, 5 from Asia, and 5 from the Pacific Region. 21 of these plans describe their countries as having a low prevalence of AIDS and HIV infection. All plans include explicit efforts to inform the public about AIDS, how HIV infection is transmitted, and how HIV infection is not transmitted. Some plans specifically call for information, testing, and counseling services and the marketing of the services to encourage their use. All plans recognize the media as important channels for information and all plans give a high priority to the AIDS-related education of health sector personnel. In all plans, prostitutes and their clients and attendees of Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) clinics are important. Homosexual and bisexual men are included in virtually all plans where heterosexual transmission is not verified as the dominant mode of transmission. Where HIV prevalence is low and where traveling across national boundaries for work or pleasure is common, travelers are identified as an important target audience. A table presents the channels of institutional influence most frequently included in plans, in addition to health and formal educational systems. These include national and local political organizations, church organizations, family planning associations, employer and employee groups, and leading public and private agencies. 22 plans include the provision of condoms and discuss a variety of institutional mechanisms for their distribution.
[Unpublished] 1988. Presented at the 116th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association [APHA], Boston, Massachusetts, November 13-17, 1988. 7 p.In most developing countries, particularly those in Africa and the Caribbean, equal numbers of women as men are affected by the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and have the potential to infect their fetuses. Thus, any consideration of the AIDS problem in developing countries must give serious attention to women and children. Current research suggests a perinatal transmission rate of 30-40% and there is concern that AIDS-related pediatric deaths will undermine child survival efforts in countries that have begun to reduce infant and child mortality rates. A number of clinical issues that are now poorly understood require immediate research so that findings can be incorporated into AIDS prevention strategies. Among these issues are: the impact of pregnancy on progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to AIDS; factors that affect an HIV-infected mother's chance of infecting her fetus; the safety of breastfeeding; immunization; the relationships between HIV infection and various contraceptives; and the potential impact of HIV infection on fertility. The extent and nature of the social and financial impact of AIDS at the family and community levels must also be better understood. In the interim, UNICEF has proposed 6 programmatic approaches to prevent women from becoming infected, to prevent perinatal transmission, and to address the AIDS-related needs of women and children. 1st, traditional birth attendants should be trained in AIDS prevention measures and provided with supplies to ensure infection control. 2nd, women must be able to receive consistent, appropriate advice from both maternal-child health workers and family planning staff about contraception and their future health. 3rd, the issue of counseling for women should be broadened beyond that associated with routine prenatal HIV screening. 4th, AIDS education efforts for school-age children must be expanded. 5th, more attention should be given to the social service needs of AIDS-infected women and children. And 6th, there is an urgent need to improve protocols and treatment facilities for those affected with HIV and AIDS.
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, ICOMP, 1988 Jan. vi, 68 p.1987 has proven to be a most successful year for the International Council on Management of Population Programs (ICOMP). Membership expanded to 61 -- program managers 34, heads of management institutes 12, associate members 9, and honorary members 6. 6 workshops were held in 1987, 4 devoted to population program management and 2 in the area of women's programs. The UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), South Asian Management Program (SAMP) is being executed in a timely manner. ICOMP also executed a management training program for Vietnam at the request of the UNFPA. Training activities were conducted in Vietnam, and study tours of the ASEAN region were conducted. Other activities in 1987 included the study tour of China, the ongoing research activities under the community participation project, and various international activities. The 1987 Financial Report and Accounts shows that ICOMP has reached its financial target of US$1,000,000. The actual income for 1987 was US$1,014,602. The various activities of the year are detailed.
Project agreement between the Employers Confederation of the Philippines (ECOP) and ILO/Labour and Population Team for Asia and the Pacific (LAPTAP).
[Unpublished] 1987.  p. (Project No. PHI/87/EO1)This project agreement between the Employers Confederation of the Philippines (ECOP) and the International Labor Organization (ILO)/Labor and Population Team for Asia and the Pacific (LAPTAP) continues support to the Population Unit of ECOP for an additional 2 years (July 1987-89). Economic uncertainties in the Philippines resulting from the past period of political turmoil necessitated this extension in ILO funding. After 1989, ECOP will absorb the population education officer into its regular staff. Continued funding of the ECOP program is based on several favorable factors, including the evident commitment of the ECOP directors to population activities, contact made with individual employers and business associations since 1985, and the production high-quality IEC materials. The long-term objective of this project is to promote smaller families through educational and motivational programs that emphasize the close relationship of family planning and living standards and to link such activities with existing health services at the plant level. Specific objectives are to disseminate information on family planning and family welfare to workers and to educate employers in the industrial sector about the relevance of family planning to labor force development. Project activities will include monthly seminars for employers and meetings with member associations of ECOP.