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Health and health services in Judaea, Samaria and Gaza 1983-1984: a report by the Ministry of Health of Israel to the Thirty-Seventh world Health Assembly, Geneva, May 1984.
Jerusalem, Israel, Ministry of Health, 1984 Mar. 195 p.Health conditions and health services in Judea, Samaria, and Gaza during the 1967-83 period are discussed. Health-related activities and changes in the social and economic environment are assessed and their impact on health is evaluated. Specific activities performed during the current year are outlined. The following are specific facets of the health care system that are the focus of many current projects in these districts; the development of a comprehensive network of primary care programs and centers for preventive and curative services has been given high priority and is continuing; renovation and expansion of hospital facilities, along with improved staffing, equipment, and supplies for basic and specialty health services increase local capabilities for increasingly sophisticated health care, and consequently there is a decreasing need to send patients requiring specialized care to supraregional referral hospitals, except for highly specialized services; inadequacies in the preexisting reporting system have necessitated a continuting process of development for the gathering and publication of general and specific statistical and demographic data; stress has been placed on provision of safe drinking water, development of sewage and solid waste collection and disposal systems, as well as food control and other environmental sanitation activities; major progress has been made in the establishment of a funding system that elicits the participation and financial support of the health care consumer through volunary health insurance, covering large proportions of the population in the few years since its inception; the continuing building room in residential housing along with the continuous development of essential community sanitation infrastructure services are important factors in improved living and health conditions for the people; and the health system's growth must continue to be accompanied by planning, evaluation, and research atall levels. Specific topics covered include: demography and vital statistics; socioeconomic conditions; morbidity and mortality; hospital services; maternal and child health; nutrition; health education; expanded program immunization; environmental health; mental health; problems of special groups; health insurance; community and voluntary agency participation; international agencies; manpower and training; and planning and evaluation. Over the past 17 years, Judea, Samaria, and Gaza have been areas of rapid population growth and atthe same time of rapid socioeconomic development. In addition there have been basic changes in the social and health environment. As measured by socioeconomic indicators, much progress has been achieved for and by the people. As measured by health status evaluation indicators, the people benefit from an incresing quantity and quality of primary care and specialty services. The expansion of the public health infrastructure, combined with growing access to and utilization of personal preventive services, has been a key contributor to this process.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, 1984. viii, 60 p. (Report No. 79)This report presents the findings of a mission from the UN Fund for Population Activities to ascertain the needs for population assistance for the Republic of Botswana. Botswana's population is growing at a rate of 3.46% (1980-1985), a consequence of continuing high fertility and decreasing death rates. While there is an awareness of the implications of he high growth rate for development, the government appears to have relaxed its emphasis on controlling population growth, limiting its role to maternal and child health, and concentrating on the family welfare aspects of fertility control. The Mission expressed concern about the absence of a clearly articulated policy on population. However, it is hoped that the creation of the Botswana Population Council will result in the inclusion of such a policy in future national development plans. Migration is a major problem facing planners. The high rate of rural to urban migration and the reduction of migration to the Republic of South Africa for employment, have resulted in high unemployment rates within Botswana, particularly among unskilled workers. Critical gaps have been identified in the collection, analysis, and dissemination of population data, which are essential for the formulation of appropriate development strategies in this area. The Mission recommends that support in the form of training and technical assistance be provided to both the Central Statistics Office and the Registry of Births and Deaths, in the case of the latter to promote the establishment of a nation-wide civil registration system. Present health policy focuses on the concept of primary health care, with an emphasis on preventive health and community participation. Due to the shortage of health manpower and heavy dependence on expatriate personnel, the Mission's recommendations in this area stress support for the training of health workers at all levels and the inclusion of population components in this training. A high proportion of households, particularly in rural areas, are headed by women, and many of these households are poor. The Mission's recommendations seek to enhance women's economic status and improve their access to resources such as vocational training and agricultural extension services.
POPULATION MANAGER: ICOMP REVIEW. 1987 Jun; 1(1):19-22.Communication plays an essential role in creating the necessary social climate for the development and adoption of population policies and in supporting actions undertaken to implement these policies. To be effective, however, there must be integrated communication for population and development programs. In addition to knowledge of the mass media and community organizations, communicators in the field of population must have the ability to collaborate with other development programs in an intersectoral effort, Toward this end, UNESCO, in collaboration with the Asia-Pacific Institute for broadcasting Development, has organized specialized courses in the management of population communication programs. A review of the situation at the time this program was initiated revealed that IEC directors had minimal knowledge and understanding of the role of IEC in family planning programs, little practical experience in planning and managing multimedia, community-based, interpersonal communication activities, and these programs had no scientifically established data base. As result, a pilot 2-week course comprised of o modules was held in India in 1983. Module 1 focused on a systematic problem-solving approach to IEC program situations, Module ii emphasized human resource management, and Module III was designed to impart specific communication skills. The course was subsequently expanded to 3 weeks, and has in the past 3 years involved 54 persons from 20 countries. Unesco has also developed a population communication course in collaboration with the Arab States Broadcasting Union.
[Unpublished] .  p. (XA/01472/00)The Regional Population Communication Unit for Africa, operational in Nairobi, Kenya in September 1974, and a sub-unit operational since 1977 in Dakar, Senegal, work closely with the population education office in Dakar and with other international, regional, and subregional organizations which are active in population, family planning research, rural development, women, youth, and educational matters. In the years ahead, the Regional Unit will concentrate its efforts on assisting individual member states in addition to activities at regional or subregional levels, which are considered by member states to have a multiplier effect. The Unit's main objectives include: to assist national governments in the development of their communication plans, policies, and projects in support of their population/family planning and overall development programs; to work out with regional and international organizations or agencies a practical and effective system of coordinating communication and education activities in support of population and development communication programs at the national, subregional, and regional levels; to develop regional and national institutions for training, research, and development of appropriate communication materials; and to establish a population communication clearinghouse to serve as an exchange center for population and development communication programs in the region. The immediate objectives are to assist member states in their quest for self sufficiency in the training and development of manpower in the field of population; to provide member states with technical support in the development of their population activities; to promote the exchange of information, experience, materials, and know-how in the region; to develop and evaluate innovative communication approaches, which could improve the performance of national programs; to develop, pretest, produce, and evaluate a variety of prototype educational materials for use at the national level; and to improve the capacity of the Regional Population Communication Unit to assist in providing advisory services to national governments. The Unit's program of activities concentrates on 4 areas at both national and regional levels -- training, research and studies, media development, and technical assistance and advisory services. The activities of the Unit are geared to provide support for existing projects and programs, study tours, regional specialized workshops, and seminars and participation in the training seminars and workshops. Training programs provided by the Unit include seminars, workshops, and conference on development support communication. The training strategy emphasizes training as a continuing activity.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 May. xii, 156 p. (Report No. 67)A Needs Assessment and Program Development Mission visited the People's Republic of China from March 7 to April 16, 1983 to: review and analyze the country's population situation within the context of national population goals as well as population related development objectives, strategies, and programs; make recommendations on the future orientation and scope of national objectives and programs for strengthening or establishing new objectives, strategies, and programs; and make recommendations on program areas in need of external assistance within the framework of the recommended national population program and for geographical areas. This report summarizes the needs and recommendations in regard to: population policies and policy-related research; demographic research and training; basic population data collection and analysis; maternal and child health and family planning services; management training support for family planning services; logistics of contraceptive supply; management information system; family planning communication and education; family planning program research and evaluation; contraceptive production; research in human reproduction and contraceptives; population education and dissemination of population information; and special groups and multisectoral activities. The report also presents information on the national setting (geographical and cultural features, government and administration, the economy, and the evolution of socioeconomic development planning) and demographic features (population size, characteristics, and distribution, nationwide and demographic characteristics in geographical core areas). Based on its assessment of needs, the Mission identified mjaor priorities for assistance in the population field. Because of China's size and vast needs, external assistance for population programs would be diluted if provided to all provincial and lower administrative levels. Thus, the Mission suggests that a substantial portion of available resources be concentrated in 3 provinces as core areas: Sichuan, the most populous province (100,220,000 people by the end of 1982); Guandong, the province with the highest birthrate (25/1000); and Jiangsu, the most densely populated province (608 persons/square kilometer. In all the government has identified 11 provinces needing special attention in the next few years: Anhui, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jilin, Shaanxi and Shandong, in addition to Guangdong, Jiangsu, and Sichuan.
New York, UNFPA, 1985 Mar. viii, 68 p. (Report No. 70)The UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) is in the process of an extensive programming exercise intended to respond to the needs for population assistance in a priority group of developing countries. This report presents the findings of the Mission that visited Burma from May 9-25, 1984. The report includes dat a highlights; a summary and recommendations for population assistance; the national setting; population policies and population and development planning; data collection, analysis, and demographic training and research;maternal and child health, including child spacing; population education in the in-school and out-of school sectors; women, population, and development; and external assistance -- multilateral assistance, bilateral assistance, and assistance from nongovernmental organizations. In Burma overpopulation is not a concern. Population activities are directed, rather, toward the improvement of health standards. The main thrust of government efforts is to reduce infant mortality and morbidity, promote child spacing, improve medical services in rural areas, and generally raise standards of public health. In drafting its recommendations, whether referring to current programs and activities or to new areas of concern, the Mission was guided by the government's policies and objectives in the field of population. Recommendations include: senior planning officials should visit population and development planning offices in other countries to observe program organization and implementation; continued support should be given to ensure the successful completion of the tabulation and analysis of the 1983 Population Census; the People's Health Plan II (1982-86) should be strengthened through the training of health personnel at all levels, in in-school, in-service, and out-of-country programs; and the need exists to establish a program of orientation to train administrators, trainers/educators, and key field staff of the Department of Health and the Department of Cooperatives in various aspects of population communication work.
Bangkok, Thailand, ESCAP, 1984 Apr. 175 p. (ESCAP Programme on Health and Development Technical Paper No. 65/BCS 12; ST/ESCAP/291)The recognition of the necessity of involving the community in development efforts has been a turning point in the evolution of development thinking in recent years. Since 1978, the UNICEF Regional Office for East Asia and Pakistan and ESCAP have been conducting a series of training seminars where local development, basic services and primary health care are discussed as part of village reality. This volume reviews this experience, generalizing it to enhance adaptation. The seminars are a learning by doing and experience-sharing process. Group discussion and reflection on relevant issues are focused on. The seminars are oriented to community life as a whole, considering primary heatlh care as an entry point for coummunity development which involves generation of services within the community, supplemented by delivery of services from other institutional levels. This report describes the overall framework, including the organization of the 1983 seminar and the training approach, and the syllabus and evaluates the seminars. The goal of the seminar is the promotion of basic community health care in the countries of the region to improve the quality of life of the poor. Each participant discusses his/her work experience. Basic needs, basic services and primary health care are examined and a field-study phase at village-level is organized. Planning capabilities are developed by a phase of planning for basic and community services and primary health care. A module on national development, basic needs approach and production-oriented development is introduced. Finally, each participant prepares a draft project proposal for training for his/her own country situation. The evaluation of a program includes both its delivery system component and its eventual impact. The seminars used questionnaires, special group discussions and interviewing of the participants. The aim was to scrutinize the relevance and potential for modification of knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) rather that the actual impact actual impact achieved. Behavioral change should be evaluated on at least 2 levels: the individual and the collective. The structure, clustering and frequency of response to a given question in an evaluation questionnaire and the average level of awareness about a particular issue are 2 important measures to analyze. Seminar participants were mainly middle level personnel, but included some junior and senior officials from ministries of health, interior or home affairs and agriculture; training institutes; rural development institutes; planning commissions and universities.
Report of a UNESCO/WHO Interregional Consultation on Training in Communication/Education in Support of Family Health/Planning Programs held on 24-28 November 1975 in Alexandria, Arab Republic of Egypt.
[Unpublished] . 22 p.The specific objectives of the UNESCO/WHO (World Health Organization) interregional consultation on training in communication/education in support of family health/planning programs, held in Alexandria, Egypt during November 1975, were as follows: to identify priority needs for education, communication and information with respect to family health training programs in the participating countries in the region; and to consider specific ways and means for making more effective use of the existing education, communication resources, and facilities and make recommendations for future development of these activities in the countries represented. As a point of departure 2 main premises were agreed upon: that family health refers to a goal and not a program and is the expected outcome of actions taken by many agencies, facilities, programs, and professions; and that the scope of family health/planning activities varies from 1 country to another according to such factors as national objectives and policies, sociocultural and economic factors, the pattern of health service and organization, and the stage of technological development. Family planning is critical to national and world development and must be a concern of governments, educators, economists, medical personnel, and voluntary agencies. A need exists for cooperation and coordination among all agencies concerning family planning. In the context of health, family planning constitutes a vital preventive measure which seeks to regulate fertility in a manner that promotes positive health. Information and education activities about health needs are not effective when no services to meet these needs are available. Education is important to breaking down barriers and promoting the acceptance of the family planning concept. There is a need for a clearly defined program for coordinated use of media and extension education and preparation, production, and utilization of material at local and national levels. This indicates that the contents of media must in all instances be concordant with national policies. To perform his/her functions properly, the communication expert would need competencies in action, training, and research. A need exists to make an inventory of the existing categories of training institutions or centers at country and regional levels and the specific courses they offer in the area of human reproduction and in the communication/health education for family health/population planning purposes. There is a priority need for teachers in human reproduction, family health/population planning, and its education/communication component.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1980. 412 p.This report on the world health situation comes in 2 volumes, and this, the 2nd volume, reviews the health situation by country and area, with the additions and amendments submitted by the governments, and an addendum for later submissions. Information is presented for countries in the African Region, the Region of the Americas; the Southeast Asia Region, the European Region, the Eastern Mediterranean Region, and the Western Pacific Region. The information provided includes the following areas: the primary health problems, health policy; health legislation; health planning and programming; the organization of health services; biomedical and health services research; education and training of health manpower; health establishments; estimates of the main categories of health manpower; the production and sale of pharmaceuticals; health expenditures; appraisal of health services; demographic and health data; major public health problems; training establishments; actions taken; preventive medicine; and public health.
A proposed plan of action for the integration of women in the development of the Eastern Mediterranean region.
In: Kjurciev A, Farrag AM, ed. Population-education-development in the Arab countries. Beirut, Lebanon, Unesco Regional Office for Education in the Arab Countries, 1977. 281-95.The attempt is made to try to relate the situation of women in the Eastern Mediterranean Region to women's worldwide problems, and, on this basis, propose resolutions as adopted in the Mexico Conference. This discussion will be used in proposing a Regional Plan of Action within the context of the Mexico Conference. It is hoped that the proposed regional Plan will be discussed and adopted by Arab countries represented at the next meeting of the Women's Committee of the League of Arab states. The problems of women, population, and food are found to be particularly interrelated, and there is a relationship between these problems and the existing international economic order. For this region among others, the integration of women in the development process is conceptualized in terms of their roles as reproducers, producers, and citizens. The crux of the problem is the balance and coordination between these 3 roles. The following areas, which have been the focus of studies and meetings in this region as well as at the international Women's Year Conference, are reviewed: education and training; employment; population, health and social services; family roles and legislation; public participation; mass media; and research. The aim of the proposed plan is to achieve the maximum possible equality between men and women in this region for the purpose of national development. To reach this goal, 2 major objectives are identified: to improve women's skills, capabilities, and potentialities, through higher levels of literacy, education, and training on appropriate jobs; and to reduce existing prejudices aginst women, through improved attitudes in all circles. To this end, 2 types of action must be undertaken at the national level: a longterm effort to introduce structural and substantive changes in society and its systems; and increasing the relevance and extending already existing programs for the advancement of women. Most countries of the region have often indicated the need to improve the status of women, but no major steps have been taken thus far towards formulation of a comprehensive plan for such improvement. A comprehensive plan dealing with women's problems in an integrated fashion is very much needed in every Arab country. The requisites for devising the plan in each country are outlined. On the local level, the role of the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund should be related to long-term and short-term activities. UNICEF may grant financial assistance, and once a comprehensive plan has been outlined it should specify clearly its inputs according to both the country's priorities and UNICEF's policy for women's promotion.
New York, UNFPA, 1978 Jun. 53 p. (Report No 3)The present report presents the findings of the Mission which visited Afghanistan from October 3-16, 1977 for the purpose of assessing the country's needs for population assistance. Report focus is on the following: the national setting (geographical, cultural, and administrative features; salient demographic, social, and economic characteristics of the population; and economic development and national planning); basic population data; population dynamics and policy formulation; implementing population policies (family health and family planning and education, communication, and information); and external assistance (multilateral and bilateral). The final section presents the recommendations of the Mission in detail. For the past 25 years Afghanistan has been working to inject new life into its economy. Per capita income, as estimated for 1975, was $U.S. 150, a relatively low figure and heavily skewed in favor of a very small proportion of the population. The country is still predominantly rural (85%) and agricultural (75%). In the absence of reliable data, population figures must be accepted tentatively. According to the 7-year plan, the population in 1975 was 16.7 million and the rate of growth around 2.5% per annum. The crude birth rate is near 50/1000 and the crude death rate possibly 25/1000. The Mission endorses the priority given by the government to the population census and recommends continued support on the part of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) to help the Central Statistical Office in the present effort and in building up capacity for future work. The Mission recommends that efforts be concentrated on the reduction of infant, child, and maternal mortality levels and that assistance be continued to the family health services and to programs of population education. Emphasis should be on services to men and women in rural areas. The Mission also recommends a training program for traditional birth attendants.
New York, UNFPA, 1981 Oct. 59 p. (Report No 44)The findings of the Mission that visited the Republic of the Gambia during October 1978 and from August 27th to September 5th, 1980 for the purpose of assessing the need for population assistance are presented in this report. Information is provided on the following: the national setting (geographical and governmental features; demographic, social, and economic characteristics of the population; and population policy and development planning); basic population data (censuses and surveys, vital statistics and civil registration, other data collection activities, and needs); population policy formulation (population growth and distribution, integration of population factors into development plans, and structures for policy formulation; and implementing population policies (programs designed to affect fertility, mortality, and morbidity; programs affecting the distribution of the population; information, education, and communication programs; and women's programs); and external assistance (multilateral and bilateral assistance and nongovernmental organization assistance). Mission recommendations are both summarized and presented in detail. The total population of the country is 597,000, and the population growth rate between 1963-1973 was an estimated 2.8%. The crude birth rate is 49-50/1000 and the total estimated fertility rate is an average of 6.4 live births/woman over her reproductive life span. Both population density and urban growth are serious concerns. Internal and international migration are influencing the population distribution, although data regarding migration are limited. The economy is primarily agricultural. Gambia had no formal population policy until 1979. The current population is based on the guiding principles that population policy should be considered part of rural development and that the goal of self-reliance should be pursued. Improved management, administration, logistics, transport, and supervision to support the existing and all future health care service systems of the country are critical needs. Training is needed for various categories of health personnel.