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Updated guidelines for UNFPA policies and support to special programmes in the field of women, population and development.
[Unpublished] 1988 Apr. , 8 p.The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) has been mandated to integrate women's concerns into all population and development activities. Women's status affects and is affected by demographic variables such as fertility, maternal mortality, and infant mortality. Women require special attention to their needs as both mothers and productive workers. In addition to integrating women's concerns into all aspects of its work, the Fund supports special projects targeted specifically at women. These projects have offered a good starting point for developing more comprehensive projects that can include education, employment, income generation, child care, nutrition, health, and family planning. UNFPA will continue to support activities aimed at promoting education and training, health and child care, and economic activities for women as well as for strengthening awareness of women's issues and their relationship to national goals. Essential to the goal of incorporating women's interests into all facets of UNFPA programs and projects are training for all levels of staff, participation of all UNFPA organizational units, increased cooperation and joint activities with other UN agencies, and more dialogue with governmental and nongovernmental organizations concerned with the advancement of women. Specific types of projects to be supported by UNFPA in the period ahead are in the following categories: education and training, maternal health and child care, economic activities, awareness creation and information exchange, institution building, data collection and analysis, and research.
ISSUES IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. 1988 Winter; 4(2):43-8.Without a medical miracle, it seems inevitable that the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) pandemic will become not only the most serious public health problem of this generation but a dominating issue in 3rd world development. As a present-day killer, AIDS in developing countries is insignificant compared to malaria, tuberculosis, or infant diarrhea, but this number is misleading in 3 ways. First, it fails to reflect the per capita rate of AIDS cases. On this basis, Bermuda, French Guyana, and the Bahamas have much higher rates than the US. Second, there is extensive underreporting of AIDS cases in most developing nations. Finally, the number of AIDS cases indicates where the epidemic was 5-7 years ago, when these people became infected. Any such projections of the growth of 3rd world AIDS epidemics are at this time based on epidemiologic data from the industrialized rations of the north and on the assumption that the virus acts similarly in the south as it does in the US and Europe. Yet, 3rd world conditions differ. Sexually transmitted diseases usually are more prevalent, and people have a different burden of other diseases and of other stresses to the immune system. In Africa, AIDS already is heavily affecting the mainstream population in some nations. Some regions will approach net population declines over the next decade. How far their populations eventually could decline because of AIDS is unclear and will depend crucially on countermeasures taken or not taken over the next 1-2 years. In purely economic terms, AIDS will affect the direct costs of health care, expenses which are unrealistic for most 3rd world countries. Further, the vast majority of deaths from AIDS in developing countries will occur among those in the sexually active age groups -- the wage earners and food producers. Deaths in this age group also will reduce the labor available for farming and industry. AIDS epidemics also may have significant effects on foreign investment in the 3rd world as well as negative effects on tourism. The global underclass will be disproportionately affected by AIDS as the blacks and Hispanics already are in New York and Miami. Thus far, the reaction of donor countries to the World Health Organization's (WHO) appeal for funds to fight the battle against AIDS has been excellent. The global strategy of WHO places priority on national campaigns, but none of the national campaigns will be effective unless linked to similar actions in other nations to form a vigorous international program. The US has a special responsibility to provide international leadership on AIDS. The US is the world leader in AIDS research and has the bulk of the virus research capacity. Further, no country can come close to matching US experience in dealing with AIDS through "safe sex" education campaigns.
Paris, France, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], 1988. 90 p. (Demographic Change and Public Policy)This is the first in a planned series of volumes published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) concerning the economic and social consequences of demographic aging in OECD member countries. "This detailed statistical analysis of demographic trends in the 24 OECD countries examines the implications for public expenditure on education, health care, pensions and other social areas, and discusses the policy choices facing governments." Data are from official sources. (EXCERPT)
NUFUSBILIM DERGISI/TURKISH JOURNAL OF POPULATION STUDIES. 1987; 9:63-73.From the perspective of the UN Fund for Population Activities, Turkey has a population problem of some magnitude. In 1987 the population reached 50 million, up from 25 million in 1957. Consistent with world trends, the population growth rate in Turkey declined from 2.5% between 1965-73 to 2.2% between 1973-84; it is expected to further decrease to 2.0% between 1980 and 2000. This is due primarily to a marked decline of the crude birthrate from 41/1000 in 1965 to 30/1000 in 1984. These effects have been outweighed by a more dramatic decline in the death rate from 14/1000 in 1965 to 9/1000 in 1984. Assuming Turkey to reach a Net Reproduction Rate of 1 by 2010, the World Bank estimates Turkey's population to reach some 109 million by the middle of the 21st century. The population could reach something like 150 million in the mid-21st century. Some significant progress has been made in Turkey in recent years in the area of family planning. Yet, some policy makers do not seem fully convinced of the urgency of creating an ever-increasing "awareness" among the population and of the need for more forceful family planning strategies. Government allocations for Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning (MCH/FP) services continue to be insufficient to realize a major breakthrough in curbing the population boom in the foreseeable future. Most foreign donors do not consider Turkey a priority country. It is believed to have sufficient expertise in most fields and to be able to raise most of the financial resources it needs for development. The UNFPA is the leading donor in the field of family planning, spending some US $800,000 at thi time. Foreign inputs into Turkey's family planning program are modest, most likely not exceeding US $1 million/year. Government expenditures are about 10 times higher. This independence in decision making is a positive factor. Turkey does not need to consider policy prescriptions that foreign donors sometimes hold out to recipients of aid. It may be difficult for foreign donors to support a politically or economically motivated policy of curtailing Turkey's population growth, but they should wholeheartedly assist Turkey in its effort to expand and improve its MCH/FP services. Donors and international organizations also may try to persuade governments of developing countries to allocate more funds to primary education and to the fight against social and economic imbalances. Donors should continue to focus on investing in all sectors that have a bearing on economic development.
Who Chronicle. 1985; 39(5):163-70.The World Conference to appraise the achievements of the UN Decade for Women was held in Nairobi, Kenya during July 1985 and was attended by 6000 delegates. In preparation for the Nairobi conference, the Director General of the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a report analyzing the situation regarding women, health, and development and drawing attention to the special health needs of women as well as to the key roles that women play in promoting health and development. Accurate, adequate, and relevant information is essential if appropriate action is to be taken, and much of WHO's efforts during the Decade focused on collecting such information. According to the Director General's report, women's contribution to development is underestimated and their potential is grossly underestimated. Their health status also is conditioned by factors such as employment, education, and social status. Ultimately, women's participation in health and development may even depend on equitable access to economic resources and political power. Thus, the report stresses that it is imperative not to view the health aspects in isolation. The status society accords women is closely linked to their reproductive function. Yet, despite this vital function, girls are valued less than boys in many countries. Nowhere is the inequity in women's status more apparent than in their economic situation. A study on the training and utilization of traditional birth attendants was carried out in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, and 3 Member States were then assisted in launching national training programs. In the Eastern Mediterranean Region, WHO collaborated with countries in pilot projects for the early detection and treatment of cervical and breast cancer. Legislative and policy issues relative to the welfare of women also have been studied. Among the subjects coverd have been the protection of working mothers, measures governing the minimum legal age of marriage, and harmful traditional practices. The grassroots organizations are the primary focus of WHO's strategy for involving women's organizations in primary health care since they serve the poor and the powerless and their goal is usually to satisfy the immediate needs of their members. WHO has initiated a multinational study on women as providers of health care, in which 17 Member States have participated. The Joint WHO/UNICEF Nutrition Support Program, initiated in 1982, supports action to improve the nutritional status of women and children.
Planned Parenthood and Women's Development. Experiences from Africa: Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho and Mauritius.
Nairobi, Kenya, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Africa Regional Office, 1985. , 54 p.This report, prepared as part of International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) Planned Parenthood and Women's Development (PPWD) program, analyzes selected program projects in Kenya, Mauritius, Lesotho, and Ghana. Projects were in the areas of income generation, community service provision, skill training, health education, and community issues. In all, over 40 projects have been assisted in Africa since the PPWD program was begun in 1977. Information on these projects, their activities, impact, and future needs is presented in tabular form. Members of the women's groups described are becoming outspoken advocates of family planning. Those who have limited their family size claimed to have more time to devote to self and family. Groups that have achieved high levels of acceptance of family planning methods attribute their success to the linkage of family planning and maternal-child health, family economics, nutrition, education, and future prospects. Community-based distribution of nonclinical contraceptives is viewed as a logical outgrowth of women's projects, and many group members are willing to be trained as volunteer motivators. In cases where PPWD funding periods have ended, Family Planning Associations have continued to support projects from their own resources. This is an encouraging trend, since the continuation and expansion of PPWD projects depends on groups being helped to become self-reliant, to seek government support for services, to develop strong leadership, and to link up with development plans for their areas. Revolving funds, rather than group grants, should be encouraged to extend the benefits of limited funding to more groups. Overall, the PPWD program has taken in Africa, and demands for expansion and further funding can be anticipated. It is important that the family planning objective remain central in these projects.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Jul. vii, 59 p. (Report No. 68)This report of a Mission visit to Ghana from May 4-25, 1981 contains data highlights; a summary of findings; Mission recommendations regarding population and development policies, population data collection and analysis, maternal and child health and family planning, population education and communication programs, and women and development; and information on the following: the national setting; population features and trends (population size, growth rate, and distribution and population dynamics); population policy, planning, and policy-related research; basic data collection and anaylsis; maternal and child health and family planning (general health status, structure and organization of health services, maternal and child health and family planning activities, and family planning services in the private sector); population education and communication programs; women, youth, and development; and external assistance in population. Ghana gained independence in 1957. The country showed early promise of rapid development. Although well-endowed with natural and human resources, Ghana now suffers from food scarcity, inadequate infrastructure and services, inflation, inequities in income distribution, unemployment, and underemployment. Per capita gross national product (GNP) was $400 in 1981; between 1960-81 the average annual growth of GNP was -1.1%. A high rate of natural increase of the population has compounded development problems by intensifying demands for food, consumer goods, and social services while simultaneously increasing the constraints on productivity. The population, estimated at 13 million in mid-1984, is growing at a rate of 3.25% per annum. Immigration and emigration have contributed to changes in the size and composition of the population. Post-independence development policies favored the urban areas, encouraging a steady rural-to-urban shift in the population. At the same time, worsening socioeconomic conditions spurred the emigration of professional, managerial, and technical personnel and skilled workers. Ghana was the 1st sub-Saharan African nation to establish an official population policy. Since the formulation of the policy in 1969, successive governments have remained committed to its emphasis on fertility reduction while increasing attention to the problems of mortality and morbidity and rural/urban migration. Recognizing the need to intensify the commitment to population policies, the Mission recommends support for a program to further the awareness of policy makers of the relationship between population trends and their areas of responsibility. The Mission recommends the creation of a special permanent population committee and the strengthening of the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning's Manpower division. The Mission also makes the following recommendations: the provision of training, technical assistance, and data processing facilities to ensure the timely provision of demographic data for socioeconomic planning; data collected in the pilot program of vital registration be evaluated before the system is expanded; the complete integration of maternal and child health and family planning and general health services within the primary health care system; and improvement in women's access to resources such as education, training, and agricultural inputs.
After Mexico: NGOs and the follow-up to the International Conference on Population. Summary report of the Fourth Annual NGO/UNFPA Consultation on Population in New York (March 6, 1985).
New York, New York, UN Non-Governmental Liaison Service, 1985. 50 p.This Summary Report of the Fourth Annual Nongovernmental Organizations/UN Fund for Population Activities (NGO/UNFPA) contains the following: an opening statement of David Poindexter, Director, Communication Centre of the Population Institute; a presentation devoted to opportunities for action by Bradman Weerakoon, Secretary General, International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF); a discussion of global population realities by Sheldon Segal, Director, Population Sciences of the Rockefeller Foundation; panel discussions on the topic of patterns of NGO action; reports from workshop groups (environment, development and population; role and status of women; health and population; reproduction and the family; population policies and funding; population and children; population and youth; and population and aging); a report on financing global population programs, given by Barbara Hertz, Senior Economist, World Bank; discussion of the implementation of the Mexico mandate, Rafael M. Salas, Under Secretary-General of the UN and Executive Director of the UNFPA; recommendations of the Mexico City Conference which refer to the NGO role in followup; and some background material. Recommendations of the workshop groups for ongoing NGO action in the field of population include: linkages between environment, development, and population to be more carefully delineated; the need for the voice of women to be heard at all levels by those formulating population policies and for the status of women to be considered by all as essential to the population issue; couples to be offered a full range of contraceptive choices; all family members to have access to reproductive health information, sex education, and family planning services; organizations to look for multiple sources of funding and to become less reliant on a single source of funding for population and health related activities; support of programs which promote women's development; governments to prepare youth better for their roles within their own countries; and the leadership role of the elderly to be facilitated and utilized in the areas of education, communication, and influencing policies at the village, regional, national, and international level.
New York, UNFPA, 1985 Mar. viii, 68 p. (Report No. 70)The UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) is in the process of an extensive programming exercise intended to respond to the needs for population assistance in a priority group of developing countries. This report presents the findings of the Mission that visited Burma from May 9-25, 1984. The report includes dat a highlights; a summary and recommendations for population assistance; the national setting; population policies and population and development planning; data collection, analysis, and demographic training and research;maternal and child health, including child spacing; population education in the in-school and out-of school sectors; women, population, and development; and external assistance -- multilateral assistance, bilateral assistance, and assistance from nongovernmental organizations. In Burma overpopulation is not a concern. Population activities are directed, rather, toward the improvement of health standards. The main thrust of government efforts is to reduce infant mortality and morbidity, promote child spacing, improve medical services in rural areas, and generally raise standards of public health. In drafting its recommendations, whether referring to current programs and activities or to new areas of concern, the Mission was guided by the government's policies and objectives in the field of population. Recommendations include: senior planning officials should visit population and development planning offices in other countries to observe program organization and implementation; continued support should be given to ensure the successful completion of the tabulation and analysis of the 1983 Population Census; the People's Health Plan II (1982-86) should be strengthened through the training of health personnel at all levels, in in-school, in-service, and out-of-country programs; and the need exists to establish a program of orientation to train administrators, trainers/educators, and key field staff of the Department of Health and the Department of Cooperatives in various aspects of population communication work.
Planned parenthood and women's development in the Indian Ocean Region: experience from Bangladesh, India and Pakistan.
London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1984 Sep. 43 p.The Indian Ocean Region (IOR) of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) has been involved in Planned Parenthood and Women's Development (PPWD) since the program was launched in 1976. This paper, which brings together the experience of the projects and approaches from 3 countries of the region -- Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan, aims to help the region analyze the progress made and assess strategies which can be more widely replicated. The Bangladesh Family Planning Association (BFPA) initiated PPWD projects in mid-1977, the majority in collaboration with well-established women's organizations. These projects generally provide income-generating activities, including training and assistance in the marketing of the products resulting from such activities. In 1979, together with the Mahila Samity (the national women's organization), the FPA was able to integrate women's development into its programs in 19 unions. Each union has a population of 20,000 and the FPA undertakes family planning motivation and services committees. Since 1977 the FPA has collaborated with the Chandpur Dedicated Women to promote family planning and women's development activities. A project to reach women through child-centered activities was initiated by the FPA in 1979 in response to the International Year of the Child. A case study is included of the Sterilized Women's Welfare Samity Project in Mymensingh. For some years the Family Planning Association of India (FPAI) has worked through existing women's clubs or Mahila Mandals as a way of reaching rural and semirural women. The Mahila Mandals have been instrumental in involving young women in development activities and in establishing youth clubs and also have been a focal point for mobilizing community resources. The use of government facilities by the integrated projects in Malur and Karnataka and the cooperation with various extension services is noteworthy. In 1977 the FPAI decided to launch a number of specific projects, including as the Pariwar Pragati Mandals (family betterment clubs) popularly know as PPM, and the Young Women's Development Program. Project case studies are included. The Family Planning Association of Pakistan launched its PPWD program in 1978 with the objective of creating conditions within which responsible parenthood could become a way of life, particularly among underprivileged rural women, and to strengthen links between family planning and other individual and community problems. Most of the original PPWD projects were initiated in 1978 and were conducted with other community development and womens's organizations. Since 1978, the PPWD program has undergone several changes and more emphasis is now placed on family planning and on involving young women. Case studies are included. Common features of the PPWD programs of Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan are identified.
Forum on Population and Development for Women Leaders from Sub-Saharan African Countries, New York, 15-18 May, 1984.
New York, UNFPA, 1984. 39 p.The Forum I and Forum II meetings, held during May 1984, were part of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) initiatives to increase participation by women leaders and women's organizations in all aspects of population programs. Objectives were: to review the extent of women's participation in population programs; to identify issues and topics which enhance or restrict the active participation of women in population and development releated efforts; to identify strategies designed to broaden the integration of African women into population programs at regional, national, and international levels to examine the types of project which could improve the situation of African women and formulate practice proposals to intensify their participation in population programs; to identify interested women leaders and women's organizations willing to cooperate with UNFPA in implementing population policies and programs responsive to women's needs and concerns and enable them to participate in such programs; and to identify possible solutions to population-related issues and topics of special concern to women, e.g., fertility, infant and maternal mortality, and migration, and to discuss how to address these issues during the forthcoming Women's Conference in Nairobi. This document includes the proceedings of both forums. In general, participants at Forum I agreed that efforts to improve the status and welfare of women and to afford them greater prominence in national development efforts should become an integral part of a country's development strategy. The following recommendations were made: UNFPA's funding policies should be more flexible in support of activities at present considered to be of low priority, such as the supply of time and labor saving devices, vocational training, and income generating activities; UNFPA should play a leading role in programs designed to support the advancement of women and coordinate such efforts with other UN organizations to make programs more effective and achieve a comprehensive approach to measures for improving the status of women; support should be given to planning and management and to applied technology and science training; UNFPA should continue the dialogue with women's organizations and women leaders; UNFPA's budget for projects designed to improved the status of women should be increased substantially to finance the described interventions; and women's organizations and women as individuals should involve themselves in activities beyond traditional women's programs Forum II emphasized the need to relieve women of the excessive burden of childbearing and of time and energy consuming domestic chores. Participants are listed along with the names and affiliations of observers and representatives of the UN system.
People. 1984; 11(4):4-7.A significant happening at the International Conference on Population, which took place in Mexico City during August 1984, was the world consensus on the need to act more urgently to deal with the interrelated problems of population and development and to provide the conditions of life and means by which everyone can plan their family. The note of concern about the impact of population growth and about its distribution and structure was consistent. Support for expanded family planning services came from all sides, including Africia and Latin America. The UN agencies and the World Bank came nearest to injecting a visionary and emotional charge into the occasion. Their near universal message was the need to release and mobilize the energies of the people and slow excessive population growth by investing in their health, education, environment, employment opportunities and in family planning. Bradford Morse, Administrator of the UN Development Program, added a powerful plea, that the international factors of protectionism, debt, and high increase rates, arms spending, and ddeclining aid flows must be addressed if the goals of the original Plan of Action, i.e., to promote "economic development, wuality of life, human rights, and fundamental freedoms," were to be dealt with. James Grant, Executive Director of UNICEF, stated tha the experience of the past decade confirms "that development and population programs are interacting, mutually reinforcing efforts that work with the 'seamless' web of income, nutrition, health, education, and fertility." The final document put the same idea into various paragraphs. This consensus position was simple and consistent, but in its way, revoluntionary. The elements which brought about this agreement were made clear from the start. The 1st was the change in government attitudes towards population. In 4/5 of the world governments regard population as a key factor inn development strategy. A 2nd factor was that governments now feel more independent and less under external pressure. A 3rd element was that women in nearly all countries desire fewer children than they wanted previously and many are coming out openly and stating that they did not want their last child. A 4th factor was the awareness that population problems affect developed countries as well as developing countries. Along with these changes has come greater awareness of the health and social benefits of family planning. These ideas find expression the the 38 pages of recommendations which were eventually agreed on. The most significant of these was the added emphasis given to the role and status of women.
[Unpublished] 1984. Presented at the Second African Population Conference, Arusha, Tanzania, January 9-13, 1984. 21 p.This discussion of Ethiopia focuses on: sources of demographic data; population size and age-sex distribution; urbanization; fertility; marital status of the population; mortality and health; rate of natural increase; economic activity and labor force activity rates; food production; education; population policies and programs; and population in development planning. As of 1983, Ethiopia's population was estimated at 33.7 million. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy. Ethiopia has not yet conducted a population census, however, the 1st population and housing census is planned for 1984. The population is young with children under 15 years of age constituting 45.4% of the total population; 3.5% of the population are aged 65 years and older. The degree of urbanization is very low while the urban growth rate is very high. Most of the country is rural with only 15% of the population living in localities of 2000 or more inhabitants. In 1980-81 the crude birthrate was 46.9/1000. The total fertility rate was 6.9. Of those aged 15 years and older, 69.2% of males and 71.3% of females are married. According to the 1980-81 Demographic Survey the estimates of the levels of mortality were a crude death rate of 18.4/1000 and an infant mortality rate of 144/1000. At this time 45% of the population have access to health services. It is anticipated that 80% of the population will be covered by health care services in 10 years time. Ethiopia is increasing at a very rapid rate of natural increase; the 1980 estimation was 2.9% per annum. Despite the rich endowments in agricultural potential, Ethiopia is not self-sufficient in food production and reamins a net importer of grain. Enrollment at various levels of education is expanding rapidly. There is no official population policy. Financial assistance received from the UN Fund for Population Activities and the UN International Children's Emergency Fund for population programs is shown.
General survey of the reports relating to conventions nos. 97 and 143 and recommendations nos. 86 and 151 concerning migrant workers. (International Labour Conference, 66th Session, 1980) Report III (Part 4B).
Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, 1980. 189 p.In accordance with article 19 of the International Labor Office (ILO) Constitution, the Governing Body decided at its 201st Session (November 1976) to request reports on the Migration for Employment Convention (Revised), 1949 (No. 97), and the Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1975 (No 143) from governments which have not ratified them, as well as reports on the Migration for Employment Recommendation (Revised), 1949 (No. 86), and the Migrant Workers Recommendation, 1975 (No. 151). These reports, dealing with the state of law and practice in relation to the standards laid down by the instruments in question, and the reports supplied under article 22 of the Constitution by govenments that have ratified 1 or both of the Conventions, have enabled the Committee of Experts to make a general survey of the situation. Reports have been received from 109 countries either under article 19 of the Constitution of the ILO on Conventions Nos. 97 and 143 and Recommendations Nos. 86 and 151 or under article 22 on the 2 Conventions when they have ratified them. An appendix provides detailed information on the countries that have communicated reports. The plan adopted for this present survey is as follows: preliminary measures of protection--information and assistance and recruitment, introduction, and placement of migrant workers; protection against abusive conditions (migrations in abusive conditions, the illegal employment of migrant workers, and minimum standards of protection); equality of opportunity and treatment and social policy; and certain aspects of the employment, residence, and departure of migrant workers. The vast range of subjects covered illustrates the complexity of the subject of migration for employment. The measures needed for the protection of migrant workers extend beyond their period of actual employment and must cover the initial phase of information, recruitment, travel, and settlement into the country of employment and the regulation of rights arising out of the employment but continuing after its termination. During the period of employment, they go beyond measures dealing exclusively with conditions of work to cover various other aspects of conditions of life which affect the context in which the migrant worker has to work and form the broader framework of the conditions of work and life of migrant workers. Thus, it is possibly understandable that few governments have covered all the subjects dealt with in the instruments in their reports. Convention No. 97 has been ratified to date by 34 countries and Convention 143 has been ratified by 8 States. Problems exist in many member States in affording to migrant workers the guarantees provided for in the instruments.
Migrant workers: summary of reports on conventions nos. 97 and 143 and recommendations nos. 86 and 151 (Article 19 of the Constitution). (International Labour Conference, 66th Session, 1980) Report III, part 2.
Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, 1980. 151 p.Article 19 of the Constitution of the International Labor Organization (ILO) provides that Members shall report to the Director General at appropriate intervals on the position of their law and practice in regard to the matters dealt with in unratified Conventions and Recommendations. The reports summarized in this volume concern the Migration for Employment Convention (Revised) (No. 97) and Recommendation (Revised) (No. 86), 1949, Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1975 (No. 143) and Migrant Workers Recommendation, 1975 (No. 151). The governments of member States were asked to send their reports to the ILO Office by July 1, 1979, and this summary covers country reports received by the Office up to November 1, 1979. Reports are included for the following countries: Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Cameroon, Colombia, Congo, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, German Democratic Republic, Guyana, Hungary, India, Japan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Surinam, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Turkey, USSR, UK, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Zambia.
Annual Review of Public Health. 1981; 2:299-361.Report focus is on the general problem of designing and developing information systems equal to the task of promoting and monitoring "Health for All by the Year 2000." Attempting to bridge the gap between theory and practice, this 2-part report proposes some priorities and guidelines for organizing and focusing the efforts of the many agencies, groups, and individuals working on health statistics worldwide; and concentrates on the situation in less developed countries where health information networks in support of the decision making process continue to be very weak and their content and organization need reappraisal. An illustrative set of health indicators for national health planning in a developing country is used to take stock of available concepts of measurement, to test their relevance and feasibility, and to consider the steps necessary to translate these concepts into operational health information systems. There are numerous advantages in concentrating on what are commonly termed "health indicators" and using them as a point of departure for collecting data and building information networks. Indicators define the content of data systems, a step that should logically precede decisions regarding data series, methods, staffing, and organizations. If properly designed to reflect the primary objectives of national or community health policy, a set of indicators serves as the minimum specifications of the information support system and describes its overall task. Health indicators are also an excellent way to promote statistical comparability within and among health care systems. Health indicators in the model presented are defined as statistics selected from the larger pool because they have the power to summarize, to represent a larger body of statistics, or to serve as indirect or proxy measures for information that is lacking. It would be both self-defeating and contrary to World Health Organization (WHO) goals to adopt a narrow perspective on health indicators and information systems. Those working on health indicators need to be in close touch with developments in the social indicators field. The following are among the major points made in the review and evaluation of some of the concepts and methods available to developing countries in designing health information systems for the year 2000: utility of proposed indicators, primarily for planning, monitoring, and evaluation at the national level, but also to some extent at the community level; state of readiness; validity, reliability, specificity, sensitivity, and economy or efficiency of proposed measures; feasibility, i.e., have practical and affordable methods of data acquisition been demonstrated; basic subcategories and disaggregations; compatibility with socioeconomic concerns and indicators; comparability with concepts of measurement used in more developed countries; and principal areas in need of further research and development.
[Unpublished] 1979. Paper prepared for the Technical Workshop on the Four Country Maternal and Child Health/Family Planning Projects, New York, Oct. 31-Nov. 2, 1979. (Workshop Paper No. 2) 10 p.An integrated health care system which combined the maternal/child health with other services was undertaken in the Yozgat Province of Turkey from 1972-77. The objective was to train midwives in MCH/FP and orient their activities to socialization. The first 2 years of the program was financed by UNFPA. 52 health stations were completed and 18 more are under construction. The personnel shortage stands at 33 physicians, 21 health technicians, 30 nurses, and 67 midwives. Yozgat Province is 75% rural and has about a 50% shortage of roads. The project was evaluated initially in 1975 and entailed preproject information studies, baseline health practices and contraceptive use survey, dual record system, and service statistics reporting. The number of midwives, who are crucial to the program, have increased from an average 115 in 1975 to 160 in 1979. Supervisory nurses are the link between the field and the project managers. Their number has decreased from 17 to 6. Until 1977 family planning service delivery depended on a handful of physicians who distributed condoms and pills. The Ministry of Health trained women physicians in IUD insertions. The crude death rate in 1976 was 13.2/1000; the crude birth rate was 42.7/1000. The crude death rate in 1977 was 14.8/1000; birth rate, 39.9/1000. Common child diseases were measles, enteritis, bronchopneumonia, otitis, and parasitis.
[Benin: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance] Benin: rapport de Mission sur l'Evaluation des Besoins d'Aide en Matiere de Population.
New York, UNFPA, 1983 Apr. 42 p. (Report No. 58)This report of a needs assessment carried out by a UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) Mission in Benin in November 1980 includes chapters on assistance needs and recommendations in the area of population; geographic, political, administrative, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics of the country as well as socioeconomic and demographic planning and policy; demographic trends; formulation of population policy; collection and analysis of demographic data; demographic research, health; population information, education, and communication; women and development; and external assistance. Benin is characterized by low per capita income, high rates of infant, child, and maternal mortality, high fertility, and unequal population distribution combined with pressure on cultivated land. Rural exodus is fueling rapid urban growth. The population of 3.5 million in 1980 was growing at 2.97% annually. The economy is essentially agricultural. Because Benin is poor in minerals, development efforts are concentrated on agricultural and rural development, with efforts made to reduce unemployment and underemployment especially in urban areas. National objectives also are to improve the educational system and health infrastructure. The government is concerned about the high rate of mortality and morbidity and unequal spatial distribution. Although no overall population policy has been adopted, the government pursues some goals with demographic effects such as attempting to extend preventive medicine, maternal and child health services and birth spacing services to rural areas. The 1979 census is expected to furnish the government with the information necessary to formulate a population policy. The Mission recommended immediate assistance for analyzing and publishing census results, and also that a national demographic survey and migration study be undertaken. Reform of the civil registration system would enable better data to be collected. A demographic teaching and research center should be created at the University of Benin. An interministerial committee should be created to assist in formulation and implementation of a population policy. The extension of health services funded by the UNFPA should be implemented immediately and a communication component should be added.
[Togo: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance] Togo: rapport de Mission sur l'Evaluation des Besoins d'Aide en Matiere de Population.
New York, UNFPA, 1983 Feb. 66 p. (Report No. 57)This report of a needs assessment carried out by a UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) Mission in Togo in late 1980 includes chapters on the country's geographic, administrative, and cultural background, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, and national development policy and population goals; data collection; demographic research and population policy formulation; implementation of policy; external population assistance; and recommendations of the Mission. The population of Togo was estimated at 2.7 million in 1981 and is expected to nearly double by the year 2000. Infant, child, and maternal mortality rates are high, and population distribution is very uneven in different regions, with severe pressure on cultivable lands. The country has enjoyed considerable economic growth in the past 2 decades, with the gross national products (GNP) quadrupling in constant dollars from 1960-75. The rate of increase of the GNP was 7% from 1966-70, 5.6% from 1971-75, and about 3% from 1976-80. 3/4 of Togo's inhabitants derive their livelihood from agriculture, but in 1979 they produced only 28% of the GNP. Self-sufficiency in food is not total. Since 1966 Togo has elaborated 4 5-year plans whose orientations were to promote economic independence, the growth of production, reduction in regional disparities, and human development. The demographic variable has not been integrated into general economic and social development policy. The government has adopted a noninterventionist attitude toward population and considers the demographic situation to be fairly satisfactory. The only actions concern control of infant mortality. Some social and economic interventions, such as the priority given to provision of potable water, will inevitably have an impact on population. Togo has a solid infrastructure and qualified and experienced personnel for demographic data collection. The country is planning an ambitious program of demographic data collection and permanent surveillance. Maternal and child health care are provided in nearly 300 centers. About 1/2 of births occur under medical supervision. The national family welfare program provides family health services and information on birth spacing. A secondary school sex education program is under development. Population education is included in out-of-school educational programs. Population communication programs are not very advanced. Among the recommendations of the Mission were that financial aid be given to institutions responsible for demographic data collection and dissemination and to the demographic research unit of the University of Benin.