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  1. 1
    046618

    Financing health services in developing countries: an agenda for reform.

    Akin J; Birdsall N; de Ferranti D

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Population, Health and Nutrition Dept., 1986 Dec 31. 124 p.

    In the current environment of general budget stringency in developing countries, it is unrealistic to push for more public spending for health services. The answer to this health crisis is to relieve government of much of the responsibility for financing those kinds of health services for which the benefits to society as a whole (as opposed to direct benefits to the users of the service) are low, freeing public resources to finance those services for which benefits are high. The intent is to relieve government of the burden of spending on health care for the rich, freeing public resources for more spending for the poor. Individuals with sufficient income should pay for their curative care. The financing and provision of these "private" health services should be shifted to a combination of the nongovernment sector and a public sector reorganized to be more financially self-sufficient. A shift such as this would increase the public resources available for those types of health services which are "public goods" and currently are underfunded "public" health programs, such as immunization, vector control, some prenatal and maternal care, sanitary waste disposal, and health education. Also such a shift would increase the public resources available for simple curative care and referral for the poor who now only have limited access to low quality services of this nature. Government efforts to cover the full costs of health care for everyone from general public revenues have contributed to 3 sets of problems in the health systems of many countries: an allocation problem -- insufficient spending on cost-effective health activities; an internal efficiency problem -- inefficient public programs; and an equity problem -- inequitable distribution of benefits from health services. 4 policies for health financing are proposed to raise revenues for important health programs, increase the efficiency of public health services, and make the system better serve the poor. These are: charging users of public health facilities; providing insurance or other risk coverage; strengthening nongovernmental health activities; and decentralizing government health services. A table summarizes the effects of each of the 4 options for reform in alleviating health sector problems.
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  2. 2
    011113

    Honduras: country development strategy statement, FY 83.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]

    Washington, D.C., U.S. International Development Cooperation Agency, 1981 Jan. 59 p.

    This strategy statement prepared by the USAID field mission includes a brief description of the political background of aid to Honduras and an analysis of the country's economic situation including an examination of the extent and causes of poverty among different population subgroups, an overview of the economy and assessment of its ability to absorb aid, a discussion of development planning as reflected in the 5-year plan and "Immediate Action Plan" drafted in late 1980; an assessment of progress to date in development efforts and of the Honduran govenment's commitment to development objectives; and a discussion of other donors. Favorable and unfavorable factors influencing achievement of development efforts are then identified, program strategy prior to and during the current planning period are discussed, and specific issues such as the role of the private sector, human rights, the role of women, and public sector management are examined. AID's sectoral objectives and courses of action in agriculture and rural development, population, health and nutrition, education, urban and regional development, and energy are outlined, with problems, current activities, and strategy for 1983-87 identified for each sector. Efforts to improve regional cooperation and AID program efficiency are described. Proposed assistance levels and staff levels are discussed. A series of tables containing data on public sector operations, central government budget expenditures, balance of payments, and key economic indicators are included as appendices.
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  3. 3
    266439

    Planner's approaches to community participation in health programmes: theory and reality.

    Rifkin SB

    Contact. 1983 Oct; (75):1-16.

    Investigates health planners' assumptions about community particiation in health care. Primary health care aims to make essential health care accessible to all individuals in the community in an acceptable and affordable way and with their full participation. It is the strategy propagated by the World Health Organization to provide health for everyone by the year 2000. Community participation is seen as the key to primary health care and has raised many assumptions and expectations among health planners. Community people are seen as a vast untapped resource which can help to reduce the cost of health care by providing additional manpower. It is also expected that community people want to participate in their own health care because they wish to serve their community and to have a part in decisions which affect them. In the early 1970's, programs were developed out of church-related efforts. They pioneered many of the ideas which became principles of primary health care. The church-related programs were nongovernmental and therefore flexible. They had the same goal of letting the community take responsibility for their own health care; program planners were primarily medical people trained in Western medicine. The planners were concerned with the plight of the poor. However, the programs tended to reflect planners' hopes for, rather than the community's understanding of, the community health problem. The author concludes that the assumptions that planners make about their programs need to be critically analyzed. Investigations need to be made into community perceptions and expectations of their role in health programs. Studies need to be undertaken to identify the potentials and problems of community participation and the record of established community health care programs needs to be examined.
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