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Health and health services in Judaea, Samaria and Gaza 1983-1984: a report by the Ministry of Health of Israel to the Thirty-Seventh world Health Assembly, Geneva, May 1984.
Jerusalem, Israel, Ministry of Health, 1984 Mar. 195 p.Health conditions and health services in Judea, Samaria, and Gaza during the 1967-83 period are discussed. Health-related activities and changes in the social and economic environment are assessed and their impact on health is evaluated. Specific activities performed during the current year are outlined. The following are specific facets of the health care system that are the focus of many current projects in these districts; the development of a comprehensive network of primary care programs and centers for preventive and curative services has been given high priority and is continuing; renovation and expansion of hospital facilities, along with improved staffing, equipment, and supplies for basic and specialty health services increase local capabilities for increasingly sophisticated health care, and consequently there is a decreasing need to send patients requiring specialized care to supraregional referral hospitals, except for highly specialized services; inadequacies in the preexisting reporting system have necessitated a continuting process of development for the gathering and publication of general and specific statistical and demographic data; stress has been placed on provision of safe drinking water, development of sewage and solid waste collection and disposal systems, as well as food control and other environmental sanitation activities; major progress has been made in the establishment of a funding system that elicits the participation and financial support of the health care consumer through volunary health insurance, covering large proportions of the population in the few years since its inception; the continuing building room in residential housing along with the continuous development of essential community sanitation infrastructure services are important factors in improved living and health conditions for the people; and the health system's growth must continue to be accompanied by planning, evaluation, and research atall levels. Specific topics covered include: demography and vital statistics; socioeconomic conditions; morbidity and mortality; hospital services; maternal and child health; nutrition; health education; expanded program immunization; environmental health; mental health; problems of special groups; health insurance; community and voluntary agency participation; international agencies; manpower and training; and planning and evaluation. Over the past 17 years, Judea, Samaria, and Gaza have been areas of rapid population growth and atthe same time of rapid socioeconomic development. In addition there have been basic changes in the social and health environment. As measured by socioeconomic indicators, much progress has been achieved for and by the people. As measured by health status evaluation indicators, the people benefit from an incresing quantity and quality of primary care and specialty services. The expansion of the public health infrastructure, combined with growing access to and utilization of personal preventive services, has been a key contributor to this process.
Mortality and health issues in Asia and the Pacific: report of a seminar held at Beijing in collaboration with the Institute of Population Research, People's University of China from 22 to 27 October 1986.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. vi, 169 p. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 78.; ST/ESCAP/485.)The Seminar on Mortality and Health Issues was held at Beijing from 22 to 27 October 1986 as a cooperative venture between the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) and the Institute of Population Research, People's University of China, as part of the project, "Analysis of Trends and Patterns of Mortality in the ESCAP Region." Part 1 of the report includes a summary of the Beijing recommendations on health and mortality and the report of the seminar. Part 2 contains papers on a comparative analysis on trends and patterns of mortality in the ESCAP region, an overview of the epidemiological situation in the region, health for all by the year 2000, and inequalities in health.
[Unpublished] 1985 Nov 19. Presented to the Executive Board, Seventy-seventh Session, Provisional Agenda Item 18. 20 p. (EB77/27)The Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) has made major public health gains in the past decade. The central EPI strategy has been to deliver immunization in consonance with other health services, particularly those directed toward mothers and children. However, in the least developed countries and many other developing countries, it does not appear likely that national budgets will be sufficient by 1990 to support full immunization coverage on a sustained basis or that an adequate number of national managers can be assembled to staff effective programs. At the November 1985 meeting of the EPI Global Advisory Group, recommendations were made to accelerate global progress. These recommendations reflect optimism that the 1990 goal of reducing morbidity and mortality by immunizing all children of the world can be achieved, but also acknowledge that many fundamental problems of national program management remain to be resolved. 3 general actions needed are: 1) promote the achievement of the 1990 immunization goal at national and international levels through collaboration among ministries, organizations, and individuals in both the public and private sectors; 2) adopt a mix of complementary strategies for program acceleration; and 3) ensure that rapid increases in coverage can be sustained through mechanisms which strengthen the delivery of other primary health care interventions. The 4 specific actions needed are: 1) provide immunization at every contact point, 2) reduce drop-out rates between first and last immunizations, 3) improve immunization services to the disadvantaged in urban areas, and 4) increase priority for the control of measles, poliomyelitis, and neonatal tetanus. Continued efforts are also required to strengthen disease surveillance and outbreak control, reinforce training and supervision, ensure quality of vaccine production and administration, and pursue research and development.
Washington, D.C, Pan American Health Organization, 1983. x, 145 p. (Scientific Publication No. 435)This document, prepared by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), reviews health in the Americas in the period 1905-47, provides a more detailed assessment of progress in the health sector during the 1970s, and then outlines prospects for the period 1980-2000 in terms of meeting the goal of health for all by the year 2000. The main feature of this goal is its comprehensiveness. Health is no longer viewed as a matter of disease, but as a social outcome of national development. Attainment of this goal demands far-reaching socioeconomic changes, as well as revision of the concepts underlying national health systems. It seems likely that the coming period in Latin America and the Caribbean will be characterized by intense urban concentration and rapid industrialization, with a trend toward increasing heterogeneity. If current development trends continue, the gap in living standards between urban and rural areas will widen due to sharp differences in productivity. Regionally based development planning could raise living standards and reduce inequalities. In the type of development expected, the role of social services is essential. It will be necessary to determine whether the objective is to provide the poor with access to services that are to be available to all or to provide special services for target groups. The primary health care strategy must be applicable to the entire population, not just a limited program to meet the minimal needs of the extreme poor. Pressing issues regarding health services in the next 2 decades include how to extend their coverage, increase and strengthen their operating capacity, improve their planning and evaluation, increase their efficiency, and improve their information systems. Governments and ministries must be part of effective infrastructures in which finance, intersectoral linkages, community participation, and intercountry and hemispheric cooperation have adequate roles. One of PAHO's key activities must be systematic monitoring and evaluation of strategies and plans of action for attaining health for all.
Who Chronicle. 1985; 39(5):163-70.The World Conference to appraise the achievements of the UN Decade for Women was held in Nairobi, Kenya during July 1985 and was attended by 6000 delegates. In preparation for the Nairobi conference, the Director General of the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a report analyzing the situation regarding women, health, and development and drawing attention to the special health needs of women as well as to the key roles that women play in promoting health and development. Accurate, adequate, and relevant information is essential if appropriate action is to be taken, and much of WHO's efforts during the Decade focused on collecting such information. According to the Director General's report, women's contribution to development is underestimated and their potential is grossly underestimated. Their health status also is conditioned by factors such as employment, education, and social status. Ultimately, women's participation in health and development may even depend on equitable access to economic resources and political power. Thus, the report stresses that it is imperative not to view the health aspects in isolation. The status society accords women is closely linked to their reproductive function. Yet, despite this vital function, girls are valued less than boys in many countries. Nowhere is the inequity in women's status more apparent than in their economic situation. A study on the training and utilization of traditional birth attendants was carried out in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, and 3 Member States were then assisted in launching national training programs. In the Eastern Mediterranean Region, WHO collaborated with countries in pilot projects for the early detection and treatment of cervical and breast cancer. Legislative and policy issues relative to the welfare of women also have been studied. Among the subjects coverd have been the protection of working mothers, measures governing the minimum legal age of marriage, and harmful traditional practices. The grassroots organizations are the primary focus of WHO's strategy for involving women's organizations in primary health care since they serve the poor and the powerless and their goal is usually to satisfy the immediate needs of their members. WHO has initiated a multinational study on women as providers of health care, in which 17 Member States have participated. The Joint WHO/UNICEF Nutrition Support Program, initiated in 1982, supports action to improve the nutritional status of women and children.
Mortality and health policy: highlights of the issues in the context of the World Population Plan of Action.
In: Mortality and health policy. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Mortality and Health Policy, Rome, 30 May to 3 June 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 37-79. (International Conference on Population, 1984.; ST/ESA/SER.A/91)This paper reviews the major issues that have emerged in the analysis of mortality and health policy since the 1974 World Population Conference. The 1st part summarizes current mortality conditions in the major world regions and evaluates progress toward achieving the goals of the World Population Plan of Action. It is noted that the current mortality situation is characterized by continued wide disparities between the more developed and less developed regions, especially during the 1st year of life. The 2nd part focuses on the synergistic relationship between health and development, including social, economic, and health inequalities. It is asserted that mortality rates in developing countries are a function of the balance governments select between development strategies favoring capital accumulation and concentrated investments on the 1 hand and strategies oriented toward meeting basic needs and reducing inequalities in income and wealth. Data from developed countries suggest that economic development does not necessarily lead to steady gains in life expectancy. Some variations in mortality may reflect changes in family relationships, especially women's status, that are induced by social and economic development, however. The 3rd part of this paper analyzes the effect of health policies on mortality, including curative and preventive programs and primary health care. The lack of community participation is cited as a key factor in the weak performance of primary health care in many developing countries. In addition, there is strong evidence that the concepts and technologies of modern medicine must be adapted to existing systems of disease prevention and care to gain acceptability. The 4th section, on the implementation of health policies, discusses health care management, planning, and financing. It is noted that successful implementation of health policies is often hindered by scarcity, inadequate allocation, and inefficient utilization of health resources. Finally, more effective means to cope with rising costs of health care are needed.
After Mexico: NGOs and the follow-up to the International Conference on Population. Summary report of the Fourth Annual NGO/UNFPA Consultation on Population in New York (March 6, 1985).
New York, New York, UN Non-Governmental Liaison Service, 1985. 50 p.This Summary Report of the Fourth Annual Nongovernmental Organizations/UN Fund for Population Activities (NGO/UNFPA) contains the following: an opening statement of David Poindexter, Director, Communication Centre of the Population Institute; a presentation devoted to opportunities for action by Bradman Weerakoon, Secretary General, International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF); a discussion of global population realities by Sheldon Segal, Director, Population Sciences of the Rockefeller Foundation; panel discussions on the topic of patterns of NGO action; reports from workshop groups (environment, development and population; role and status of women; health and population; reproduction and the family; population policies and funding; population and children; population and youth; and population and aging); a report on financing global population programs, given by Barbara Hertz, Senior Economist, World Bank; discussion of the implementation of the Mexico mandate, Rafael M. Salas, Under Secretary-General of the UN and Executive Director of the UNFPA; recommendations of the Mexico City Conference which refer to the NGO role in followup; and some background material. Recommendations of the workshop groups for ongoing NGO action in the field of population include: linkages between environment, development, and population to be more carefully delineated; the need for the voice of women to be heard at all levels by those formulating population policies and for the status of women to be considered by all as essential to the population issue; couples to be offered a full range of contraceptive choices; all family members to have access to reproductive health information, sex education, and family planning services; organizations to look for multiple sources of funding and to become less reliant on a single source of funding for population and health related activities; support of programs which promote women's development; governments to prepare youth better for their roles within their own countries; and the leadership role of the elderly to be facilitated and utilized in the areas of education, communication, and influencing policies at the village, regional, national, and international level.
Brazzaville, Congo, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa, 1980. 86 p. (Health Development in Africa 1)Primary health care has been accepted by the 44 Member States and Territories of the African Region of the World Health Organization (WHO); the Health Charter for 1975-2000 was adopted in 1974 with its humanistic approach oriented to satisfying basic needs. Genuine technical cooperation between Member States is essential for health development and can be achieved on the regional level. By 1990 the following steps should be taken: 1) vaccination of all infants under 1 year against measles, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis, diphtheria and tuberculosis, 2) supply of drinking water to all communities and 3) waging a war on hunger. Health development is seen as a social development policy requiring combined efforts in the fields of education, agriculture, transport, planning, economics, and finance as well as a national strategy which WHO can help to define. A new international economic order must aim at meeting basic needs of the poorest in the population and includes health needs. Basic health services must provide primary health care which includes preventive and curative care, promotional and rehabilitative care, maternal and child health, sanitation, health education, and systematic immunization. Secondary care includes outpatient services with specialized teams; tertiary care provides highly specialized services. These services must be geographically, financially, and culturally accessible to the community. Communication between health workers and community leaders is fundamental in setting up those services and group dynamics can be utilized in promoting change. WHO's 4 health priorities in Africa are: 1) epidemiological surveillance, 2) promotion of environmental health, 3) integrated development of health manpower and services, and 4) health development research promotion. The components of Africa's health care program are: 1) community education, 2) promotion of food supply and nutrition, 3) safe water and sanitation, 4) maternal and child health, 5) immunization, 6) disease prevention, 7) treatment of injuries and diseases and 8) provision of essential drugs. Proper training of personnel is crucial for the success of these steps, along with effective personnel management.
In: The Tenth Asian Parasite Control/Family Planning Conference. Proceedings. Under the joint auspices of the Asian Parasite Control Organization, the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning, the Japan Association of Parasite Control and the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Tokyo, Asian Parasite Control Organization, . 63-70.Economic depression affects children in 3 major ways: disposable family incomes drop sharply, with the most severe consequences for poor people and their children; government budgets for social services, particularly those affecting young children and including nutrition, health, and education, are the first to be cut back; and national and international levels of development assistance stagnate as a consequence of the restrictive budgetary policies adopted by industrialized countries. Despite the first welcome signs of an economic recovery in some industrialized nations, most indications are that the worldwide recovery may be relatively shallow in the mid-1980s and that significant beneficial impacts on many low income countries and families will be long delayed. Thus, in the absence of special measures to accelerate health progress, millions more children and mothers are likely to die in the in low income areas than was thought likely at the beginning of the decade. Possibly the only hopeful sign is that the restrictions imposed by the world recession have stimulated the search for innovative and cost effective ways to protect and improve the health of children and mothers. Within a decade, low cost advances could be saving the lives of 20,000 children daily and preventing the crippling of another 20,000. What is in question is the priority of this kind of progress -- among governments, among international assistance sources and networks, and in developing countries. The strategy adopted by JOICFP in its Integrated Family Planning, Nutrition, and Parasite Control Projects offers one such way. The projects are based on the concept that family planning programs will be more acceptable if combined with related services, which the community readily perceives as beneficial and useful. What most contributes to making parasite control a good entry point is that the process of examination and the effects of treatment are immediately visible. Possibly more important that the biological and medical effects of parasite control is its effectiveness as a tool for community health and education motivation. The UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organization (WHO) and multilateral and bilateral agencies are promoting 4 simple and relatively inexpensive measures to reduce malnutrition, illness, and death among the world's children: the use of growth charts; oral rehydration therapy; breastfeeding and proper weaning practices; and immunization against major childhood diseases. Ways to achieve accelerated progress for the protection and survival of children are identified.