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WHO / World Bank convene ministerial meeting to discuss best practices for moving forward on universal health coverage. Joint WHO / World Bank statement.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2013 Feb 19.  p.Top officials from health and finance ministries from 27 countries joined other high-level health and development stakeholders at a two-day meeting this week in Geneva to discuss ways that countries are progressing towards universal health coverage. The meeting was convened jointly by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank and took place just weeks after the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution supporting universal health coverage. Delegates at the Geneva meeting expressed strong support for the ideas underlying universal health coverage: that everyone, irrespective of their ability to pay, should have access to the health services they need, without putting their families at financial risk. The meeting also discussed strategies to ensure an adequate supply of good quality and affordable essential medicines and technologies, noting the value of using financial incentives to promote efficiency and quality of health services. The participants agreed on the importance of improving information systems and holding governments and health care providers more accountable for delivering results. The importance of monitoring progress towards universal health coverage was also a recurrent theme, as was the important role played by researchers, civil society, and international agencies. The WHO and the World Bank are working together at global, regional and country levels, and stand by ready to help countries confront the numerous challenges that the meeting highlighted in accelerating progress toward universal health coverage. In response to country demand, the WHO and the World Bank are already developing a monitoring framework that will help countries track their countries’ progress toward universal health coverage in a way that explicitly captures the potential importance of universal health coverage in achieving better health and higher living standards for everyone. The framework will be available for consultation with countries and other partners later this year. The UN General Assembly resolution urges Member States to develop health systems that avoid significant direct payments at the point of care. It further encourages them to establish mechanisms for pooling risks to avoid catastrophic health expenditures that drive households into poverty. (Excerpts)
Entre Nous. 2009; (68):6-7.The WHO Regional Office for Europe has been promoting family and community health (FCH) interventions since 1992, including biennial meetings for FCH focal points in Member States. Our FCH activities follow a holistic approach, focusing on the health and development of individuals and families across the life course. For sexual and reproductive health (SRH) this means focusing on overall SRH, health of mothers and newborns, children and adolescents, as well as healthy aging. In recent years, the contribution of health systems to improve health has been re-evaluated in many countries. The WHO European Ministerial Conference on Health Systems “Health Systems, Health and Wealth” in Tallinn, June 2008 has discussed the impact of people’s health and economic growth, and has taken stock of recent evidence on effective strategies to improve the performance of health systems. In line with these developments, the WHO Regional Office for Europe held the FCH focal points meeting in Malta, September 2008 with the aim of contributing to the improvement of FCH in a health systems framework.
Civil-Military Alliance Newsletter. 1997 Oct; 3(4):3-4.The Alliance held its first Regional Seminar in Central America July 2-5,1997, in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. This was the first meeting held within the framework of the two- year Alliance program in Latin America supported by the Commission of the European Union. The theme was "Civil- Military Intervention Strategies for the Prevention and Control of HIV/AIDS in Latin America and the Caribbean." (excerpt)
Have you integrated STI / HIV prevention into your sexual and reproductive health services? Use IPPF / WHR's STI / HIV Integration Checklist to find out.
New York, New York, IPPF, WHR, 2002.  p.Participants at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo called for the global increase in the availability of a broad range of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services for women, men and young people. This call reflected a continuing shift away from the narrow family planning model of service provision that shaped the field in its early years toward a more encompassing practice of sexual and reproductive health care. Rather than focusing on the provision of contraception for controlling pregnancy, the SRH model frames the contraceptive choices available to women within a larger paradigm of women’s health: their health rights, needs, concerns and constraints. In theory, SRH care incorporates the prevention, detection and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) – including and perhaps most pressingly, HIV – into other SRH services. In practice, however, many organizations that work in SRH service provision fail to incorporate STI/HIV prevention or treatment into their roster of services and programs, or they provide these services separately from other SRH services. Therefore, making explicit the connection between sexuality, contraceptive choice and STI/HIV prevention and harnessing the inherent synergy between preventing unwanted pregnancy and preventing STI/HIV remain fertile areas for action. In support of this effort, IPPF/WHR has developed this self-administered checklist to be used by organizations to explore their degree of integration. (excerpt)
Report: Second Conference of Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development, 23-25 September 1987, Beijing, China.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1987. , 72 p.The formal proceedings of the 1987 Asian (AFPPD) Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (FPPD) are provided in some detail. 23 countries participated. The Asian Forum Beijing Declaration preamble, program of action, call to action, and rededication are presented. Background information indicates that these conferences have been ongoing since 1984 to exchange information and experience, to promote cooperation, and to sustain involvement of Parliamentarians in population and development issues. Official delegations represented Australia, Bangladesh, China, Korea, India, Iraq, Japan, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, north and south Korea, Sri Lanka, Syria, Thailand, and Vietnam. Observers were from Bhutan, Cyprus, Indonesia, Kiribati, and Tonga. The UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) was involved as Conference Secretariat as well as the Preparatory Committee of China. Other UN and nongovernmental organizations and Parliamentary Councils of the World, Africa, and Europe were involved. Summaries were made of opening conference addresses of Mr. Takashi Sato, Mr. Zhou Gucheng, Chinese Premier Zhao Zivang, Japanese Prime Minister Takeo Fukuda, Dr. Nafis Sadik from the UNFPA, Mrs. Rahman Othman for Mr. Sat Paul Mittal of AFPPD, Australian Prime Minister R.J.L. Hawke, India Prime Minister Rajiv Ghandi, Sri Lankan Prime Minister R. Premedasa, Philippine President Corazon Aquino, Pakistan President Mohammad Zia-ul-Hag, and Bangladesh President Hussain Muhammad Ershad. Election of officers was discussed. The plenary sessions reported on the present situation and prospects for Asian population and development, basic health services and family planning (FP), urbanization, population and food, and aging. Reports were also provided of an exchange among Parliamentarians, the adoption of conference documents and the AFPPD constitution, election of officers, and the closing speakers. Appendices provide a complete list of participants, the constitution which was adopted, and the addresses of Mr. Zhou Gucheng from China's National People's Congress; Mr. Zhao Ziyang, Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China; Mr. Takeo Fukuda of the Global Committee of FPPD, Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director, UNFPA; and Mr. Sat Paul Mittal, Secretary General, AFPPD.
Final reports, 98th and 99th meetings of the Executive Committee of the Pan American Health Organization, Washington, D.C., 27 September 1986 and 22-26 June 1987. XXXII meeting of the Directing Council of PAHO, XXXIX meeting, WHO Regional Committee for the Americas, Washington, D.C., 21-25 September 1987.
Washington, D.C., 1987. 136 p. (Official Document No. 219)The 98th and 99th Meetings of the Executive Committee of the Pan American Health Organization, the XXXII Meeting of the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization, and the XXXIX Meeting of the World Health Organization (WHO) Committee for the Americas were all held in Washington, D.C., between 9/86 and 9/87. This document contains the final reports of these conferences, including lists of all participants, and complete texts of all resolutions. The 99th Meeting resulted in Resolution VI, urging member countries to implement plans to control Aedes albopictus implicated in dengue, yellow fever, and california encephalitis. Resolution VII on Women, Health and Development, urging member nations to improve public and private comprehensive health care for women, and calling for increased participation of women in professional posts and representative roles within the organization; Resolution VIII, on Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Relief Coordination; and Resolution XII on AIDS Prevention and Control, which called for a WHO Special Program on AIDS and urged member countries to increase efforts at prevention and control, to provide information to WHO, and to permit free international travel for infected people. The XXXII Meeting contained Resolution IX on Women, Health and Development; Resolution X on Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Relief Coordination; Resolution XI on the Coordination of Social Security and Public Health Institutions; and Resolution XII on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in the Americas.
Provisional summary record of the fourteenth meeting, WHO headquarters, Geneva, Thursday, 16 January 1986, at 9h30.
[Unpublished] 1986 Jan 16. 20 p. (EB77/SR/14)This document provides a progress and evaluation report of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), a summary record of the 14th Meeting, held in Geneva, Switzerland during January 1986. Dr. Uthai Sudsukh began by saying that the Program Committee had undertaken a review and evaluation of immunization against the major infectious diseases in relation to the goal of health for all and primary health care. This was the second in a series of evaluations and reviews of World Health Organization (WHO) programs corresponding to the essential elements of primary health care. The Program Committee had requested the Secretariat to revise the progress and evaluation report in light of its observations as well as those of the EPI Global Advisory Group. The revised report was before members in document EB77/27, which contained a draft resolution proposed for submission to the 39th World Health Assembly in May 1986. Dr. Hyzler indicated that the revised report provided an excellent picture of the present situation, and he supported the recommendations of the EPI Global Advisory Committee and the draft resolution proposed for submission to the Health Assembly. The underlying concern that was expressed in the report was that EPI might become isolated as a vertical program at the expense of encouraging infrastructure development. Consequently, it was important to ensure that rapid increases in EPI coverage were sustained through mechanisms that also strengthened the delivery of other primary health care interventions. The efficiency of EPI was linked closely to the efficacy of maternal and child health services. The real commitment to the success of immunization that was needed was that of the health workers providing day-to-day care to mothers and children and their families. Those countries that had realized the most progress in immunization had done so because of a very strong maternal and child health component in their national health services. Dr. Otoo made the point that 1 of the major constraints in EPI programming was the shortage of managerial skills and that more effort must be made to improve managerial capabilities. Comments of other participants in the 14th Meeting are included in this summary document.
[Final reports, 96th and 97th meetings of the Executive Committee of the Pan American Health Organization, Washington, D.C., 28 September 1985 and 23-27 June 1986. XXII Pan American Sanitary Conference XXXVIII meeting, WHO Regional Committee for the Americas, Washington, D.C., 22-30 September 1986] Informes finales, 96 y 97 Reuniones del Comite Ejecutivo de la Organizacion Panamericana de la Salud, Washington, D.C., 28 de septiembre de 1985 y 23-27 de junio de 1986. XXII Conferencia Sanitaria Panamericana, XXXVIII Reunion, Comite Regional de la OMS para las Americas, Washington, D.C., 22-30 de septiembre de 1986
Washington, D.C., PAHO, 1986. v, 173 p. (Official Document No. 211)The 96th Meeting of the Executive Committee of the Pan American Health Organization was held at the Headquarters buiding in Washington, D.C., on 28 September 1985. The 97th Meeting of the Executive Committee of the Pan American Health Organization was held at the Headquarters building in Washington, D.C., from 23 to 27 June 1986. The XXII Pan American Sanitary Conference, XXXVIII Meeting of the Regional Committee of the World Health Organization for the Americas, was held at the Headquarters building in Washington, D.C., from 22 to 27 September 1986. This document contains the final reports of these 3 conferences including all the participants and resolutions.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1985. 29 p. (WHO/CDD/85.12)This paper reports the activities and proposed program budget for 1986-1987 reviewed by the Technical Advisory Group (TAG) at its 6 meeting. The Group also examined 2 reports on the use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and the incorporation of cost-effective control interventions other than case management in national CDD programs, and reviewed revised guidelines for the management of the research component of the global Program. With respect to the health services component, the following conclusions and reccomendations were made: the program should maintain a comprehensive approach to diarrheal disease control, while continuing to give major emphasis to and expanding further the case management strategy; continued efforts to promote plan preparation in all developing countries should be maintained; progress is to be regularly monitored; latent plans should be implemented; efforts to improve the global use rate of ORT should be effected; routine antidiarrheal remedies are to be discouraged; training curricula of health personnel must be promoted and improved; preparation of guidelines to facilitate mobilization of developmental support is urged. In the research component, the Group approved the proposed changes in the research management structure, particularly the termination of the Scientific Working Groups and Steering Committees; it endorsed the overall approach of the Program in diarrheal research development; it stressed the need for and suggested ways of achieving a flexible, rapid response to operational research; it welcomed the increase of biomedical projects; it emphasized the need for urgent research to determine which diarrhea cases required ORS treatment. Numerous other recommendations were made.
WHO Programme in Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning. Report of the second meeting of the WHO Programme Advisory Committee in Maternal and Child Health, Geneva, 21-25 November 1983.
[Unpublished] 1984. 95 p. (MCH/84.5)The objectives of the 2nd meeting of the Program Advisory Committee (PAC) for the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Program in Maternal and Child Health, including Family Planning (MCH/FP) were to 1) assess the MCH/FP program's achievements since the 1st PAC meeting in June, 1982, 2) determine the level of scientific and financial resources available for the program, and 3) to examine the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the delivery of MCH/FP services. The committee reviewed the activities and targets of the program's 4 major areas (pregnancy and perinatal care, child health, growth, and development, adolescent health, and family planning and infertility), and developed a series of recommendations for each of these areas. Specific recommendations were also made for each of the major program areas in reference to the analysis and dessimination of information and to the development and use of appropriate health technologies. Upon reviewing the role of TBAs in the delivery of MCH/FP services, PAC recommended that all barriers to TBA utilization be removed and that training for TBAs should be improved and expanded. PAC's examination of financial support for MCH/FP activities revealed that for a sample of 26 countries, the average annual amount allocated to MCH activities was less than US$3/child or woman. This low level of funding must be taken into account when setting program targets. International funding agencies did indicate their willingness to increase funding levels for MCH programs. The appendices included 1) a list of participants, 2) an annotated agenda, 3) detailed information on the proposed activities of the program's headquarters for 1986-87, and 4) a description of the the function, organizational structure, and technical management of the MCH/FP program. Also included in the appendices was an overview of the current status of MCH and a series of tables providing information on infant, child, and maternal health indicators. Specifically, the tables provided information by region and by country on maternal, child, and infant mortality; causes of child deaths; maternal health care coverage; contraceptive prevalence; infant and child malnutrition; the number of low weight births; adolescent health; teenage births; breast feeding prevalence and duration; and the proportion of women and children in the population.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1999 Dec. viii, 113 p. (World Bank Discussion Paper No. 411; Europe and Central Asia Gender and Development Series)This collection of papers was selected from the proceedings of the World Bank conference held on June 7-8, 1999 in Washington District of Colombia. The conference entitled, "Making the Transition Work for Women in Europe and Central Asia," underlined the importance of gender as a factor influencing change during the shift from a command to a market economy. Women, who were invited to the conference, from Europe spoke directly to the World Bank about their problems and to make suggestions for action. In addition, scholars from the US and Britain were also invited to express their views on the gender dimension of transition. It was pointed out that the transition is taking place without the input of women, who are consequently suffering from the change. The participants also agreed the changes also caused men to engage in domestic violence, thus causing additional problems for women. The feminization of poverty and trafficking in women were also identified as new problems that demand to be addressed. In view of these problems, the participants advised that reforms were necessary but should proceed with caution.
Lancet. 2002 Jun 8; 359(9322):2005.During the 4th World Congress on Tuberculosis (TB) held on June 3-5, 2002, in Washington, District of Colombia, experts revealed that major challenges remain in the fight against the disease despite progress made. Nevertheless, many of the experts at the meeting were also cautiously optimistic. Philip Hopewell, associate dean of the University of California, San Francisco noted that the world is positioned for "rapid advances" in TB control as WHO's decision to promote Directly Observed Therapy, Short-course (DOTS) has led to the adoption of programs in 148 countries, including the 23 "high-burden countries" that account for 80% of the world's TB cases, and these programs have been shown to be cost-effective. In China and India, half of their population has now access to DOTS services with cure rates of 90% and more than 80% respectively. DOTS was also implemented in the Philippines in 1996 and is available in 98% of all public health centers. However, of the 23 high-burden countries only Vietnam and Peru have been able to achieve both the 70% case-detection rate and 85% treatment success targets. Christopher Dye, coordinator of TB monitoring and evaluation at WHO, and his co-workers estimated that only 27% of new cases are being identified and referred worldwide. Further, he warned that at the current rate of increase, the WHO global goals of 70% new case-detection and 85% cure rates by 2005 target will not be met until 2013.
[Unpublished] 1995.  p.People living with HIV/AIDS (PHA), nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and representatives from the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) met in Geneva in July 1995 to discuss ways to collaborate. This meeting report provides a synthesis of the discussions and work accomplished over those four days, including ideas emanating from the plenary and working group sessions. The meeting was developed in two parts: the first two days were for discussions among the PHA/NGO participants, and the second two days for consultation between the PHA/NGOs and UNAIDS. The issues discussed include access to care and support, human rights, enabling community voices to be heard at all levels, greater involvement of PHA, information and global leadership, women’s participation, development strategies that focus on egalitarianism, and communications.
New York, New York, United Nations, 2000. x, 95 p.During the 1990s, the UN held a series of global conferences addressing a number of economic and social issues of international concern. These conferences succeeded in forging a consensus on the development issues confronting the international community. This publication grew out of the participation of the Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, in activities aimed at ensuring a coordinated and system-wide implementation of the goals and commitments adopted by the conferences. Divided into 12 chapters, it provides basic statistical information and sources for 12 key indicators relevant to goals agreed upon by governments. The indicators are selected for their relevance to six of the main themes of the various global conferences: population; primary health care; nutrition; basic education; drinking water and sanitation; and shelter. The 12 indicators include: total population; access to health services; contraceptive prevalence; underweight prevalence among preschool children; maternal mortality; infant and child mortality; life expectancy at birth; school enrollment; adult illiteracy; access to safe water; access to sanitation; and floor area per person.
Lancet. 2000 Sep 2; 356(9232):839.During the August 23-25, 2000, convention conducted by WHO in Kathmandu, Nepal, it was decided that national mechanisms to plan and manage health sector reforms be established and strengthened. The participants of this convention were health ministers from the 10 countries that make up the WHO South East Asian Region (SEAR). It was noted in the meeting that the countries in the region need a universal prescription for health sector reforms, which comprises the components of health care financing, health care provision, human resources for health, and governance in health. Although most of the SEAR countries have initiated reforms in health care financing and decentralization of health systems, many are facing the challenge of expanding provision of health insurance. In view of this, WHO was called to help countries develop models for collective health care financing based on risk-pooling, or collective health financing. In terms of preventing HIV/AIDS, it was recommended that interventions that have been effective in preventing HIV infection in different countries must be applied widely. Moreover, the Indian delegation's suggestion that estimates on HIV/AIDS cases by WHO and UNAIDS should be reviewed and updated regularly.
Primary health care systems and services for the twenty-first century. Statement of the Seventh Consultative Committee on Organization of Health Systems Based on Primary Health Care.
[Unpublished] 1997.  p. (WHO/ARA/97.7)This summary presents the conclusions of the 7th Consultative Committee on Organization of Health Systems Based on Primary Health Care conducted in Geneva on February 10-13, 1997. The meeting aimed to take stock of the challenges to health that will confront the world in the coming century and assess the implications of these challenges for the development and organization of future health systems and services. The meeting agenda comprised the failure of health systems worldwide to recognize the implications of the fundamental shift in the paradigm that has come to dominate economic and social development over the past decades. In addition, the need to recognize health as the central component of overall human development and not simply a technical process of delivery of medical care by health professionals was also emphasized. Furthermore, the Committee recommends a shift towards a comprehensive, population-based view of health status improvement, with national governments taking primary responsibilities in ensuring equity in health status and access to health care. The success or failure of poor people and poor countries in making a progress in human development would profoundly influence the situation in the 21st century. The implications noted in the meeting would serve as guidelines for future agenda of WHO and its Member States in supporting the development of sustainable health services and systems for the 21st century.
WEDO NEWS AND VIEWS. 1999 May; 12(1):6.A Youth Forum organized by the United Nations Population Fund in collaboration with the World Population Foundation and the Dutch Council on Youth and Population brought together 132 young people from 108 countries. Some 20 of them formed a Youth Coalition and made it to the International Conference on Population Development (ICPD+5) PrepCom in March. They held press conferences, proposed amendments to the draft text based on the final report of the Youth forum, lobbied diplomats, and joined the Women's coalition. They gained the attention of the media and demanded that governments recognize the reproductive rights of young people as human rights, that sexual health services and education be provided to youth, and that at least 20% of donor allocations to reproductive health programs be earmarked for their needs. However, the youth did not totally succeed in their campaign because right-wing groups contested most proposals related to adolescent reproductive and sexual health education.
PEOPLE. 1998 Aug-Nov; 7(3-4):5-7.The 1998 Caribbean Youth Summit on Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights is a regional youth conference on Adolescent Reproductive Health (ARH) held in Barbados from October 5 to 7, 1998. The conference gathered over 190 participants from youth groups, governmental agencies, and nongovernmental organizations and resulted in the approval of the Declaration on Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights and the Regional Action Plan (RAP). The event aimed to improve reproductive health delivery and services to the Caribbean youth by generating research on ARH delivery and services; encouraging fresh, youth perspectives to enhance advocacy initiatives; enlarging the band of population advocates to the beneficiaries; providing a Caribbean flavored blueprint for the implementation of ARH legislative policy and programmatic actions; and promoting the reproductive health rights and needs of the youth in the Caribbean. Particularly, the RAP called for the creation of youth centers, which provide a variety of services including counseling, medical testing, and other social activities. The Declaration, on the other hand, presented 25 rights, to ensure that young people have access in protecting themselves from unwanted pregnancy and all types of sexually transmitted diseases. Lastly, a communications program was designed which combined traditional folk and modern media.
Youth and Reproductive Health in Countries in Transition: report of a European regional meeting, Copenhagen, Denmark, 23-25 June 1997.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1997. vii, 70 p.A report of a European meeting is presented in this document. The youth and reproductive health meeting held in Copenhagen, Denmark, June 23-25, 1997, was one of the regional meetings organized by the UN Population Fund to enhance the active participation of young people in discussing issues and formulating reproductive and sexual health programs. 67 participants attended the meeting, representing the countries of central and eastern Europe, countries in the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Baltic States; government and nongovernmental organizations from the aforementioned areas; and the national youth organization. This document is subdivided into 6 parts: 1) introduction; 2) opening session; 3) summary of presentation, which includes challenges to adolescent reproductive health; 4) key issues in reproductive and sexual health, which includes unprotected sexual relations and their consequences, sexual abuse, exploitation and violence against young women, lack of clear policies and programs, inadequate social support system, lack of knowledge and skills, lack of sound and relevant information services, lack of human and financial resources, and concluding observations; 5) strategies for action, which include the framework, and the proposed interventions; and 6) concluding remarks.
FORUM. 1996 Dec; 12(2):27-9.65 council members, their guests, and invited speakers convened at the 1996 International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) Western Hemisphere Regional council meeting held in Mexico City during September 20-21 to focus upon strategies for working with governments in the context of declining multilateral support. The IPPF's new charter on sexual and reproductive rights was introduced to the council during the meeting and programs discussed which actively involve males in family planning. The meeting was hosted by MEXFAM, the Mexican family planning association. Since 80% of births in Mexico occur among the poorest 20% of the population, MEXFAM focuses upon serving those least served by other agencies. The association has 17 clinics, works directly with more than 2000 community workers, and provides services paid for through contracts with more than 300 businesses. Sharing many of MEXFAM's concerns, Mexico's Ministry of Health plans to use a $400 million loan received from the World Bank to take health services to isolated rural communities. The course of the meeting is described.
JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF PHYSICIANS IN AIDS CARE. 1995 Mar; 1(2):34.After a 4-day meeting of African health officials, professors, nongovernmental specialists, and parliamentarians in Paris, Dr. Ebrahim Samba, World Health Organization (WHO) regional director called for change in the way the continent's governments, peoples, and international benefactors approach health care. WHO and the World Bank published a study, "Better Health for Africa," which suggests low-income African countries can overhaul their health systems and offer services for $13 per person per year; the average per capita is now $14 (range, $10-$100). In some countries consumers only receive $12 worth of benefits for each $100 spent on drugs by the public sector. The new approach calls for comprehensive plans to reach the greatest number of people with appropriate care while integrating care with clean water and sanitation. Health ministries currently focus on sophisticated services in the cities that benefit a small and relatively prosperous segment of society. Dr. Olikoye Ransome-Kuti, former Nigerian Health Minister, noted that people pay a lot in both the formal and informal (traditional healers) health settings, and that health insurance and user fees could finance this. Edward Elmendorf, a World Bank specialist on human resources and poverty, stated that wider use of health insurance would free some of the funds used by advanced hospitals for meeting the needs of the entire population, and that, according to the report's panel, user fees, even in impoverished areas, produced better services and consumers who value the information and medications they receive. Wadi Haddad, World Bank senior advisor for human development, said there is a consensus among international donors to encourage health care reform, for which each country would develop its own plan and priorities. Donors, who finance about 20% of health costs in Africa, are also urging governments to address education of women, clean water, and poverty. The Bank has pledged $1.4 billion in loans for 30 countries to reform their health care systems.
Policy aspects of community participation in maternal and child health and family planning programmes.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, 1989. , 56 p. (WHO/MCH/89.14)The International Conference on Primary Health Care (PHC) organized by WHO and UNICEF in Alma Ata in 1978 pointed to involving the public in health care services including planning, implementation, and evaluation. These projects, experience in other areas of community participation (CP) as well as a meeting that was organized by WHO and the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) in Zimbabwe in October 1986 are detailed. The rationale for CP is to improve health service delivery and to enable health service users to have more control. Emphasis is placed on women in communities as the key participants in maternal and child health/family planning (MCH/FP) programs to increase their status. Women are the beneficiaries of MCH/FP services with traditional responsibility for the health of their families. They make up the majority of nurses, modern and traditional midwives, and paramedical workers within the formal system. In traditional communities women become community health workers (CHWs) and village development workers. WHO has supported research to assess the health impact of community participation in health services. UNICEF has focused on a more integrated approach where community participation is promoted through community development activities. UNFPA has supported projects in which traditional birth attendants or village health workers are trained to improve their skills in MCH/FP. Some policy issues for CP implementation in MCH/FP programs include: decentralization of the health care systems; health care information and education; training; resources for CP in MCH/FP activities; implementing MCH/FP activities in the community (antenatal care, delivery care, child care, and FP care); promoting multi sectoral collaboration; and evaluating and monitoring community participation. Some international research projects initiated are the PRICOR operations research project on the implementation of the PHC (supported by USAID), and ESCAP's cross-cultural research project about constraints on community participation in national FP programs (supported by UNFPA). Governments are urged to hold workshops for policymakers, train district and local officials in managerial skills, develop guidelines for medical preventive health training curricula, and develop management information systems.
International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children: technical statements and selected presentations. Jointly organized by the Government of France and the World Health Organization, Paris, 27-30 November 1989.
[Unpublished] 1991. , 64 p.The International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children was organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) in cooperation with the French Government. Co-sponsors included the United Nations organizations UNDP, UNICEF, and UNESCO, along with the International Labor Organization (ILO), the World Bank, and the Council of Europe. Following assorted introductory addresses, statements by chairmen of the conference's technical working groups are presented in the paper. Working group discussion topics include virology; immunology; epidemiology; clinical management; HIV and pregnancy; diagnoses; implications for health, education, community, and social welfare systems; and economic and demographic impact. Chairman statements include an introduction, discussion of the state of current knowledge, research priorities, implications for policies and programs, and recommendations. The Paris Declaration on Women, Children and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome concluded the conference.
Mortality and health issues in Asia and the Pacific: report of a seminar held at Beijing in collaboration with the Institute of Population Research, People's University of China from 22 to 27 October 1986.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. vi, 169 p. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 78.; ST/ESCAP/485.)The Seminar on Mortality and Health Issues was held at Beijing from 22 to 27 October 1986 as a cooperative venture between the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) and the Institute of Population Research, People's University of China, as part of the project, "Analysis of Trends and Patterns of Mortality in the ESCAP Region." Part 1 of the report includes a summary of the Beijing recommendations on health and mortality and the report of the seminar. Part 2 contains papers on a comparative analysis on trends and patterns of mortality in the ESCAP region, an overview of the epidemiological situation in the region, health for all by the year 2000, and inequalities in health.
[National Conference on Fertility and Family, Oaxaca de Juarez, Oaxaca, April 13, 1984] Reunion Nacional sobre Fecundidad y Familia, Oaxaca de Juarez, Oax., a 13 de abril de 1984.
Mexico City, Mexico, CONAPO, 1984. 228 p.Proceedings of a national conferences on the family and fertility held in April 1984 as part of Mexico's preparation for the August 1984 World Population Conference are presented. 2 opening addresses outline the background and objectives of the conference, while the 1st paper details recommendations of a 1983 meeting on fertility and the family held in New Delhi. The main body of the report presents 2 conference papers and commentary. The 1st paper, on fertility, contraception, and family planning, discusses fertility policies; levels and trends of fertility in Mexico from 1900 to 1970 and since 1970; socioeconomic and geographic fertility differentials; the relationship of mortality and fertility; contraception and the role of intermediate variables; the history and achievements of family planning activities of the private and public sectors in Mexico; and the relationship between contraception, fertility, and family planning. The 2nd paper, on the family as a sociodemographic unit and subject of population policies, discusses the World Population Plan of Action and current sociodemographic policies in Mexico; the family as a sociodemographic unit, including the implications of formal demography for the study of family phenomena, the dynamic sociodemographic composition of the family unit, and the family as a mediating unit for internal and external social actions; and steps in development of a possible population policy in which families would be considered an active part, including ideologic views of the family as a passive object of policy and possible mobilization strategies for families in population policies. The conference as a whole concluded by reaffirming the guiding principles of Mexico's population policy, including the right of couples to decide the number and spacing of their children, the fundamental objective of the population policy of elevating the socioeconomic and cultural level of the population, the view of population policy as an essential element of development policy, and the right of women to full participation. Greater efforts were believed to be necessary in such priority areas as integration of family planning programs with development planning and population policy, creation of methodologies for the analysis of families in their social contexts, development and application of contraceptive methodologies, promotion of male participation in family planning, coordination of federal and state family planning programs, and creation of sociodemographic information systems to ensure availability of more complete date on families in specific population sectors. The principles of the World Population Plan of Action were also reaffirmed.