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  1. 1
    321141

    Adolescent pregnancy -- unmet needs and undone deeds. A review of the literature and programmes.

    Neelofur-Khan D

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2007. [109] p. (WHO Discussion Papers on Adolescence; Issues in Adolescent Health and Development)

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has been contributing to meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by according priority attention to issues pertaining to the management of adolescent pregnancy. Three of the aims of the MDGs - empowerment of women, promotion of maternal health, and reduction of child mortality - embody WHO's key priorities and its policy framework for poverty reduction. The UN Special Session on Children has focused on some of the key issues affecting adolescents' rights, including early marriage, access to sexual and reproductive health services, and care for pregnant adolescents. This review of the literature was conducted to identify (1) the major factors affecting the pregnancy outcome among adolescents, related to their physical immaturity and inappropriate or inadequate healthcare-seeking behaviour, and (2) the socioeconomic and political barriers that influence their access to health-care services and information. The review also presents programmatic evidence of feasible measures that can be taken at the household, community and national levels to improve pregnancy outcomes among adolescents. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    101612

    Funding the future: resources for adolescent health programs in developing countries.

    Macieira MM; Mohamud A; Farrell K; Tipton EC

    Washington, D.C., Center for Population Options, International Center on Adolescent Fertility, 1994. x, 70 p.

    This directory of agencies that support adolescent health programs in developing countries is a unique tool for identifying sources of support. The directory allows the identification of funding agencies that precedes the collaboration which is essential for turning the commitment, concern, and new ideas of program developers into reality. Part 1 of the directory lists organizations that fund programs directly (and which constitute the bulk of the listings). Part 2 presents organizations that fund through intermediaries (provide financial support to US-based agencies that work abroad). The best way to obtain support from these foundations is to collaborate with an intermediary organization. Appropriate intermediary organizations can be identified by obtaining the annual report of the foundation to see which organizations received funding recently. Agencies that provide technical assistance (in-kind support such as training, assistance in evaluation methodology, and educational supplied) are identified in Part 3. These organizations do not provide financial assistance. Finally, organizations interested in adolescent health are described in Part 4. These organizations have expressed an interest to be kept informed of activities, but they are not receptive to unsolicited proposals. They may be contacted to receive more information on their adolescent health activities. Information for each listing includes contacts, geographic regions of high priority, general purposes, types of projects supported, concern with adolescent health, descriptions of sample grants for youth work, and the application procedure. Advice on the art of advocacy, fund raising tips, how to write a proposal, and recommended resources is given in the appendices.
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  3. 3
    069835

    Chile: update on teen reproductive health project.

    POPULATION. 1991 Dec; 17(12):3.

    This article describes the recent activities of the Centre for Adolescent Reproductive Medicine at the University of Chile, which receives UNFPA support under a project aimed at establishing a center for training in adolescent reproductive health. The project, a collaboration of the government and UNFPA, focuses on biological and social issues related to adolescents' reproductive problems, as well as on family relationships. The project is also designed to train health personnel in adolescent reproductive health and support university research into adolescent health and fertility. The Centre used UNFPA funds to improve its facilities, provide training, and increase research and education on teen health. A university bulletin reports that last year, the Centre provided 6936 consultations for teens and increased its outreach activities through the use of educational courses and mass media. The Center also recruited 17 professional trainers in adolescent reproductive medicine, built an annex to its main building, and established a library that specializes on adolescence. Furthermore, UNFPA provided the Centre with medical equipment such as a fetal heartbeat monitor, the necessary paraphernalia to perform vaginal endoscopy for adolescents, and other specialized diagnostic instruments for child and adolescent gynecology. The article explains that teenage pregnancy is common problem in Latin America. According to a 1988 study, 1/3 of all women aged 15-17 living in Santiago (which contains about a 1/3 of Chile's population) had been pregnant at least once.
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  4. 4
    034509

    Report of a WHO Meeting on Adolescent Sexuality and Reproductive Health: Educational and Service Aspects, Mexico City, 28 April - 2 May 1980.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Unpublished] 1981. 69 p. (MCH/RHA/81.1)

    In 1977, the Maternal and Child Health Unit of the World Health Organization (WHO) collaborated with the International Planned Parenthood Federation in the design and implementation of a cross-cultural survey in an effort to fill the gaps in available country-specific information on the reproductive health needs of adolescents and the information, education, and services available to them. The premise was that the use of a well-designed survey instrument would provide a global picture of the issues surrounding adolescent sexuality and reproductive health. The surveys were used as background information for the WHO Meeting on Adolescent Sexuality and Reproductive Health: Educational and Service Aspects, held in Mexico in May 1980. The objectives of the meeting were: to review the needs and problems related to sexuality and reproductive health of adolescents; to identify priority research issues related to these needs; to identify appropriate approaches including strategies and channels to meet these needs, including education, health, and social services; and to suggest specific follow-up activities to the recommendations of the meeting. To establish a working outline for the discussions which were to take place during the meeting, extensive background material was presented by some of the participants. These papers, included in an annex, focused on the health and social aspects of pregnancy in adolescents and on adolescents in a changing society, especially in the context of their sexuality and reproductive behavior. A system of plenary sessions and small group discussions took place during the meeting. Based on the background papers and the reports of the 4 working groups, the full meeting developed 4 issues for specific consideration: an adolescent overview; a conceptual model; strategies for action; and specific recommendations. These 4 issues are covered in detail in this report of the meeting. The meeting participants repeatedly emphasized the need to involve adolescents, policy makers, and potential service providers in a program which is not predetermined and sufficiently flexible to permit the participation of all concerned. Meeting participants recommended the development of a series of community-based pilot projects on educational and service programs in sexuality and reproductive health for and with adolescents, action research to support the development of the pilot projects, a focus on youth participation in programs addressed to meet the specific needs of adolescents, and attention directed to encouraging youth to assume responsibility in program development. Summary reports of the cross-cultural survey are included in this report.
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  5. 5
    033836

    Report on the evaluation of various family life education projects with particular emphasis on youth in the English-speaking Caribbean: general conclusions and recommendations.

    Corona E; Epps RP; Kodagoda N; Simonen M

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Nov. xii, 39, [7] p.

    Most family life education (FLE) projects included in this evaluation have the longterm objectives of reducing the incidence of teenage prognancy, and promotion of self-reliance and positive, responsible behavior among youth. The immediate objectives and project strategies are also very similar across projects, e.g., in-school and out-of-school FLE, comprehensive youth services, including family planning (FP) and training. The evaluation shows that project design has improved over the years (clearer and measurable formulation of objectives, more comprehensive workplans and better explanation of budgetary items) and projects have moved from addressing a wide variety of broad issues to a more focused consideration of adolescent fertility. However, the Evaluation Mission in concerned that due to the similarities in project design, country-and-time-specific factors have not always been adequately taken into consideration. Other concerns include the lack of systematic needs assessment and use of baseline data to guide implementation. All the projects evaluated have contributed to the training in FLE/FP of a large number of family life educators, teachers and nurses and have thus significantly strengthened professional national capability. Nevertheless, training needs still exist in motivational/attitudinal variables, sex roles, teaching/learning technics. The projects have made a significant contribution to the introduction of FLE into schools and teacher training institutions. The focus at present should be the institutionalization of FLE within the in-school sector, including the development of a policy approving FLE in schools. The development of community-based health centers was often the central activity of the out-of-school FLE component of the projects. These centers have contributed to shaping the countries' attitudes by creating an awareness of teenage pregnancy, by developing an acceptable strategy, by providing a focal point for discussing sensitive issues, and by becoming a mechanism for community mobilization. The projects have also contributed to making FP services available and specialized services for adolescents are being established. The emphasis has been more on education and awareness creation than on contraceptive distribution to adolescents. At present the need is to strengthen the service delivery components. The limited availability of data suggests that adolescent pregnancy remains an urgent problem in the region. Sustained and more focused FLE/FP program efforts directed to adolescents continue to be needed in the region. The most important general lesson learnt from the programs is that programs in adolescent fertility can be started and implemented in countries even prior to declaration of policy by governments. However, at a certain stage of implementation the programs cannot be carried further without explicit government policies and control.
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  6. 6
    024731

    Adolescent fertility: report of an international consultation, Bellagio 1983.

    McKay J

    London, England, IPPF, 1984 May. ii, 59 p.

    The Bellagio consultation was held in July, 1983 on the initiative of the Programme Committee of International Medical Advisory Panel to consider more closely what the needs of adolescents are and what more should be done to meet them. Participants from several countries--within and outside of IPPF--were invited. Before the Consultation, participants exchanged information, experience and ideas in writing as a basis for their discussion. 3 topics were focused on: 1) needs and problems; 2) information, education, and counselling; and 3) reproductive health management. An action plan for the next 3 to 5 years was drawn up. It offers broad suggestions about the kind of activities that would be appropriate for family planning associations and IPPF to take. Adolescents all over the world are in need of much better education and health care related to fertility, these are not the same in each society. A comprehensive approach to adolescent needs is favored. The recommendations form part of a broad discussion about how adolescents can best be helped to behave responsibly. Adolescent fertility has implications for health, psychological, social and economic well being. General program and operational guidelines are given, as are 8 areas for action: 1) creation of awareness and advocacy; 2) youth leadership and participation in adolescent programs; 3) information and education; 4) counseling; 5) fertility-related services; 6) sharing of experience, information and resources; 7) training and skill development; and 8) research. A list of participants and background papers is given.
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  7. 7
    268337

    Population growth: a global problem.

    Rosenfield A

    In: Current problems in obstetrics and gynecology, Vol. 5, No. 6, edited by John M. Leventhal. Chicago, Illinois, Year Book Medical Publishers, 1982. 4-41.

    This article addresses the medical aspects of population growth, with specific focus on a demographic overview, population policies, family planning programs, and population issues in the US. The dimensions of the population problem and their implications for social and economic development are reviewed. The world's response to these issues is discussed, followed by an assessment of what has been accomplished, particularly as it relates to the record of national family planning programs in developing countries. The impact of population growth on such issues as education, available farm land, deforestation, and urban growth are discussed. Urban populations are growing at an unprecedented rate, posing urgent problems for action. From a public health perspective, data are reviewed which demonstrate that having children at short intervals (2 years) or at unfavorable maternal ages (18 or 35) and/or parity (4) has a negative impact on maternal, infant and childhood morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. Increasing the age of marriage, delaying the 1st birth, changing and improving the status of women, increasing educational levels and improving living conditions in general also are important in reducing population growth. Probably the most important, but most controversial intervention, has been the development of national family planning programs aimed at increasing the public's access to modern contraceptive and sterilization methods. India was the 1st country to declare a formal population policy (in the 1950s) with the goal of reducing population growth. Currently, close to 35 countries have formal policies. The planned parenthood movement, with central support from the London office of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), has played a most important role in making family planning services available. 2 population issues in the US today are reviewed briefly in the final section: teenage pregnancy and the changing age structure.
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  8. 8
    034499

    Youth projects: 1982.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    [Unpublished] 1983 Oct. [54] p.

    This document summarizes a collection of youth projects and activities undertaken by International Planned Parenthood Federation member Family Planning Associations throughout the world. Some of these projects are undertaken in collaboration with other organizations. The source of information for these projects are the annual reports of of Family Planning Associations for 1982.
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