Your search found 7 Results
Integrating poverty and gender into health programmes: a sourcebook for health professionals. Module on HIV / AIDS.
[Manila, Philippines], World Health Organization [WHO], Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2008.  p.This module is designed to improve the awareness, knowledge and skills of health professionals on poverty and gender concerns in the field of HIV / AIDS. Experience increasingly shows that the socioeconomic factors contributing to the rapid spread of HIV in the Region include low education, limited access to health care services and increased mobility within and between countries -- factors that are largely determined by poverty and gender inequality. The growing commitment to curbing the HIV / AIDS epidemic requires that health professionals at community, provincial, national and international levels have the knowledge, skills and tools to more effectively respond to the health needs of poor and marginalized people and address the gender inequalities fuelling the epidemic. However, many health professionals in the Region are not adequately prepared to address these issues. This module is designed to help fill this gap.
Washington, D.C., The National Academies Press, 2008 Dec 15.  p.At this historic moment, the incoming Obama administration and leaders of the U.S. Congress have the opportunity to advance the welfare and prosperity of people within and beyond the borders of the United States through intensified and sustained attention to better health. The United States can improve the lives of millions around the world, while reflecting America's values and protecting and promoting the nation's interests. The Institute of Medicine-with the support of four U.S. government agencies and five private foundations-formed an independent committee to examine the United States' commitment to global health and to articulate a vision for future U.S. investments and activities in this area.
American Journal of Public Health. 2008 Sep; 98(9):1594-7.In 1948, after its first World Health Assembly, the WHO took action to form a Secretariat in Geneva. It was given space for its initial years in the Palais des Nations, which had been the last home of the League of Nations. As stated in Chapter I of its Constitution, WHO was "to act as the directing and coordinating authority on international health work." This was a much broader scope than any other international agency in the orbit of the UN. (excerpt)
Journal of School Health. 2008 Jul; 78(7):368-373.India made 2 important policy statements regarding tobacco control in the past decade. First, the India Tobacco Control Act (ITCA) was signed into law in 2003 with the goal to reduce tobacco consumption and protect citizens from exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Second, in 2005, India ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). During this same period, India conducted the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in 2003 and 2006 in an effort to track tobacco use among adolescents. The GYTS is a school-based survey of students aged 13-15 years. Representative national estimates for India in 2003 and 2006 were used in this study. In 2006, 3.8% of students currently smoked cigarettes and 11.9% currently used other tobacco products. These rates were not significantly different than those observed in 2003. Over the same period, exposure to SHS at home and in public places significantly decreased, whereas exposure to pro-tobacco ads on billboards and the ability to purchase cigarettes in a store did not change significantly. The ITCA and the WHO FCTC have had mixed impacts on the tobacco control effort for adolescents in India. The positive impacts have been the reduction in exposure to SHS, both at home and in public places. The negative impacts are seen with the lack of change in pro-tobacco advertising and ability to purchase cigarettes in stores. The Government of India needs to consider new and stronger provisions of the ITCA and include strong enforcement measures. (author's)
Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2008 Feb; 8(2):98-100.Kevin De Cock is director of WHO's HIV/AIDS department. Formerly director of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Kenya, he is an infectious disease specialist, with expertise in HIV/ AIDS, tuberculosis, liver disease, and tropical diseases such as yellow fever and viral haemorrhagic fevers. TLID: How has your time as WHO's HIV/AIDS director been? KDC: It has been extremely interesting. AIDS policy is always challenging and changing. WHO's HIV efforts up to 2005 were very much oriented around the 3 by 5 initiative. The G8 in 2005 made an announcement about working towards universal access, which became an AIDS rallying cry. So we've had to reorganise ourselves around that as a theme. Some internal reorganisation was necessary to focus not only on treatment, but also on broader issues. We now have five key strategic directions: increasing access to HIV testing and counselling, maximising prevention, accelerating treatment scale-up, strengthening health systems, and investing in strategic information. We have also been working on some important technical areas. One is the issuing of guidance on both provider-initiated testing and male circumcision. In April, 2007, we also issued a report, in response to a request from the World Health Assembly, on the health sector's progress towards universal access. (excerpt)
Eliminating female genital mutilation: an interagency statement. OHCHR, UNAIDS, UNDP, UNECA, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNICEF, UNIFEM, WHO.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2008. 41 p.The term 'female genital mutilation' (also called 'female genital cutting' and 'female genital mutilation/cutting') refers to all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. Between 100 and 140 million girls and women in the world are estimated to have undergone such procedures, and 3 million girls are estimated to be at risk of undergoing the procedures every year. Female genital mutilation has been reported to occur in all parts of the world, but it is most prevalent in: the western, eastern, and north-eastern regions of Africa, some countries in Asia and the Middle East and among certain immigrant communities in North America and Europe. Female genital mutilation has no known health benefits. On the contrary, it is known to be harmful to girls and women in many ways. First and foremost, it is painful and traumatic. The removal of or damage to healthy, normal genital tissue interferes with the natural functioning of the body and causes several immediate and long-term health consequences. For example, babies born to women who have undergone female genital mutilation suffer a higher rate of neonatal death compared with babies born to women who have not undergone the procedure. (excerpt)
Sulphadoxine / pyrimethamine versus amodiaquine for treating uncomplicated childhood malaria in Gabon: A randomized trial to guide national policy.
Malaria Journal. 2008 Feb 12; 7:31.In Gabon, following the adoption of amodiaquine/artesunate combination (AQ/AS) as first-line treatment of malaria and of sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) for preventive intermittent treatment of pregnant women, a clinical trial of SP versus AQ was conducted in a sub-urban area. This is the first study carried out in Gabon following the WHO guidelines. A random comparison of the efficacy of AQ (10 mg/kg/day x 3d) and a single dose of SP (25 mg/kg of sulphadoxine/1.25 mg/kg of pyrimethamine) was performed in children under five years of age, with uncomplicated falciparum malaria, using the 28-day WHO therapeutic efficacy test. In addition, molecular genotyping was performed to distinguish recrudescence from reinfection and to determine the frequency of the dhps K540E mutation, as a molecular marker to predict SP-treatment failure. The day-28 PCR-adjusted treatment failures for SP and AQ were 11.6% (8/69; 95% IC: 5.5-22.1) and 28.2% (20/71; 95% CI: 17.7-38.7), respectively This indicated that SP was significantly superior to AQ (P= 0.019) in the treatment of uncomplicated childhood malaria and for preventing recurrent infections. Both treatments were safe and well-tolerated, with no serious adverse reactions recorded. The dhps K540E mutation was not found among the 76 parasite isolates tested. The level of AQ-resistance observed in the present study may compromise efficacy and duration of use of the AQ/AS combination, the new first-line malaria treatment. Gabonese policy-makers need to plan country-wide and close surveillance of AQ/AS efficacy to determine whether, and for how long, these new recommendations for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria remain valid. (author's)