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  1. 1
    328213

    The U.S. commitment to global health: recommendations for the new administration.

    United States. Committee on the U.S. Commitment to Global Health. Board on Global Health

    Washington, D.C., The National Academies Press, 2008 Dec 15. [64] p.

    At this historic moment, the incoming Obama administration and leaders of the U.S. Congress have the opportunity to advance the welfare and prosperity of people within and beyond the borders of the United States through intensified and sustained attention to better health. The United States can improve the lives of millions around the world, while reflecting America's values and protecting and promoting the nation's interests. The Institute of Medicine-with the support of four U.S. government agencies and five private foundations-formed an independent committee to examine the United States' commitment to global health and to articulate a vision for future U.S. investments and activities in this area.
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  2. 2
    329202

    The HIV epidemic: squeezing out the African voice [letter]

    Simms C

    Journal of Internal Medicine. 2008 Nov; 264(5):504-8.

    Had there been a strong African voice contributing to World Bank decisions, it is unlikely that deliberate sidelining of HIV by health sector reforms would have taken place. However, given Bank's architecture and processes, an adequate response to the crisis was a nonstarter; unlike mediocre responses to Africa's other health needs, it has been less easy for the IDC to duck its responsibility and place the blame on its so-called African partners. Nevertheless, the lack of an African voice distorts historical analyses of the crisis often reflecting a western perspective, emphasizing the lack of political will and African governments' failure to act, whilst underplaying the IDC's shortcomings. The notion itself that the epidemic is 25 years old rather than the more accurate 75 years old reflects this distortion. Most of the responsibility rests with the Bank's Board and top management. OED reports that it 'could find no evidence that other top management raised the issue with borrowers or pushed the issue to a higher level internally'. Where there was positive response by the bank at the country level, 'the initiative for AIDS strategies and lending came primarily from individual health staff in the regional and technical operational groupings of the Bank, but not in any coherent way from the Bank's HNP leadership or top-level management. The current initiative by the British House of Commons Committee for International Development to reform the World Bank effectively reverses the notion that the reform was all but impossible because it was a zero sum game. Today, however, its donor members may find the demonstrable unfairness and ineffectiveness less tolerable. It is unlikely that the next president of the Bank will be chosen solely by the United States. Reformers will now need to revise its constitutional rules, their balancing of stakeholder rights, their decision-making rules and practices and their staffing and expertise. The course of the HIV epidemic means that the status quo is no longer acceptable. (excerpt)
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