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  1. 1

    Making commitments matter: a toolkit for young people to evaluate national youth policy.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, [2003]. [113] p.

    This Toolkit is meant for national youth organizations and/or representatives working with youth. It can be used as a tool to: Assess your country's progress in reaching the WPAY goals; Prioritize your organization's work, based on your findings; Initiate actions at the national level. This Toolkit should be used as a starting point for determining what your government, and civil society, has done to better the lives of young people, since 1995. In addition to providing methods for evaluating this progress, the Toolkit also contains concrete tools to further your youth work. As such, we hope that you will find it both informative and useful, and a good resource for your organization. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    HIV / AIDS and the Millennium Development Goals.

    YouandAIDS. 2003 Aug; 2(1):16-17.

    In September 2000, at the United Nations Millennium Summit world leaders endorsed a set of time-bound and measurable goals and targets to combat poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, discrimination against women and create a global partnership for development. This global compact - now known as the Millennium Development Goals - was endorsed by all members of the United Nations. It sets out a series of time-bound and quantifiable targets ranging from halving extreme poverty to halting the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015. The Summit's Millennium Declaration also outlined a consensus on how to proceed, with a stronger focus on human rights, good governance and democracy as well as conflict prevention and peace-building. The political framework for achieving the Millennium Development Goals was provided by the new global deal struck in 2002 in Monterrey, Mexico, between North and South. The rich nations represented at the Monterrey "Financing for Development" summit pledged to remove trade barriers and provide more aid and meaningful debt relief to developing countries that undertake tough political and economic reforms. This global compact was reaffirmed at the World Summit for Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg, South Africa, in August 2002. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    Combating hidden hunger: The role of international agencies.

    Dalmiya N; Schultink W

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2003; 24 Suppl 4:S69-S77.

    The importance of micronutrient deficiencies or "hidden hunger" was clearly emphasized by the inclusion of specific goals on iron, vitamin A, and iodine deficiency at the 1990 World Summit for Children and other major international nutrition conferences. Significant progress has since been made toward eliminating vitamin A and iodine deficiencies, with less progress made toward reducing the burden of iron-deficiency anemia. The role of international agencies, such as the World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund, Food and Agricultural Organization, and World Bank in assisting countries to make progress toward the World Summit for Children goals has been very important. International agencies have played a critical role in advocating for and raising awareness of these issues at the international, regional, and national levels among policymakers and the general population. Using a rights-based approach, UNICEF and other agencies have been instrumental in elevating to the highest political level the discussion of every child's right to adequate nutrition. International agencies have also been very supportive at the national level in providing technical guidance for programs, including monitoring and evaluation. These agencies have played a critical role in engaging the cooperation of other partners, including bilateral donors, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector for micronutrient programs. Furthermore, international agencies provide financial and material support for micronutrient programs. In the future, such agencies must continue to be heavily involved in programs to achieve the newly confirmed goals for 2010. The present paper focuses on the role of international agencies in combating micronutrient deficiencies, drawing on the lessons learned over the last decade. The first section of the paper summarizes the progress achieved since 1990, and the second section describes the specific role of international agencies in contributing to that progress. (author's)
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    The dilemma of intellectual property rights for pharmaceuticals: the tension between ensuring access of the poor to medicines and committing to international agreements.

    Cohen JC; Illingworth P

    Developing World Bioethics. 2003 May; 3(1):27-48.

    In this paper, we provide an overview of how the outcomes of the Uruguay Round affected the application of pharmaceutical intellectual property rights globally. Second, we explain how specific pharmaceutical policy tools can help developing states mitigate the worst effects of the TRIPS Agreement. Third, we put forward solutions that could be implemented by the World Bank to help overcome the divide between creating private incentives for research and development of innovative medicines and ensuring access of the poor to medicine. Fourth, we evaluate these solutions on the basis of utilitarian considerations and urge that equitable pricing is morally preferable to the other solutions. (author's)
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  5. 5

    On the front line: a review of policies and programmes to address HIV / AIDS among peacekeepers and uniformed services.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Copenhagen, Denmark, UNAIDS, Office on AIDS, Security and Humanitarian Response, 2003 Aug. [31] p. (UNAIDS Series: Engaging Uniformed Services in the Fight against HIV / AIDS; UNAIDS/03.44E)

    This initiative focuses on mitigating the impact of HIV/AIDS in three core areas: International security, with the focus on supporting HIV/AIDS interventions within United Nations peacekeeping operations; National security, targeting uniformed services with particular emphasis on young recruits, future peacekeepers and demobilizing personnel; Humanitarian response, which focuses on vulnerable populations in crisis settings and humanitarian workers. As part of its national security initiative, UNAIDS SHR, in collaboration with UN Theme Groups, is providing support to countries for the development and/or strengthening of national responses targeting national uniformed services and, in particular, young recruits, demobilized personnel and peacekeepers. Approximately 45 countries worldwide are currently supported through the Initiative on HIV/AIDS and Security. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    Ukraine human development report. Special edition 2003. Ukraine and HIV / AIDS: time to act.

    United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]

    Kyiv, Ukraine, UNDP, 2003. 36 p.

    Ukraine is a young nation on the move. The national response to HIV/AIDS is also gathering pace. It is bringing together fresh coalitions of people, leaders and institutions who want to stop the further spread of this virus and to ensure care for those who are in need. The good news for all is that there are now known ways of preventing the spread of the virus and treatment is increasingly available. The challenge remains immense -- to some overwhelming. The insidious nature of the virus is that it attacks men and women in the prime of their life -- between the ages of 15 and 40. It robs children of their parents, and society of its productive citizens. Limited budgets and ungrounded stigma have severely hampered a scaled-up nationwide response. Positive rhetoric is helpful, but it needs to be matched by personal commitment and concrete actions. With the infusion of new resources, now is the time to remove the log jams and unleash a broad-based national effort to change the current course of the epidemic. As the Secretary General of the United Nations Kofi Annan recently said, "We have come a long way, but not far enough. Clearly, we will have to work harder to ensure that our commitment is matched by the necessary resources and action." (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    Can health programmes lead to mistreatment of sex workers?

    Loff B; Overs C; Longo P

    Lancet. 2003 Jun 7; 361:1982-1983.

    The 100% Condom Use Programme (100% CUP) is aimed at female sex workers and, as its name suggests, promotes increased condom usage. Supported by both WHO and the Joint United Nations’ Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS), the programme was initiated in Thailand in 1989. 100% CUP has been regarded as a success story in the campaign to limit the spread of HIV infection. However, the international Network of Sex Work Projects (NSWP), an informal alliance of sex worker groups with constituent Asian, African, Latin American, and European networks, does not share this view. It seems obvious that health promotion programmes funded by international agencies ought not to contribute to mistreatment of sex workers. Because sex work tends to be regarded as a behaviour not an occupation— who you are, not what you do—sex workers are often not recognised as legitimate parties to discussions of their conditions of employment. Sex workers are often treated as the object of programmes rather than contributors to them. Yet discussions about sex work without sex worker representation result in an incomplete understanding of the social dynamics of the occupation. It is, therefore, not surprising that programmes such as 100% CUP, developed without consultation with sex worker advocates, have had and continue to have negative repercussions for sex workers. (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    IAEN: Current Issues in the Economics of HIV / AIDS. AIDS and education, April 25, 2003. Transcript.

    International AIDS Economics Network [IAEN]

    [Palo Alto, California], Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2003. 43 p.

    Each country with a slightly different focus on the piece of research and in Malawi, the piece I'm going to talk about today is really embedded in a much larger study, a larger longitudinal study. But because of some of the data that we're finding in our pupils and teachers in the conditions of AIDS in Malawi, we decided that we should look a little bit further into what the impact is on the classroom and specifically on learning, so that's going to be the focus of my remarks and I hope really it stimulates some discussion. We're at the beginning of looking at this issue more systematically in the classroom, so I hope I don't fall into the category that Steve referred to earlier as maybe I should have come next year instead of this year. (excerpt)
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  9. 9

    IAEN: Current Issues in the Economics of HIV / AIDS. India: Approaches to containing and treating the HIV / AIDS epidemic, April 25, 2003. Transcript.

    International AIDS Economics Network [IAEN]

    [Palo Alto, California], Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2003. 50 p.

    Now I want to give you just the flavor of the conclusions before we launch into the explanation of what we actually did. We arrived at estimates at the costs per healthy life years saved from an anti-retro viral strategy in India and we have three different strategies which I will define in detail in a minute. The most cost effective of those treatment strategies would buy healthy life years at government expenditure of $146 dollars per healthy life year. The most expensive of the three would cost $280 dollars per healthy life year we estimate and those estimates are pretty large in comparison to the price of healthy life years that we're familiar with from making if you will (unintelligible) report and from other estimates that have been produced of gains that could be saved from (unintelligible) vaccination or even road traffic accidents per nation. (excerpt)
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  10. 10

    IAEN: Current Issues in the Economics of HIV / AIDS. Contrasts and comparisons of simulation modeling exercises and their use in analysis of policy options and interventions, Thursday, April 24, 2003. Transcript.

    International AIDS Economics Network [IAEN]

    [Palo Alto, California], Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2003. 61 p.

    The problem that we were addressing with this model was the fact that most countries now have strategic plans for organizing the national HIV/AIDS effort. But, that there’s very little strategic analysis of the funding that goes into that plan. In fact, the costing (unintelligible) after the goals are already set. This creates a variety of problems, but the major one is that the funding and the goals are not linked in any way that allows you to see how changes in the funding, either in the total amount or in the allocation, effects the goals you can achieve. It means, it makes it difficult to set reasonable goals. It also makes it difficult to do strategic allocation funding. (excerpt)
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  11. 11

    IAEN: Current Issues in the Economics of HIV / AIDS. TRIPS and HAART: Recent developments, sound policies, Thursday, April 24, 2003. Transcript.

    International AIDS Economics Network [IAEN]

    [Palo Alto, California], Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2003. 50 p.

    What I'm going to talk about is the pricing of antiretrovirals and other AIDS drugs. Now this is to be within the framework of the intellectual property provisions of the Oriqui round treaty, the so called TRIPS Provisions once you recognize from the beginning that not all antiretroviral came under patents for many of the key source nations, TRIPS didn't take affect until after, well until a lot of AIDS drugs were already on the market. I'm going to assume that a drug has patent protection and then the question would be how should that drug be priced? And can we have slide one please, which… when a provider of a drug has essentially patent protection or some other reason for having a monopoly of the source, the ideal kind of pricing for it assuming that it's going to be trying to maximize it's profits is sometimes called tiered pricing, sometimes called differential pricing economist, and we've been talking about these kinds of problems for about 150 years now. Economists call it discriminatory pricing or even more technically Ramsey Brummel Bradford (Misspelled?) pricing, the basic idea is this. (excerpt)
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  12. 12

    IAEN: Current Issues in the Economics of HIV / AIDS. Effective strategies for resource mobilization and resource allocation -- global and regional perspectives, Thursday, April 24, 2003. Transcript.

    International AIDS Economics Network [IAEN]

    [Palo Alto, California], Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2003. 49 p.

    I want to talk about now a kind of evaluation for a couple of minutes that is perhaps a little bit different than what we think about when we say monitoring and evaluation and I want to start out by whispering something that you are not allowed to repeat outside of this room and that's that, well I think we have very convincing evidence of the effectiveness of specific interventions intervention of HIV/AIDS. I don't think we know what works at the level of communities or countries. We have very little information about what works at that level. We have three very important randomize community trials that you are probably all familiar with. (excerpt)
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  13. 13

    Health promotion financing opportunities in the Western Pacific Region.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for the Western Pacific

    Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2003. 21 p.

    Broadening health promotion financing arrangements contributes to the goal of health improvement shared by the countries of the Western Pacific Region. Health promotion that is sustainable underpins stable and effective mechanisms to ensure access by all to quality health services. Health promotion in the Western Pacific Region can be viewed as a public health intervention and a social enterprise. The financing implications of these perspectives are: Health promotion as a public health intervention - funds spent on keeping the population healthy versus treating the sick could improve efficiency within the same level of resources. Health promotion as a social enterprise - the "wellness of all" can be a rallying point at the community level where social, political and economic capital can be mobilized through partnerships, networks, coalitions, alliances, public-private collaboration, multi-sectoral groups, local or state initiatives or a combination of any of these. (excerpt)
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  14. 14

    Ageing and health: a health promotion approach for developing countries.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for the Western Pacific

    Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, [2003]. 71 p.

    The purpose of this publication is to outline ways of responding to the health needs of ageing populations in developing countries. It focuses on the Western Pacific Region of the World Health Organization (WHO). The aims of the paper are essentially practical in that it seeks to provide health workers with a framework for selecting appropriate ways of approaching the tasks of improving quality of life, disease prevention and health services delivery for older people. Populations in all countries of the Western Pacific Region are ageing – an increasing proportion of people are aged 65 and over. This, together with changing lifestyles, means that there has been a radical shift in the types of health problems facing health workers in developing countries. Increasingly, health policies and programmes will have to address the demands posed by the rapidly emerging epidemic in chronic, noncommunicable, lifestyle-based diseases and disabilities. While these diseases present a challenge for health policy for people at all stages of the life course, they are particularly evident among older people where their impact is more obvious. The growing proportion of elderly people among the population simply highlights the importance of addressing these health problems. (excerpt)
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  15. 15

    UNAIDS and the DPKO report back to the Security Council on the response to the Resolution 1308.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]. Office on AIDS, Security and Humanitarian Response

    Copenhagen, Denmark, UNAIDS, 2003. 6 p.

    The Security Council Resolution 1308, adopted on 17 July 2000, addresses the linkages between HIV/AIDS, peace and security. Following up on the implementation of the Resolution, the President of the Security Council (Angola) invited the Executive Director of UNAIDS and the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations once again to provide oral reports on 17th of November 2003 on progress in implementing the Resolution. All 15 Security Council members made statements and comments following the briefings by DPKO and UNAIDS, marking a growing commitment to the issue of HIV/AIDS and peace and security. The Council members endorsed and expressed full support for the collaboration between UNAIDS and DPKO in supporting Governments in the development of policies, strategies and programmes to address HIV/AIDS in this context. All delegations welcomed the reports and expressed their satisfaction with progress to date, including the development of UNAIDS technical materials, with special emphasis on the Peer Education Kit for Uniformed Services and the placement of HIV/AIDS policy advisers or focal points at peacekeeping missions. Several delegations praised the efforts made in providing voluntary and confidential counseling and testing facilities at mission level. Some members called for solid monitoring and evaluation mechanisms and there was a request for an assessment of the link between human security and HIV/AIDS. Due to the importance of this issue the Security Council has requested one substantive report from UNAIDS, DPKO and their partners on the progress made to address HIV/AIDS in the context of peace and security, along with suggestions for future action. SHR is working closely with DPKO on the development of this report which will form the basis of a more in-depth discussion on these issues in the Security Council in 2004. (excerpt)
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  16. 16

    Integrating gender into HIV / AIDS programmes: a review paper.

    Gupta GR; Whelan D; Allendorf K

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Department of Gender and Women's Health, 2003. 53 p.

    The challenge of integrating existing knowledge about the impact of gender norms and inequality on HIV/AIDS into interventions, while formidable, can be met. There are several examples of programmes from around the world that have adopted different approaches to integrate gender considerations in their work. It is important to draw upon the lessons learned from these implementation experiences to develop concrete and practical guidelines for national HIV/AIDS programme managers so as to help them integrate gender issues into HIV/AIDS programmes. The need for such guidelines is underscored by a single fact: the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS programmes and policies is greatly enhanced when gender differences are acknowledged, the gender-specific concerns and needs of women and men are addressed, and gender inequalities are reduced. (excerpt)
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  17. 17

    Issue paper: Current debates on HIV testing and counseling.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]. Global Reference Group on HIV / AIDS and Human Rights

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2003. Prepared for the 2nd Meeting of the UNAIDS Global Reference Group on HIV / AIDS and Human Rights, August 25-27, 2003. 3 p.

    Over 20 years ago, policy and programmatic approaches to HIV testing emerged in a context of great fear about HIV/AIDS and about how to prevent HIV infected individuals from transmitting the virus. As testing methods were developed, HIV testing assumed an important role in epidemiological surveillance, and as treatment became available, on individual testing for clinical purposes. Yet, as national responses to the emerging epidemics unfolded, numerous States argued that the protection of public health warranted compulsory testing requirements of certain populations considered to be “high risk”, mandatory testing for access to certain goods and services, named reporting of those found to be infected and sometimes contact tracing and mandatory notification of partners, family, employers or community members. The realities of stigma, discrimination and the neglect of human rights protections were recognized to keep people away from prevention and care, and creating fertile ground for people not to get tested and, unaware of their HIV status, to further spread the virus. This recognition lead to a bridge between those concerned with human rights protections and those concerned with public health imperatives. Over time, the components of supportive testing became clearer, the concept of voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) was promulgated and policy direction from GPA/WHO centered on making voluntary counseling and testing an important focus of all national responses to the HIV/AIDS epidemics. This policy, further elaborated by WHO and UNAIDS remains in place today. (excerpt)
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  18. 18

    The level of effort in the national response to HIV / AIDS: the AIDS Program Effort Index (API), 2003 round.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]; World Health Organization [WHO]; Futures Group. POLICY Project

    Washington, D.C., USAID, 2003 Dec. [50] p.

    The success of HIV/AIDS programs can be affected by many factors, including political commitment, program effort, socio-cultural context, political systems, economic development, extent and duration of the epidemic , and resources available. Many programs track low-level inputs (e.g., training workshops conducted, condoms distributed) or outcomes (e.g., percentage of acts protected by condom use). Measures of program effort are generally confined to the existence or lack of major program elements (e.g., condom social marketing, counseling and testing). To assist countries in such evaluation efforts, several guides have been developed by the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and other organizations (see, for example, “Meeting the Behavioural Data Collection Needs of National HIV/AIDS and STD Programmes” and “National AIDS Programs: A Guide to Monitoring and Evaluation of HIV/AIDS Programs”). However, information about the policy environment, level of political support, and other contextual issues affecting the success and failure of national AIDS programs has not been addressed previously. (excerpt)
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  19. 19

    The role of the health sector in supporting adolescent health and development. Materials prepared for the technical briefing at the World Health Assembly, 22 May 2003.

    Brandrup-Lukanow A; Akhsan S; Conyer RT; Shaheed A; Kianian-Firouzgar S

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2003. 15 p.

    I am very pleased to be here, and to be part of the discussion on Young Peoples Health at the World Health Assembly, for two reasons: because of the work we have been doing in adolescent health over the past years together with the Member States of the European Region of WHO, the work in cooperation with other UN agencies, especially UNICEF, UNFPA, and UNAIDS on adolescent health and development. Secondly, because Youth is a priority area of work of German Development Cooperation, and of the German Agency for Technical Cooperation, where I am working presently. Indeed, we have devoted this years GTZ´s open house day on development cooperation to youth I would also like to take this opportunity to remember the work of the late Dr. Herbert Friedman, former Chief of Adolescent Health in WHO, whose vision of the importance of working for and with young people has inspired many of the national plans and initiatives which we will hear about today. In many countries of the world, young people form the majority of populations, and yet their needs are being insufficiently met through existing health and social services. The health of young people was long denied the public, and public health attention it deserves. Adolescence is a driving force of personal, but also social development, as young people gradually discover, and question and challenge the adult world they are growing into. (excerpt)
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  20. 20

    Rapid needs assessment tool for condom programming. Program report.

    Miller R; Sloan N; Weiss E; Pobiak B

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2003. 36 p.

    The rapid needs assessment tool has been developed through collaborative work with an expert group, and pre-tested in four countries— Bangladesh, Brazil, Ghana, and Kenya. The current report presents the results of these assessments along with issues for consideration in the possible improvement of the needs assessment tool and the recommended process for using the tool. The four reports conclude that while condoms are widely available, and condom use is generally increasing, there is much that could be done to improve their distribution, their promotion, and their utilization, especially among key target groups that are at a high risk for HIV. In all four countries, a significant bifurcation of condom programming was found between the distribution of condoms through family planning services and the promotion and distribution of condoms by HIV/AIDS prevention programs. Little coordination or joint planning of condom programming was found. Overall, the rapid needs assessment tool was found to be valuable and easily adjusted to local circumstances. However, the current forms and process of the assessment tool have incorporated suggestions from field implementers as well as UNFPA collaborators that will strengthen its future implementation. The process of consulting key condom programming managers and policy makers led to the identification of problems and the next steps for solving them (which was an important objective of the tool). In fact, the rapid needs assessment’s bringing together all of the stake holders involved in condom issues for mutual discussion of problems and potential solutions proved effective in all four countries. This process of engagement, discussion, argument, and ultimately, consensus, was probably the most valuable aspect of the exercise. Despite strong efforts to create a rapid needs assessment exercise, in none of the countries could it be implemented within the time frame of the 7-10 days that was desired. While data gathering activities did not necessarily take a long time, the process of scheduling meetings and interviews with high level government officials required a far greater time frame than anticipated – approximately two months — due to travel schedules, local administrative crises, and holidays. (excerpt)
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  21. 21

    Prevention and control of malaria during pregnancy in Africa: from research to policy change.

    Moran A; Newman RD

    In: Shaping policy for maternal and newborn health: a compendium of case studies, edited by Sandra Crump. Baltimore, Maryland, JHPIEGO, 2003 Oct. 83-90.

    Malaria during pregnancy is a significant public health problem, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Effective strategies have been identified to address this problem, but few countries have been able to translate these strategies into national-level policies and programs. Those countries that have made significant policy changes have engaged in a dynamic process of translating research results into relevant policy. Both locally collected data and data collected in the subregion and region are essential to this process. Each year, approximately 24 million pregnancies occur among women living in malaria-endemic areas. Malaria during pregnancy can result in maternal anemia, abortion, stillbirth, prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, and low birthweight. Severe maternal anemia increases the risk for maternal mortality, and anemia caused by malarial infection is estimated to result in approximately 10,000 maternal deaths per year. Low birthweight is one of the greatest risk factors for infant mortality. As many as 75 percent of the 2.7 million malaria-related deaths each year occur among children in sub-Saharan Africa. (excerpt)
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  22. 22

    Using international guidelines to support national policy in maternal and newborn healthcare. Case Study No. 3.

    Crump S

    In: Shaping policy for maternal and newborn health: a compendium of case studies, edited by Sandra Crump. Baltimore, Maryland, JHPIEGO, 2003 Oct. 29-36.

    One of the ways that national governments solidify and communicate their commitment to safe motherhood and newborn health is through their national policy and service delivery guidelines, which outline a management and service delivery approach for achieving specific standards of care in healthcare facilities. In developing these guidelines --and the facilities and providers to support them--policymakers at the national level generally look to expert opinion and international consensus regarding practices and models that have been proven effective in other countries. The collection, synthesis, and publication of internationally endorsed maternal and newborn healthcare practices can therefore provide an important support and catalyst for policy change at the national level. International guidelines can provide both a focus for national policy dialogue and development and a technical reference to help ensure that national policies follow current scientific evidence and thinking. This case study describes how the international guidelines in the World Health Organization's (WHO's) manual Managing Complications in Pregnanq and Childbirth: A Guide for Midwives and Doctors (MCPC) have influenced policy development in countries where JHPIEGO and the Maternal and Neonatal Health (MNI-1) Program have been working to increase the use of skilled care for women and newborns and increase maternal and newborn survival. The MCPC manual was published as part of WHO's Integrated Management of Pregnancy and Childbirth (IMPAC) series, the technical component of WHO's Making Pregnancy Safer strategy aimed at reducing maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity and improving maternal and newborn health. (excerpt)
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  23. 23

    The proper practice of breastfeeding: policy and public health in Bangladesh. Case Study No. 1.

    Talukder MQ

    In: Shaping policy for maternal and newborn health: a compendium of case studies, edited by Sandra Crump. Baltimore, Maryland, JHPIEGO, 2003 Oct. 15-22.

    In Bangladesh, immediate breastfeeding was not traditionally practiced, and exclusive breastfeeding was virtually nonexistent. Mothers tended to discard colostrum (first milk), substituting prelacteal feeds such as sugar water, honey, or oil instead of breast milk as the first feed for all newborn babies. Initiation of breastfeeding by most mothers took place on the third or fourth day. In the event of illness, mothers would cease breastfeeding. Complementary feeding practices were also unsatisfactory, consisting of bulky, energy-thin feeds, with weaning occurring either too early or too late. Such was the state of affairs in Bangladesh in 1979, when the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF held a meeting in Geneva for the first time to emphasize the importance of breastfeeding--the first in a series of important initiatives to address this issue and other child health and nutrition concerns. Before 1980, there was hardly any discussion within the medical profession in Bangladesh of the importance of breastfeeding, let alone of a public health intervention to promote it. But the leadership of global agencies on this important issue had a significant impact on breastfeeding policy and practice in Bangladesh. This case stud), describes the origins of the breastfeeding movement in Bangladesh, the government of Bangladesh's support for the initiative, and the partnership that was established among the health professions, United Nations (UN) agencies, bilateral agencies, and the World Bank to change breastfeeding practices. The introduction of breastfeeding contributed to better health and nutritional status among the nation's children within a decade. (excerpt)
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  24. 24

    UNAIDS activities in HIV / AIDS, human rights and law.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, [2003]. [6] p.

    UNAIDS in collaboration with the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) and other partners has developed guidelines advancing human rights in the context of HIV/AIDS. In February 1998, UNAIDS and OHCHR jointly published the International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights. These guidelines set the standards for upholding HIV/AIDS related human rights at the national, regional, and international levels. These Guidelines are a useful resource in the necessary scaling up of the response to HIV/AIDS by all actors concerned - governments and non-governmental organizations, the United Nations system and other international and regional organizations. Through UNAIDS funding and technical support, the International Council of AIDS Service Organizations (ICASO) published the NGO Summary and Advocates Guide as a more user-friendly form of the International Guidelines to enhance the document's accessibility. The NGO Summary and Advocates Guide has been distributed widely at national, regional, and international levels. It has been translated into Spanish and French. In July 2002, the OHCHR and UNAIDS convened a group of experts to update Guideline 6 of the International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights. The Revised Guideline 6: Access to prevention, treatment, care and support provides an up-to-date policy guidance that is based on current scientific progress, international law and best practice at country level. (excerpt)
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  25. 25

    Rapid assessment and response technical guide. TG-RAR, Version 1.0.

    Stimson GV; Donoghoe MC; Fitch C; Rhodes TJ; Ball A

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Department of HIV / AIDS, 2003 Jun. [325] p. (WHO/HIV/2002.22)

    The WHO Rapid Assessment and Response Technical Guide describes how to assess and respond rapidly to a broad range of public health issues. It is particularly useful for complex health issues, where individual and group behaviours are major factors. The Technical Guide can be used alone - or in conjunction with topic specific RAR Adaptation Guides. (excerpt)
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