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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Kevin De Cock: Guiding HIV / AIDS policy at WHO.

    Shetty P

    Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2008 Feb; 8(2):98-100.

    Kevin De Cock is director of WHO's HIV/AIDS department. Formerly director of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Kenya, he is an infectious disease specialist, with expertise in HIV/ AIDS, tuberculosis, liver disease, and tropical diseases such as yellow fever and viral haemorrhagic fevers. TLID: How has your time as WHO's HIV/AIDS director been? KDC: It has been extremely interesting. AIDS policy is always challenging and changing. WHO's HIV efforts up to 2005 were very much oriented around the 3 by 5 initiative. The G8 in 2005 made an announcement about working towards universal access, which became an AIDS rallying cry. So we've had to reorganise ourselves around that as a theme. Some internal reorganisation was necessary to focus not only on treatment, but also on broader issues. We now have five key strategic directions: increasing access to HIV testing and counselling, maximising prevention, accelerating treatment scale-up, strengthening health systems, and investing in strategic information. We have also been working on some important technical areas. One is the issuing of guidance on both provider-initiated testing and male circumcision. In April, 2007, we also issued a report, in response to a request from the World Health Assembly, on the health sector's progress towards universal access. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Adolescent pregnancy -- unmet needs and undone deeds. A review of the literature and programmes.

    Neelofur-Khan D

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2007. [109] p. (WHO Discussion Papers on Adolescence; Issues in Adolescent Health and Development)

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has been contributing to meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by according priority attention to issues pertaining to the management of adolescent pregnancy. Three of the aims of the MDGs - empowerment of women, promotion of maternal health, and reduction of child mortality - embody WHO's key priorities and its policy framework for poverty reduction. The UN Special Session on Children has focused on some of the key issues affecting adolescents' rights, including early marriage, access to sexual and reproductive health services, and care for pregnant adolescents. This review of the literature was conducted to identify (1) the major factors affecting the pregnancy outcome among adolescents, related to their physical immaturity and inappropriate or inadequate healthcare-seeking behaviour, and (2) the socioeconomic and political barriers that influence their access to health-care services and information. The review also presents programmatic evidence of feasible measures that can be taken at the household, community and national levels to improve pregnancy outcomes among adolescents. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Activities of the United Nations Development Fund for Women.

    United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM]

    New York, New York, United Nations, General Assembly, 2006 Aug 25. 23 p. (A/61/292)

    The present report provides a review and update of the programme and activities of the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) for 2005. The report tracks overall progress and highlights concrete results in the implementation of its multi-year funding framework 2004-2007 during the year under review. The report concludes with a set of recommendations on how the development and organizational effectiveness of UNIFEM can be further strengthened. (author's)
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  4. 4

    The concept of gender policy and the Millennium Development Goals in Kazakhstan.

    Kazakhstan; United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]; United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM]

    [New York, New York], UNIFEM, 2004. [15] p.

    At the Millennium Summit held in September in September 2000, the leaders of the majority of the countries in the world adopted the UN Millennium Declaration where the promotion of gender equality was determined as one of eight goals. The XXIII Special Session of the UN General Assembly "Women in 2000: Equality Between Men and Women. Development and Peace in XXI century" was dedicated to this issue (June 2000). The Session recommended representatives of the Governments of the participating countries to take measures to ensure women equal access and full participation in all spheres and at all levels of life. The Concept of Gender Policy (hereinafter called the Concept) determines the basic principles, priorities and tasks for gender policy in Kazakhstan. The basic principles of the gender policy are based on the equal rights and freedom for women and men that are guaranteed in the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The gender policy should deal with he following tasks: the achievement of equal participation of women and men in decision-making structures: the realisation of equal opportunities for economic independence, the development of business and career promotion; conditions for equal realization of rights and responsibilities for the family; and freedom from gender based violence. The Concept is based on the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Development Strategy of Kazakhstan to 2030, the National Action Plan on Improvement of Women's Status Kazakhstan, the United Nations Conventions on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women, United Nations Recommendations for its implementation in Kazakhstan and other ratified international agreements. The Concept of Gender Policy in Kazakhstan is designed both for the contemporary period of stabilization of the socio-economic situation with sustainable growth of the national economy (up to 2010) as well as for the long-term perspective (up to 2030). ( excerpt)
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  5. 5

    Human settlements -- a concern for women in the coming decade.

    Kiwala L

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Mar; 11(1):[4] p..

    Cities, towns and villages have not been a priority for women’s action in the last decade. Is this because the Beijing Platform for Action was weak in addressing problems that women face daily where they live and work in human settlements? In the next 10 years, women activists and decision-makers should focus more on the living environment as it affects urban poor women, especially the homeless and slum dwellers. Promoting gender equality, the advancement of women and improving the living environment has never been easy. Moreover, there is some misunderstanding of what the terms human settlements and gender mainstreaming are all about. But this has been addressed in the Habitat Agenda, Beijing Platform for Action, the Declaration of Cities in the New Millennium and other UN documents respectively. Nevertheless, Ms. Jan Peterson, Chair of Huairou Commission, a leading umbrella organisation for grassroots women’s organizations working at community level to improve homes and communities, has on a number of occasions stated that gender mainstreaming as a strategy has in fact hidden women and their concerns and that we should go back to emphasize women. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Address.

    Matsuura K

    [Unpublished] 2004. Presented at the opening of the conference “Africa's Cultural Responses to HIV/AIDS: Women and their Struggles”, held on the occasion of the celebration of International Women's Day. 3 p. (DG/2004/26)

    It gives me great pleasure to welcome you today to UNESCO on the occasion of International Women’s Day. The date of 8 March has gained recognition throughout the world as a day of mobilization and reflection, and a crucial date in the campaign for women’s rights and equality for all people. This year, the United Nations has decided to dedicate this day to the theme “Women, girls, HIV and AIDS” to reflect the theme selected by UNAIDS for the 2004-2005 world campaign against HIV/AIDS. This theme is, sadly, all too appropriate. I have just returned from a tour of southern Africa where I visited Lesotho, Swaziland, Botswana and Zambia. In all those countries, the fight against HIV/AIDS was at the heart of the debate. Indeed, southern Africa is the most severely affected subregion in sub-Saharan Africa and I was able to see for myself the terrible impact of this pandemic on the people and in particular on women and girls. Signs of its devastating consequences for the subregion are everywhere, in particular in the education system and in the course of daily life, where even the most basic services are no longer guaranteed. In Livingstone, Zambia, two meetings on HIV/AIDS were held successively during my visit. The first brought together ministers of health, education and finance of the six countries of the subregion and UNAIDS agency heads. As you are aware, UNAIDS is a joint programme run by the nine United Nations agencies involved in the fight against AIDS, including UNESCO, UNICEF, UNFPA and the World Bank. (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    Gender analysis in health: a review of selected tools.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Gender and Women’s Health

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Gender and Women's Health, 2002. x, 83 p.

    This critical review of tools for gender analysis and their application to health was carried out to support who’s Gender Team in identifying possible strategies for implementing the Gender Policy for who. One component of implementation is providing who staff with support in a) understanding why it is necessary to address the impact of gender on health and health services and b) knowing how to address this impact as it pertains to their own field of work. Since many agencies facing similar tasks have developed tools for mainstreaming gender, it seemed appropriate for the Gender Working Group to consider their usefulness for health rather than immediately embarking on a process of developing its own tools. This review is intended as background for use by anyone working on or interested in gender and health, and particularly by who staff working on gender issues. It assumes an understanding of the who Gender Policy for who, and of the challenges in mainstreaming gender. It is therefore written in a shorthand form, aiming simply to clarify the content of different tools, and to what extent they could be used in support of implementing who’s Gender Policy. There is a complementary volume to this review which is designed as an educational tool for those not necessarily familiar with gender analysis, which provides an overview of gender tools that may be used for integrating gender issues in health. (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    Population, reproductive health and the millennium development goals. How the ICPD Programme of Action promotes poverty alleviation and human rights.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2003. 22 p.

    In the year 2000, representatives of 189 nations, including 147 heads of state and government, gathered at the United Nations for a historic Millennium Summit. They adopted an ambitious set of goals, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Achieving them by the target date of 2015 will transform the lives of the world’s people, including reducing by half the number of people living in extreme poverty. The Millennium Declaration concludes, “We therefore pledge our unstinting support for these common objectives and our determination to achieve them.” The next decade offers a historic opportunity for all stakeholders—including governments, civil society and international organizations—to unite behind the Millennium Development Goals. The goals are realistic, practical and necessary. They are the result of decades of experience in development work and discussion at all levels, including a series of international conferences held in the 1990s on the environment, human rights and social development. (excerpt)
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  9. 9

    Implementing the reproductive health approach.

    Fathalla MF

    In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 24-46.

    The solemn commitment that was made in Cairo in 1994 to make reproductive health care universally available was a culmination of efforts made by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and all those concerned about a people-centred and human rights approach to population issues. The commitment posed important challenges to national governments and the international community, to policy makers, programme planners and service providers, and to the civil society at large. The role of UNFPA in building up the consensus for the reproductive health approach before Cairo had to continue after Cairo if the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) were to be achieved. UNFPA continues to be needed to strengthen the commitment, maintain the momentum, mobilize the required resources, and help national governments and the international community move from word to action, and from rhetoric to reality. Reproductive health, including family planning and sexual health, is now one of three major programme areas for UNFPA. During 1997, reproductive health accounted for over 60 per cent of total programme allocations by the Fund. (excerpt)
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