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Lancet. 2017 Jul 01; 390(10089):1.Add to my documents.
Reproductive Health Matters. 2011 Nov; 19(38):197-207.In March 2009, UN member states met at the 53rd Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) to discuss the priority theme of "the equal sharing of responsibilities between women and men, including caregiving in the context of HIV/AIDS". This meeting focused the international community's attention on care issues and generated Agreed Conclusions that aimed to lay out a roadmap for care policy. I examine how the frame of "care" - a contested concept that has long divided feminist researchers and activists - operated in this site. Research involved a review of documentation related to the meeting and interviews with 18 participants. Using this research I argue that the frame of care united a range of groups, including conservative faith-based actors who have mobilized within the UN to roll back sexual and reproductive rights. This policy alliance led to important advances in the Agreed Conclusions, including strong arguments about the global significance of care, especially in relation to HIV; the need for a strong state role; and the value of caregivers' participation in policy debates. However, the care frame also constrained debate at the CSW, particularly about disability rights and variations in family formation. Those seeking to reassert sexual and reproductive rights are grappling with such limitations in a range of ways, and attention to their efforts and concerns can help us better understand the potentials and dangers for feminist intervention within global policy spaces. Copyright (c) 2010 UNRISD. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2007 Nov; 99(2):157-161.National and international courts and tribunals are increasingly ruling that although states may aim to deter unlawful abortion by criminal penalties, they bear a parallel duty to inform physicians and patients of when abortion is lawful. The fear is that women are unjustly denied safe medical procedures to which they are legally entitled, because without such information physicians are deterred from involvement. With particular attention to the European Court of Human Rights, the UN Human Rights Committee, the Constitutional Court of Colombia, the Northern Ireland Court of Appeal, and the US Supreme Court, decisions are explained that show the responsibility of states to make rights to legal abortion transparent. Litigants are persuading judges to apply rights to reproductive health and human rights to require states' explanations of when abortion is lawful, and governments are increasingly inspired to publicize regulations or guidelines on when abortion will attract neither police nor prosecutors' scrutiny. (author's)
Research Observer. 2007 Spring; 22(1):25-51.This article highlights the progress in building a knowledge base on effective ways to increase access to justice for women who have experienced gender-based violence, offer quality services to survivors, and reduce levels of gender-based violence. While recognizing the limited number of high-quality studies on program effectiveness, this review of the literature highlights emerging good practices. Much progress has recently been made in measuring gender-based violence, most notably through a World Health Organization multicountry study and Demographic and Health Surveys. Even so, country coverage is still limited, and much of the information from other data sources cannot be meaningfully compared because of differences in how intimate partner violence is measured and reported. The dearth of high-quality evaluations means that policy recommendations in the short run must be based on emerging evidence in developing economies (process evaluations, qualitative evaluations, and imperfectly designed impact evaluations) and on more rigorous impact evaluations from developed countries. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, General Assembly, 2006 Aug 25. 23 p. (A/61/292)The present report provides a review and update of the programme and activities of the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) for 2005. The report tracks overall progress and highlights concrete results in the implementation of its multi-year funding framework 2004-2007 during the year under review. The report concludes with a set of recommendations on how the development and organizational effectiveness of UNIFEM can be further strengthened. (author's)
Female circumcision, AIDS discrimination to be monitored - Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women.
UN Chronicle. 1990 Jun; 27(2): p..The eradication of female circumcision and avoidance of discrimination against women victims of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were the subjects of two general recommendations adopted at the ninth annual session of States Parties to the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. The 100 States Parties were asked to report to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women-the 23-member body which monitors compliance with the instrument-on measures taken to eliminate female circumcision which, it stated, has "serious health and other consequences for women and children". (excerpt)
Lancet. 2003 Jun 7; 361:1982-1983.The 100% Condom Use Programme (100% CUP) is aimed at female sex workers and, as its name suggests, promotes increased condom usage. Supported by both WHO and the Joint United Nations’ Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS), the programme was initiated in Thailand in 1989. 100% CUP has been regarded as a success story in the campaign to limit the spread of HIV infection. However, the international Network of Sex Work Projects (NSWP), an informal alliance of sex worker groups with constituent Asian, African, Latin American, and European networks, does not share this view. It seems obvious that health promotion programmes funded by international agencies ought not to contribute to mistreatment of sex workers. Because sex work tends to be regarded as a behaviour not an occupation— who you are, not what you do—sex workers are often not recognised as legitimate parties to discussions of their conditions of employment. Sex workers are often treated as the object of programmes rather than contributors to them. Yet discussions about sex work without sex worker representation result in an incomplete understanding of the social dynamics of the occupation. It is, therefore, not surprising that programmes such as 100% CUP, developed without consultation with sex worker advocates, have had and continue to have negative repercussions for sex workers. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2001. 178 p. (Occasional Paper No. 5)This report considers how human rights laws can be applied to relieve the estimated 1,400 deaths world-wide that occur every day, an annual mortality rate of 515,000, that women suffer because they are pregnant. Human rights principles have long been established in national constitutional and other laws and in regional and international human rights treaties to which nations voluntarily commit themselves. The intention of the report is to facilitate initiatives by governmental agencies, nongovernmental groups and, for instance, international organizations to foster compliance with human rights in order to protect, respect and fulfill women’s rights to safe motherhood. The report outlines how the dimensions of unsafe motherhood can be measured and comprehended, and how causes can be identified by reference to medical, health system and socio-legal factors. It introduces human rights laws by identifying their sources and governmental obligations to implement them, and explains a range of specific human rights that can be applied to advance safe motherhood. The rights are shown to interact with each other, and for purposes of discussion, they are clustered in the following ways: rights to life, survival and security; rights relating to maternity and health; rights to nondiscrimination and due respect for difference; and rights to information and education relevant to women’s health protection during pregnancy and childbirth. The setting of performance standards for monitoring compliance with rights relevant to reproductive health, and availability and use of obstetric services are addressed. In conclusion, the report considers several strategies to encourage professional, institutional and governmental implementation of the various human rights in national and international laws relevant to reduction of unsafe motherhood, and to enable women to go through pregnancy and childbirth safely. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2004. 6 p.WHO and UNAIDS are actively promoting the scale-up of programmes to deliver antiretroviral therapy (ART), with the aim of reaching three million people by the end of 2005 ('3 by 5 Initiative'). Equity in access to HIV treatment is a critical element of the '3 by 5' and will contribute to the broader 'right to health' for all. Attention must therefore be given to ensuring access to ART and other treatment, care and prevention, for people who risk exclusion including on the basis of their sex. Currently there is limited information available on the sex and age distribution of those receiving ART, however, we know that gender-based inequalities often affect women's ability to access services. Attention is therefore required to ensure that women and girls have equitable access to ART as it becomes available. Gender-based inequalities put women and girls at increased risk of acquiring HIV. Women's limited ability to negotiate safer sex practices with their partners, including condom use, can place even women who are faithful to one partner at risk of HIV infection. Married adolescent girls may be particularly vulnerable. Sexual violence, including rape, likewise increases the risk of HIV for women and girls. In addition, they typically have less access to education, income-generating opportunities, property ownership and legal protection than men. This means many women are not able to leave relationships even when they know that they may be at risk of HIV. (excerpt)
Development. 2004; 47(2):36-42.Manisha Desai looks at the international women's health movement (IWHM). She argues that changing gender relations have engendered the discourse of global health and raised the particular concern of women's health to the forefront of discussions about health. At the same time, because of IWHM the globalization of health and disease have also become pathways to changed gender relations that have led to community level changes in norms and practices that reproduce gender inequalities. (author's)
Nutrition and health policy in women and children. Report on a WHO workshop, Yerevan, Armenia, 2-5 July 1997.
Copenhagen, Denmark, WHO, Regional Office for Europe, 1998. , 30 p. (EUR/ARM/LVNG 02 01 11)A child's right to adequate nourishment, and the duty of society to ensure that a pregnant woman has access to good nutrition, have been matters of concern for over a century. Yet even in the 1990s, babies are still at risk of undernutrition before birth. Recent years have seen increasing evidence of the importance of nutrition for a satisfactory birth outcome. The Workshop was designed for health facility administrators, policy-makers and clinicians interested in nutrition and how food affects the health of women and infants, and was attended by gynaecologists/obstetricians, paediatricians and hygienists working in the saneped system. On the first day a short course for administrators and policy-makers on "Promoting breastfeeding in sanitary facilities" was held, and during the following three days the WHO/UNICEF training module on "Healthy eating in pregnancy and lactation" was pilot tested. Participants gained knowledge on providing health advice for women during pregnancy, birth and the postpartum period with a view to promoting WHO guidelines on healthy eating. The Workshop contributed to developing a national plan of action for Armenia to implement national dietary guidelines for pregnant and lactating women and their families. (author's)
Female genital mutilation: the prevention and the management of the health complications. Policy guidelines for nurses and midwives.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Gender and Women's Health, 2001. 16 p. (WHO/FCH/GWH/01.5; WHO/RHR/01.18)These guidelines are intended for use primarily by those responsible for developing policies and directing the working practices of nurses, midwives and other frontline health care providers. They are also intended to complement the training materials for nurses and midwives in the management of girls and women with FGM. The purpose of the policy guidelines is: to promote and strengthen the case against the medicalization of FGM; to support and protect nurses, midwives and other health personnel in adhering to WHO guidelines not to close an opened up infibulation; to empower nurses and midwives to carry out functions in relation to FGM which are outside their current legal scope of practice; and to encourage appropriate documentation of FGM in clinical records and health information system. (excerpt)
[A review of breastfeeding in Brazil and how the country has reached ten months' breastfeeding duration] Reflexôes sobre a amamentação no Brasil: de como passamos a 10 meses de duração.
Cadernos de Saude Publica. 2003; 19 Suppl 1:S37-S45.In 1975, one out of two Brazilian women only breastfed until the second or third month; in a survey from 1999, one out of two breastfed for 10 months. This increase over the course of 25 years can be viewed as a success, but it also shows that many activities could be better organized, coordinated, and corrected when errors occur. Various relevant decisions have been made by international health agencies during this period, in addition to studies on breastfeeding that have reoriented practice. We propose to review the history of the Brazilian national program to promote breastfeeding, focusing on an analysis of the influence of international policies and analyzing them in four periods: 1975-1981 (when little was done), 1981-1986 (media campaigns), 1986-1996 (breastfeeding-friendly policies), and 1996-2002 (planning and human resources training activities backed by policies to protect breastfeeding). The challenge for the future is to continue to promote exclusive breastfeeding until the sixth month, taking specific population groups into account. (author's)
[A guide to providing reproductive health services] Guia para prestacao de services em saude reprodutiva.
Fortaleza, Brazil, Secretaria da Saude, 1998. xxvi, 432 p.The Viva Mulher [Healthy Woman] Program developed by the Secretariat of Health of the State of Ceará (SESA-CE), in partnership with several local, national and international institutions, was conceived after recognition of the unfavorable health situation of women throughout the State. Sensitized by the size of the problem and encouraged by other successful initiatives, such as the Community Health Agent program and the Healthy Child program, the results of which were translated into a reduction in infant mortality and an increase in the coverage of Basic Health Actions, the State Government resolved to promote a broad mobilization of institutions interested in the problems so as to develop intensive joint efforts involving society as a whole in an attempt to make a significant change in the health profile of women in Ceará. The first concrete act was the holding of the "Woman, Health, Life" seminar in Fortaleza in August 1992, which had more than 1,000 participants, to launch the Healthy Woman program on the basis of directives from the Ministry of Health (PAISM). The Healthy Woman program was associated from the beginning with the United Nations Population Fund (FNUAP), which proposed to offer technical assistance and financial resources through a four-year cooperation project with the State Government. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), collaborating agencies of the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) and other international entities later joined in the process and have been cooperating in various complementary manners. (excerpt)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 24-46.The solemn commitment that was made in Cairo in 1994 to make reproductive health care universally available was a culmination of efforts made by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and all those concerned about a people-centred and human rights approach to population issues. The commitment posed important challenges to national governments and the international community, to policy makers, programme planners and service providers, and to the civil society at large. The role of UNFPA in building up the consensus for the reproductive health approach before Cairo had to continue after Cairo if the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) were to be achieved. UNFPA continues to be needed to strengthen the commitment, maintain the momentum, mobilize the required resources, and help national governments and the international community move from word to action, and from rhetoric to reality. Reproductive health, including family planning and sexual health, is now one of three major programme areas for UNFPA. During 1997, reproductive health accounted for over 60 per cent of total programme allocations by the Fund. (excerpt)
Metropolis. 2003 Oct 3;  p..The defining issue of modernity is control of women's fertility. It is this question -- more than religion, politics, economics or the "clash of civilizations" -- that forms the deepest dividing line in the world today. It is a line that cuts through every nation, every people, from the highest level of organized society down to, in many cases, the divided minds and emotions of individual men and women. (excerpt)
New York, New York, Ford Foundation, 2003.  p.The connections between globalization and women’s reproductive health and rights are not straightforward, and as yet, there is little systematic evidence exploring these linkages. The following paper will examine more closely what is meant by globalization and attempt to analyze its broad implications for women’s health and well-being, albeit largely from first principles. (excerpt)
Nairobi, Kenya, IRIN, 2003 Aug 5. 2 p.Obasanjo, who unveiled the new policy in the capital Abuja on Monday, said all elected officials and civil servants had a duty to be active in the fight against HIV/AIDS, so that their example would permeate the entire population of more than 120 million people. The president said appropriate measures would be designed to address the vulnerability of women and children to the scourge which has infected more than three million Nigerians, including 800,000 children. He said the new policy would lead to the drafting of a new law to protect the civil rights of those affected by HIV/AIDS. It would also encourage the provision of support and care for people affected by HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
Civil-Military Alliance Newsletter. 1997 Oct; 3(4):3-4.The Alliance held its first Regional Seminar in Central America July 2-5,1997, in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. This was the first meeting held within the framework of the two- year Alliance program in Latin America supported by the Commission of the European Union. The theme was "Civil- Military Intervention Strategies for the Prevention and Control of HIV/AIDS in Latin America and the Caribbean." (excerpt)