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Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2013; 16(1):18452.Introduction: The female condom is the only evidence-based AIDS prevention technology that has been designed for the female body; yet, most women do not have access to it. This is remarkable since women constitute the majority of all HIV-positive people living in sub-Saharan Africa, and gender inequality is seen as a driving force of the AIDS epidemic. In this study, we analyze how major actors in the AIDS prevention field frame the AIDS problem, in particular the female condom in comparison to other prevention technologies, in their discourse and policy formulations. Our aim is to gain insight into the discursive power mechanisms that underlie the thinking about AIDS prevention and women's sexual agency. Methods: We analyze the AIDS policies of 16 agencies that constitute the most influential actors in the global response to AIDS. Our study unravels the discursive power of these global AIDS policy actors, when promoting and making choices between AIDS prevention technologies. We conducted both a quantitative and qualitative analysis of how the global AIDS epidemic is being addressed by them, in framing the AIDS problem, labelling of different categories of people for targeting AIDS prevention programmes and in gender marking of AIDS prevention technologies. Results: We found that global AIDS policy actors frame the AIDS problem predominantly in the context of gender and reproductive health, rather than that of sexuality and sexual rights. Men's sexual agency is treated differently from women's sexual agency. An example of such differentiation and of gender marking is shown by contrasting the framing and labelling of male circumcision as an intervention aimed at the prevention of HIV with that of the female condom. Conclusions: The gender-stereotyped global AIDS policy discourse negates women's agency in sexuality and their sexual rights. This could be an important factor in limiting the scale-up of female condom programmes and hampering universal access to female condoms.
Bangkok, Thailand, UNAIDS, Regional Support for Asia and the Pacific, 2011.  p. (UNAIDS / 11.05E)This report provides the most up to date information on the HIV epidemic in the region in 2011. While the region has seen impressive gains -- including a 20% drop in new HIV infections since 2001 and a three-fold increase in access to antiretroviral therapy since 2006 -- progress is threatened by an inadequate focus on key populations at higher risk of HIV infection and insufficient funding from both domestic and international sources.
26th Meeting of the UNAIDS Programme Coordinating Board, Geneva, Switzerland, 22-24 June 2010. Thematic Segment: Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) services with HIV interventions in practice. Background paper.
[Geneva, Switzerland], UNAIDS, 2010 Jun 3.  p. (UNAIDS/PCB(26))This paper sets out to foster a common understanding of the conceptual basis and key principles for linking SRH and HIV; situate the linkages agenda in the current development environment; present the evidence to-date; articulate the full scope of linkages embedded in human rights, provide illustrative practical country experiences with integrated services; and stimulate frank discussion on how to strengthen linkages and sustain the momentum. (Excerpt)
Anthropology and Medicine. 2010 Aug; 17(2):201-214.This paper explores the issue of compliance by focusing on the control of tuberculosis. In the last ten years, patient compliance in tuberculosis control has discursively shifted from 'direct observation' of therapy to more patient-centred focus and support drawing on rights-based approaches in dealing with health care provision. At the same time, there has been an increased international concern with the rise of drug resistant forms of tuberculosis, and how to manage this. This paper looks at these issues and the tensions between them, by discussing the shift in discourses around the two and how they relate. Drawing on experience from work in Nepal, and its successful tuberculosis control programme, it looks at debates around this and how these two arenas have been addressed. The rise of increasingly drug resistant forms of tuberculosis has stimulated the development of new WHO and other guidelines addressing how to deal with this problem. The links between public health, ethics and legal mandate are presented, and the implications of this for controlling transmission of drug resistant disease, on the one hand, and the drive for greater patient support mechanisms on the other. Looking forwards to uncertain ethical and public health futures, these issues will be mediated by emergent WHO and international frameworks.
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2006 Mar. 37 p. (Good Policy and Practice in HIV and AIDS and Education Booklet No. 3; ED-2006/WS/4; cld 26006)UNESCO recognizes the significant impact of HIV and AIDS on international development, and in particular on progress towards achieving Education For All (EFA). As the UN agency with a mandate in education and a co-sponsor of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS), UNESCO takes a comprehensive approach to HIV and AIDS. It recognizes that education can play a critical role in preventing future HIV infections and that one of its primary roles is to help learners and educators in formal and non-formal education systems to avoid infection. It also recognizes its responsibility to address and respond to the impact of the epidemic on formal and non-formal education systems, and the need to expand efforts to address issues related to care, treatment and support of those infected and affected by HIV. UNESCO's global strategy for responding to HIV and AIDS is guided by four key principles, and focuses on five core tasks. The guiding principles that are the foundation of UNESCO's response to HIV and AIDS are: Work towards expanding educational opportunities and the quality of education for all; A multi-pronged approach that addresses both risk (individual awareness and behaviour) and vulnerability (contextual factors); Promotion and protection of human rights, promotion of gender equality, and elimination of violence (notably violence against women), stigma and discrimination; An approach to prevention based on providing information that is scientifically sound, culturally appropriate, and effectively communicated, and helping learners and educators to develop the skills they need to prevent HIV infection and to tackle HIV and AIDS-related discrimination. (excerpt)
Choices. 2001 Dec; 5.The HIV/AIDS epidemic is the world's most serious development crisis. Nearly 58 million people have been infected, and 22 million are already dead. The epidemic continues to spread, with over 15,000 new infections every day. The devastating scale and impact of this catastrophe is a call of the utmost urgency for each of us to act. On 27 June 2001, the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS), adopted the "Declaration of Commitment on HIV/ AIDS." The Declaration recognized in clear and forthright terms the driving forces of the epidemic, including social, economic, and cultural aspects; and set specific measurable goals in four key areas: prevention of new infections; provision of improved care, support and treatment; reduction of vulnerability; and mitigation of the socio-economic impact of HIV/AIDS. The global community is challenged to respond to the epidemic in a new way, with strategic attention to its human rights and gender dimensions, greater accountability for results, and courageous and visionary leadership. (excerpt)
Female circumcision, AIDS discrimination to be monitored - Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women.
UN Chronicle. 1990 Jun; 27(2): p..The eradication of female circumcision and avoidance of discrimination against women victims of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were the subjects of two general recommendations adopted at the ninth annual session of States Parties to the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. The 100 States Parties were asked to report to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women-the 23-member body which monitors compliance with the instrument-on measures taken to eliminate female circumcision which, it stated, has "serious health and other consequences for women and children". (excerpt)