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Journal of Black Studies. 2002; 32(6):615-653.The HIV/AIDS pandemic has afflicted Africa more than any other region of the world. In the United States, the AIDS scourge has disproportionately affected African American communities. In their tragic experiences with HIV/AIDS, both African states and African American communities can benefit from the new communication framework that the United Nations Global AIDS Programme and the Pennsylvania State University have developed to combat the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The framework contains five universal values that are recommended for AIDS intervention programs across the world. The five values are incorporation of government policies, socioeconomic status, culture, gender issues, and spirituality. There are six additional values, two of which apply uniquely to each of the three world regions of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. For Africa, the two unique values are community-based approaches and regional cooperation. The situation in Africa presents valuable lessons for African Americans in the United States. (author's)
What are maternal health policies in developing countries and who drives them? A review of the last half-century.
In: Safe motherhood strategies: a review of the evidence, edited by Vincent De Brouwere, Wim Van Lerberghe. Antwerp, Belgium, ITGPress, 2001. 412-445. (Studies in Health Services Organisation and Policy No. 17)This paper examines maternal health policies in developing countries and identifies contributions made by policy makers, health professionals and users. It starts by reviewing the broader health systems within which maternity services sit, and the specific maternity-service configurations that appear to lead to low maternal mortality. Next, it lays out the main actors (politicians and policy makers, health professionals and women’s groups) operating internationally. This is followed by presenting the maternal health policy agenda at the international level and discussing the ideological paradigms that influenced these policies. Mention of the main actors (as above but including and organised groups of service users) at the national level is more superficial, but examples of the impact of various actors on national-level maternal health policies are given. The overall aim is to better understand how policies have developed and to suggest lessons and ways forward for the future. (author's)