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Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2011.  p. (Directions in Development)The past half-century has seen enormous changes in the demographic makeup of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). In the 1950s, LAC had a small population of about 160 million people, less than today's population of Brazil. Two-thirds of Latin Americans lived in rural areas. Families were large and women had one of the highest fertility rates in the world, low levels of education, and few opportunities for work outside the household. Investments in health and education reached only a small fraction of the children, many of whom died before reaching age five. Since then, the size of the LAC population has tripled and the mostly rural population has been transformed into a largely urban population. There have been steep reductions in child mortality, and investments in health and education have increased, today reaching a majority of children. Fertility has been more than halved and the opportunities for women in education and for work outside the household have improved significantly. Life expectancy has grown by 22 years. Less obvious to the casual observer, but of significance for policy makers, a population with a large fraction of dependent children has evolved into a population with fewer dependents and a very large proportion of working-age adults. This overview seeks to introduce the reader to three groups of issues related to population aging in LAC. First is a group of issues related to the support of the aging and poverty in the life cycle. Second is the question of the health transition. Third is an understanding of the fiscal pressures that are likely to accompany population aging and to disentangle the role of demography from the role of policy in that process.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Assembly, 2009 May 22. 5 p. (WHA62.14)The Sixty-second World Health Assembly calls upon the international community, including United Nations agencies, intergovernmental bodies, civil society and the private sector: (1) to take note of the final report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health and its recommendations; (2) to take action in collaboration with WHO's Member States and the WHO Secretariat on assessing the impacts of policies and programmes on health inequities and on addressing the social determinants of health; (3) to work closely with WHO's Member States and the WHO Secretariat on measures to enhance health equity in all policies in order to improve health for the entire population and reduce inequities; (4) to consider health equity in working towards achievement of the core global development goals and to develop indicators to monitor progress, and to consider strengthening international collaboration in addressing the social determinants of health and in reducing health inequities. (Excerpts)
Trips and public health: solutions for ensuring global access to essential AIDS medication in the wake of the Paragraph 6 Waiver.
Journal of Contemporary Health Law and Policy. 2008 Fall; 25(1):142-65.In 2003, the World Trade Organization (WTO) proposed a waiver to the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), known as the "Paragraph 6 Waiver," in order to create flexibility for developing countries and to allow easier importation of cheap generic medication. ... To the companies who own pharmaceutical patents, the notion that a government can use their product without the permission of the patent holder seems unfair and counterproductive. ... Canada was one of the first countries to enact legislation for the sole purpose of exporting generic drugs to developing countries and its experience is indicative of the problems presented by compulsory licensing and the Paragraph 6 Waiver. ... Exact amounts and methods for determining remuneration vary but presumably a fair system would compensate patent holders for the loss of their patent rights while maintaining the system's cost effectiveness for countries issuing the compulsory licenses. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2007 Dec.  p.Five years after the Special Session, more than 120 countries and territories have prepared reports on their efforts to meet the goals of 'A World Fit for Children' (WFFC). Most have developed these in parallel with reports on the Millennium Development Goals, carrying out two complementary exercises. Reports on the Millennium Development Goals highlight progress in poverty reduction and the principal social indicators, while the World Fit for Children reports go into greater detail on some of the same issues, such as education and child survival. But they also extend their coverage to child protection, which is less easy to track with numerical indicators. The purpose of this document is to assemble some of the information contained in these reports, along with the latest global data - looking at what has been done and what remains to be done. It is therefore organized around the four priority areas identified in A World Fit for Children, discussing each within the overall framework of the Millennium Development Goals. To appreciate the achievements for children over the past two decades, it is also useful to reflect briefly on how their world has changed. Children born in 1989, the year when the Convention on the Rights of the Child was adopted, are now on the brink of adulthood. They have lived through a remarkable period of social, political and economic transformation. (excerpt)
Eliminating female genital mutilation: an interagency statement. OHCHR, UNAIDS, UNDP, UNECA, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNICEF, UNIFEM, WHO.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2008. 41 p.The term 'female genital mutilation' (also called 'female genital cutting' and 'female genital mutilation/cutting') refers to all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. Between 100 and 140 million girls and women in the world are estimated to have undergone such procedures, and 3 million girls are estimated to be at risk of undergoing the procedures every year. Female genital mutilation has been reported to occur in all parts of the world, but it is most prevalent in: the western, eastern, and north-eastern regions of Africa, some countries in Asia and the Middle East and among certain immigrant communities in North America and Europe. Female genital mutilation has no known health benefits. On the contrary, it is known to be harmful to girls and women in many ways. First and foremost, it is painful and traumatic. The removal of or damage to healthy, normal genital tissue interferes with the natural functioning of the body and causes several immediate and long-term health consequences. For example, babies born to women who have undergone female genital mutilation suffer a higher rate of neonatal death compared with babies born to women who have not undergone the procedure. (excerpt)
Adolescents, social support and help-seeking behaviour: An international literature review and programme consultation with recommendations for action.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, 2007. 56 p. (WHO Discussion Papers on Adolescence)With this brief introduction and justification, this document presents: The findings from an international literature review on the topic of adolescents and help-seeking behaviour. The results of a programme consultation with 35 adolescent health programmes (including public health sector programmes, university-based adolescent health programmes and non-government organizations (NGO) working in adolescent health) from Latin America (10), the Western Pacific region (4), Asia (20), and the Middle East (1), and the results of six key informant interviews. These results are incorporated into the literature review where relevant. The complete report from this consultation of programmes is found in Appendix 1. Recommendations for action, including a brief outline for developing a set of guidelines for the rapid assessment of social supports to promote the help-seeking of adolescents. This document is part of a WHO project to identify and define evidence-based strategies for influencing adolescent help-seeking and identify research questions and activities to promote improved help-seeking behaviour by adolescents. To achieve this objective, the consultants, with WHO guidance: (1) carried out an international literature review of the topic; (2) sent 67 questionnaires and received 35 questionnaires back from adolescent health programmes on the topic of adolescents and help-seeking in the four regions; and (3) carried out key informant interviews with nine individuals (three in Latin America, three in the Pacific region and three in South Asia). The consultants also developed short case studies of illustrative approaches in promoting help-seeking behaviour. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, .  p.This Toolkit is meant for national youth organizations and/or representatives working with youth. It can be used as a tool to: Assess your country's progress in reaching the WPAY goals; Prioritize your organization's work, based on your findings; Initiate actions at the national level. This Toolkit should be used as a starting point for determining what your government, and civil society, has done to better the lives of young people, since 1995. In addition to providing methods for evaluating this progress, the Toolkit also contains concrete tools to further your youth work. As such, we hope that you will find it both informative and useful, and a good resource for your organization. (excerpt)
Report of the High-level consultation on improvement of sexual and reproductive health and rights of young people in Europe. Report on a WHO meeting, Copenhagen, Denmark, 11-12 December 2006.
Copenhagen, Denmark, WHO, Regional Office for Europe, 2007. 27 p. (EUR/07/5063690)Representatives nominated by the Ministries of Health from 23 Member States of the WHO European Region, the European Commission, the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF-EN) and Lund University attended a two day high-level consultation meeting to evaluate the midterm results of the project "The way forward: a European partnership to promote the sexual and reproductive health and rights of youth" (2004-2007). The situation on the trends in sexual and reproductive health status of young people in the European Union countries was analysed and tools developed by the WHO, IPPF EN and Lund University were presented. Country representatives discussed the draft policy framework on sexual and reproductive health and rights that will be presented in the final meeting of the project in October 2007 and many recommendations were received to prepare the document that would be an important tool for developing national policies and programs in the area of sexual and reproductive health of young people. (author's)
[New York, New York], UNIFEM, 2004.  p.At the Millennium Summit held in September in September 2000, the leaders of the majority of the countries in the world adopted the UN Millennium Declaration where the promotion of gender equality was determined as one of eight goals. The XXIII Special Session of the UN General Assembly "Women in 2000: Equality Between Men and Women. Development and Peace in XXI century" was dedicated to this issue (June 2000). The Session recommended representatives of the Governments of the participating countries to take measures to ensure women equal access and full participation in all spheres and at all levels of life. The Concept of Gender Policy (hereinafter called the Concept) determines the basic principles, priorities and tasks for gender policy in Kazakhstan. The basic principles of the gender policy are based on the equal rights and freedom for women and men that are guaranteed in the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The gender policy should deal with he following tasks: the achievement of equal participation of women and men in decision-making structures: the realisation of equal opportunities for economic independence, the development of business and career promotion; conditions for equal realization of rights and responsibilities for the family; and freedom from gender based violence. The Concept is based on the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Development Strategy of Kazakhstan to 2030, the National Action Plan on Improvement of Women's Status Kazakhstan, the United Nations Conventions on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women, United Nations Recommendations for its implementation in Kazakhstan and other ratified international agreements. The Concept of Gender Policy in Kazakhstan is designed both for the contemporary period of stabilization of the socio-economic situation with sustainable growth of the national economy (up to 2010) as well as for the long-term perspective (up to 2030). ( excerpt)
Windhoek, Namibia, Family Health International [FHI], 2002. 15 p.This workshop followed the November 25-29 Eastern and Southern Africa Workshop on Children Affected by HIV/AIDS. Approximately 50 people, representing 17 countries, attended the one-day workshop, which was convened by the UNICEF Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Office in Nairobi with the support and co-operation of USAID and Family Health International. The objectives of this workshop were to: Share knowledge, information and experience relating to alternative forms of care for children without family care (orphans and other vulnerable children in each country who are living in institutional care, on the street, child headed households etc.) with a major focus on how to strengthen and greatly increase better care for such children in Africa; Identify issues of common concern relating to alternative care, and discuss possible solutions; Enable delegates to incorporate this information into country-level action; and Consider possible next steps. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2005 Apr.  p.The past decade has seen UNICEF take the very best practices from its long and productive history and apply them in the service of today's children who live in a world previously unimagined. A complex world marked by intractable poverty, pervasive political instability, serial conflicts, HIV and AIDS. A world where there are few, if any, single causes, easy solutions or quick fixes. At $1.7 billion in 2004, UNICEF's income almost doubled in 10 years. The money, all voluntary contributions, was invested in programmes that prioritized early childhood, immunization, girls' education, improved protection and HIV and AIDS. Global progress on many fronts has been phenomenal: Mortality rates for children under five have dropped by around 15 per cent since 1990; Deaths from diarrhoea, one of the major killers of children under five, have been cut in half since 1990; Polio, once a deadly killer, is nearly eradicated; Measles deaths dropped by nearly 40 per cent; More children are in school than ever before; National laws and policies to better protect children have been enacted in dozens of countries. And, perhaps most profoundly of all, nearly every country in the world has ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child. (excerpt)
The case for investing in young people as part of a national poverty reduction strategy. Reference notes on population and poverty reduction.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2005.  p.More attention to the promotion and protection of the rights and the socio economic needs of young people needs to be an essential element of a country's efforts to eradicate poverty. Young people (defined as aged 10 to 24 years) account for 29 per cent of the population in low and middle-income countries (or 1.4 billion in number). Over a 100 countries have a significant youth bulge in their populations (see Attachment 4 at the end of the paper). Many young people in the world, however, lack basic literacy and numeracy skills and have no access to reproductive health care. As well, their economic prospects are extremely limited. To close this gap requires both additional resources as well as attention to gender inequality issues and the more effective delivery of existing services. This paper presents analysis and evidence to support these claims. The purpose of the paper is not to highlight the vulnerability of particular groups of young people. This task has been performed admirably by recent publications such as the UNFPA's World Population Report 2003 on adolescent health and rights. Its aim instead is a more focused one -- to show how best to present the case to policy makers for more attention to the needs of young people ahead of other competing claims for resources. (excerpt)
Preventing violence: a guide to implementing the recommendations of the World Report on Violence and Health.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Department of Injuries and Violence Protection, 2004.  p.Interpersonal violence is violence between individuals or small groups of individuals. It is an insidious and frequently deadly social problem and includes child maltreatment, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence and elder abuse. It takes place in the home, on the streets and in other public settings, in the workplace, and in institutions such as schools, hospitals and residential care facilities. The direct and indirect financial costs of such violence are staggering, as are the social and human costs that cause untold damage to the economic and social fabric of communities. With the publication in 2002 of the World report on violence and health, an initial sense of the global extent of the interpersonal violence problem was provided, and the central yet frequently overlooked role of the health sector in preventing such violence and treating its victims was made explicit. The report clearly showed that investing in multi-sectoral strategies for the prevention of interpersonal violence is not only a moral imperative but also makes sound scientific, economic, political and social sense, and that health sector leadership is both appropriate and essential given the clear public health dimensions of the problem and its solutions. The report also reviewed the increasing evidence that primary prevention efforts which target the root causes and situational determinants of interpersonal violence are both effective and cost-effective. In support of such approaches, the report recommended six country-level activities, namely: 1. Increasing the capacity for collecting data on violence. 2. Researching violence – its causes, consequences and prevention. 3. Promoting the primary prevention of violence. 4. Promoting gender and social equality and equity to prevent violence. 5. Strengthening care and support services for victims. 6. Bringing it all together – developing a national action plan of action. (excerpt)
The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights. A young person's guide.
London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], .  p.You should be given wide-ranging and easy to understand information on sexual and reproductive issues that will let you feel comfortable with yourself, your body and your sexuality. This information should enable you to make your own decisions about your sexual and reproductive health. You should be given this information without being judged or being made to feel embarrassed or guilty. Everyone has the right to receive an education. You should not be denied education simply because you are a girl, are poor or have a disability. If you become pregnant or have children you still have the right to go to school. (excerpt)
Building a world fit for children. The United Nations General Assembly Special Session on Children, 8-10 May 2002.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2003 Apr. 23 p.Inspired by the passion and vision of these young people, the General Assembly reached agreement on ‘A World Fit for Children’, a rigorous plan for promoting healthy lives, providing quality basic education, combating HIV/AIDS and protecting children from abuse, exploitation and violence – in short, a plan for building a world truly fit for all children. The document provides time-bound commitments, reinforces the Millennium Development Goals and endorses the nearly 95 million Say Yes for Children pledges generated by the Global Movement for Children (GMC) around the world. (excerpt)