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The importance of sexual and reproductive health and rights to prevent HIV in adolescent girls and young women in eastern and southern Africa.
Geneva Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2017. 24 p. (Evidence Brief; WHO/RHR/17.05)Over the last several years, countries in the eastern and southern Africa (ESA) region have made significant and commendable progress in preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV and in scaling up HIV treatment efforts. However, despite these gains, there have been no significant reductions in new HIV infections and the region continues to be the hardest hit by the epidemic, highlighting the need to place stronger emphasis on HIV prevention. The risk of HIV infection among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in the ESA region is of particular concern. The 2016 UNAIDS World AIDS Day report, Get on the Fast-Track – The life-cycle approach to HIV, stated that efforts to reduce new HIV infections among young people and adults have stalled, threatening to undermine progress towards ending AIDS as a global public health threat by 2030.
Lancet. 2017 Jul 01; 390(10089):1.Add to my documents.
Reproductive Health Matters. 2011 Nov; 19(38):197-207.In March 2009, UN member states met at the 53rd Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) to discuss the priority theme of "the equal sharing of responsibilities between women and men, including caregiving in the context of HIV/AIDS". This meeting focused the international community's attention on care issues and generated Agreed Conclusions that aimed to lay out a roadmap for care policy. I examine how the frame of "care" - a contested concept that has long divided feminist researchers and activists - operated in this site. Research involved a review of documentation related to the meeting and interviews with 18 participants. Using this research I argue that the frame of care united a range of groups, including conservative faith-based actors who have mobilized within the UN to roll back sexual and reproductive rights. This policy alliance led to important advances in the Agreed Conclusions, including strong arguments about the global significance of care, especially in relation to HIV; the need for a strong state role; and the value of caregivers' participation in policy debates. However, the care frame also constrained debate at the CSW, particularly about disability rights and variations in family formation. Those seeking to reassert sexual and reproductive rights are grappling with such limitations in a range of ways, and attention to their efforts and concerns can help us better understand the potentials and dangers for feminist intervention within global policy spaces. Copyright (c) 2010 UNRISD. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Making reproductive rights and sexual and reproductive health a reality for all. Reproductive rights and sexual and reproductive health framework.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2008 May.  p.The Reproductive rights and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) framework has been developed to provide overall guidance and a cohesive- Fund-wide response for implementing the Reproductive Health and Rights elements of the UNFPA Strategic plan 2008-2011. The framework builds on the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), 1994; the Millennium Summit, 2000, with its adoption of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs); the 2005 World Summit; and the addition, in 2007, of the goal of universal access to reproductive health to MDG 5, for improving maternal health. This includes two parts: the first provides a snapshot of the progress achieved since ICPD, identifies major remaining gaps and priorities and outlines principles and approaches for programme planning and implementation. The second part identifies key priorities and specific strategies for each of the SRH-related strategic plan outcomes. (Excerpt)
Reproductive and sexual health rights: 15 years after the International Conference on Population and Development [editorial]
International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2009 Aug; 106(2): p.For the past 15 years, the World Report on Women's Health has been published in the International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics (IJGO) every 3 years to mark the occasion of the FIGO World Congress. The topic of the 2006 World Report was promoting partnerships to improve access to women's reproductive and sexual health. It is fitting that, following the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994, the 2009 World Report addresses reproductive and sexual health rights 15 years after this significant conference took place. Despite some of the progress made in achieving reproductive and sexual health rights in many countries, many agenda items from the ICPD Programme of Action remain unfinished, and these are now emphasized in the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4, 5, and 6. The WHO Reproductive Health Research division has indicated that the core elements for improvement include improving prenatal, delivery, post partum, and newborn care; providing high-quality services for family planning including infertility services; eliminating unsafe abortion; combating sexually transmitted infections including HIV, reproductive tract infections, cervical cancer, and other gynecological morbidities; and promoting sexual health. It identified 6 areas of action including strengthening the capacity of health systems, improving the information base for priority settings, mobilizing political will, creating supportive legislation and regulatory frameworks, and strengthening, monitoring, evaluation, and accountability. The 2009 World Report provides the reader with a comprehensive and concise overview of what has been achieved in women's reproductive and sexual health rights since the ICPD, unmet needs, obstacles, and the feasible actions in the countdown to 2015 as outlined in the ICPD Programme of Action and the health-related MDGs. The July 2008 Summit Declaration of the G8 countries called for reproductive health to be "widely accessible," for closer links between HIV/AIDS and family planning programs, and strengthening of health systems. It is hoped that the latest global economic crisis will not negatively impact the commitments of rich countries to reproductive and sexual health programs in low-resource countries to reduce mortality and improve the quality-of-life of women and newborns around the world. (excerpt)
Workshop on Gender and Rights in Reproductive and Maternal Health, convened by World Health Organization, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 28 November - 2 December 2005. Report.
Manila, Philippines. WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2006 Mar. 40 p. ((WP)RPH/ICP/RPH/3.4/001/RPH(3)/2005-E; Report Series No. RS/2005/GE/43(MAA))More than a decade after the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in 1994 and the Fourth World Conference on Women in 1995, governments are expressing their commitment to women's health, in particular to sexual and reproductive health. Unfortunately, high maternal and neonatal mortality remains a feature in many countries in the Western Pacific Region. The complex issues of reproductive and maternal health extend beyond technical and medical factors. Social determinants, such as gender and rights, though recognized as important factors in maternal mortality and morbidity, have not been considered in health services planning, perhaps because of a lack of understanding and inadequate capacity to operationalize the concepts. To achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), it is essential that the gender and rights dimensions are fully understood and mainstreamed in policy, programmes and services. Recognizing the urgency of the situation, the WHO Western Pacific Regional Office decided to organize a workshop in collaboration with the Ministry of Health Malaysia as the host in Kuala Lumpur from 28 November to 2 December 2005. The Workshop on Gender and Rights in Reproductive and Maternal Health was the first ever organized by the Regional Office. Unlike other workshops, this was a training workshop aimed at introducing Concepts as well as some basics kills and tools to enable participants to bring a gender and rights perspective in to their programme services. (excerpt)
Report of the High-level consultation on improvement of sexual and reproductive health and rights of young people in Europe. Report on a WHO meeting, Copenhagen, Denmark, 11-12 December 2006.
Copenhagen, Denmark, WHO, Regional Office for Europe, 2007. 27 p. (EUR/07/5063690)Representatives nominated by the Ministries of Health from 23 Member States of the WHO European Region, the European Commission, the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF-EN) and Lund University attended a two day high-level consultation meeting to evaluate the midterm results of the project "The way forward: a European partnership to promote the sexual and reproductive health and rights of youth" (2004-2007). The situation on the trends in sexual and reproductive health status of young people in the European Union countries was analysed and tools developed by the WHO, IPPF EN and Lund University were presented. Country representatives discussed the draft policy framework on sexual and reproductive health and rights that will be presented in the final meeting of the project in October 2007 and many recommendations were received to prepare the document that would be an important tool for developing national policies and programs in the area of sexual and reproductive health of young people. (author's)
Lancet. 2006 Dec 9; 368(9552):2095-2100.At the United Nations International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994, the international community agreed to make reproductive health care universally available no later than 2015. After a 5-year review of progress towards implementation of the Cairo programme of action, that commitment was extended to include sexual, as well as reproductive, health and rights. Although progress has been made towards this commitment, it has fallen a long way short of the original goal. We argue that sexual and reproductive health for all is an achievable goal--if cost-effective interventions are properly scaled up; political commitment is revitalised; and financial resources are mobilised, rationally allocated, and more effectively used. National action will need to be backed up by international action. Sustained effort is needed by governments in developing countries and in the donor community, by inter-governmental organisations, non-governmental organisations, civil society groups, the women's health movement, philanthropic foundations, the private for-profit sector, the health profession, and the research community. (author's)
Lancet. 2006 Nov 4; 368(9547):1552-1554.In September, 1994, thousands of policymakers, activists, health specialists, and members of the donor community gathered in Cairo, Egypt, for what turned out to be a unique UN International Conference of Population and Development (ICPD), a true turning point. The Cairo conference put the ideas of comprehensive sexual and reproductive health and rights, choice, women's empowerment, a life-cycle approach, and gender equity at the centre of the international agenda, and signalled the end of the so-called population era. Instead of pursuing demographic targets via family-planning programmes, the goals of the ICPD Programme of Action (signed by 179 countries) were to achieve universal access to safe, affordable, and effective reproductive health care and services, including those for young people, and promoted a gender perspective. The package of services incorporated family planning information and contraceptives, skilled care at pregnancy and childbirth, safe abortion services where and when abortion is legal, and treatment and management of sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS. Governments set a realistic timeframe of 20 years, to accomplish the goals established in the Programme of Action. (excerpt)
Public Administration and Development. 2004; 24(1):41-50.This article reviews the way in which three very different international organizations concerned with reproductive health policy responded to the reproductive rights agenda during the 1990s. The intention is not to evaluate these responses but to describe how these organizations saw their roles with respect to establishing and promoting reproductive rights in developing countries. We seek to explore their different strategies of defining and interpreting rights, to examine the imperatives behind these strategies and to consider how these variously fed into the practical actions and agendas with which these organizations were engaged. The organizations included were the Women’s Global Network for Reproductive Rights, the International Federation of Family Planning Associations and the UK’s Department for International Development. Their diverse understandings about implementing reproductive rights contribute to a plural political environment in which these rights and their interpretation are debated. For all the three, their particular conception of reproductive rights is an important organizing principle through which their efforts around reproductive health are given wider meaning. (author's)
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, South East Asia Regional Office, 1997.  p.In the last decade, the life expectancy of the population has shown a remarkable improvement. The world has witnessed the development of revolutionary medical breakthroughs. Yet, despite the significant progress that has been made to prevent and control communicable diseases, 585,000 women continue to die around the world every year from pregnancy and childbirth-related complications. Of these, the WHO South-East Asia Region accounts for nearly 40% or 235,000 maternal deaths - an unacceptably high percentage of the total. A large number of maternal deaths can be prevented. The means to prevent these deaths are known, the skills and the technology to address the problems are simple and available locally. What is missing are the matching infrastructure, resources and the will to act resolutely. WHO believes that partnerships employing the public health approach can work most effectively in promoting and protecting the reproductive health of populations, particularly women and adolescents who are the more vulnerable sections of society. Linkages between different health programs and services must be created. Quality heath care must be ensured to women throughout their lifespan, and not just the reproductive years. For, good reproductive health-begins with the birth of a baby, and that, in turn, is dependent on the health and general well-being of its mother and her worth in society. (excerpt)
Transforming health systems: gender and rights in reproductive health. A training manual for health managers.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, . 12 p.Reproductive health exemplifies the complex interaction between biologic differences between the sexes, and gender power differentials. Many of women’s reproductive health problems are not simply the result of their having a womb or bearing children. They are a consequence of discrimination and lack of power to decide about how and with whom they will have sexual relations, and whether and when to bear children. For women, sexual and reproductive health are not just dependent on their own behaviour but, more fundamentally, they are dependent on the behaviour of their sexual partners, other family members and service providers. Therefore, in order to achieve improvements in reproductive health, programmes and policies must promote gender equality and the realisation of sexual and reproductive rights for women. This course focuses on improving participants understanding of gender and rights so that they can plan more effective programmes and services. It offers both conceptual and technical skills and tools for pactitioners to integrate the promotion of rights and gender equality into their policies, planning and programmes. (excerpt)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 24-46.The solemn commitment that was made in Cairo in 1994 to make reproductive health care universally available was a culmination of efforts made by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and all those concerned about a people-centred and human rights approach to population issues. The commitment posed important challenges to national governments and the international community, to policy makers, programme planners and service providers, and to the civil society at large. The role of UNFPA in building up the consensus for the reproductive health approach before Cairo had to continue after Cairo if the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) were to be achieved. UNFPA continues to be needed to strengthen the commitment, maintain the momentum, mobilize the required resources, and help national governments and the international community move from word to action, and from rhetoric to reality. Reproductive health, including family planning and sexual health, is now one of three major programme areas for UNFPA. During 1997, reproductive health accounted for over 60 per cent of total programme allocations by the Fund. (excerpt)