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Indoor residual spraying: an operational manual for indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria transmission control and elimination.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2013.  p.This manual has been created to enhance existing knowledge and skills, and to assist malaria programme managers, entomologists and vector control and public health officers to design, implement and sustain high quality IRS programmes. Though comprehensive, this manual is not intended to replace field expertise in IRS. The manual is divided into three chapters: IRS policy, strategy and standards for national policy makers and programme managers; IRS management, including stewardship and safe use of insecticides, for both national programme managers and district IRS coordinators; IRS spray application guidelines, primarily for district IRS coordinators, supervisors and team leaders. This manual will enable national programmes to: develop or refine national policies and strategies on vector control; develop or update existing national guidelines; develop or update existing national training materials; review access and coverage of IRS programmes; review the quality and impact of IRS programmes.
Bangkok, Thailand, UNAIDS, Regional Support for Asia and the Pacific, 2011.  p. (UNAIDS / 11.05E)This report provides the most up to date information on the HIV epidemic in the region in 2011. While the region has seen impressive gains -- including a 20% drop in new HIV infections since 2001 and a three-fold increase in access to antiretroviral therapy since 2006 -- progress is threatened by an inadequate focus on key populations at higher risk of HIV infection and insufficient funding from both domestic and international sources.
Anthropology and Medicine. 2010 Aug; 17(2):201-214.This paper explores the issue of compliance by focusing on the control of tuberculosis. In the last ten years, patient compliance in tuberculosis control has discursively shifted from 'direct observation' of therapy to more patient-centred focus and support drawing on rights-based approaches in dealing with health care provision. At the same time, there has been an increased international concern with the rise of drug resistant forms of tuberculosis, and how to manage this. This paper looks at these issues and the tensions between them, by discussing the shift in discourses around the two and how they relate. Drawing on experience from work in Nepal, and its successful tuberculosis control programme, it looks at debates around this and how these two arenas have been addressed. The rise of increasingly drug resistant forms of tuberculosis has stimulated the development of new WHO and other guidelines addressing how to deal with this problem. The links between public health, ethics and legal mandate are presented, and the implications of this for controlling transmission of drug resistant disease, on the one hand, and the drive for greater patient support mechanisms on the other. Looking forwards to uncertain ethical and public health futures, these issues will be mediated by emergent WHO and international frameworks.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2010.  p.The World Health Organization Guidelines for the treatment of malaria provides evidence-based and up-to-date recommendations for countries on malaria diagnosis and treatment which help countries formulate their policies and strategies. In scope, the Guidelines cover the diagnosis and treatment of uncomplicated and severe malaria caused by all types of malaria, including in special groups (young children, pregnant women, HIV / AIDS), in travellers (from non-malaria endemic regions) and in epidemics and complex emergency situations. The first edition of the Guidelines for the treatment of malaria were published in 2006. The second edition introduces a new 5th ACT to the four already recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Furthermore, the Guidelines recommend a parasitological confirmation of diagnosis in all patients suspected of having malaria before treating. The move towards universal diagnostic testing of malaria is a critical step forward in the fight against malaria as it will allow for the targeted use of ACTs for those who actually have malaria. This will help to reduce the emergence and spread of drug resistance. It will also help identify patients who do not have malaria, so that alternative diagnoses can be made and appropriate treatment provided. The new Guidelines will therefore help improve the management of not only malaria, but other childhood febrile illnesses.
Lancet. 2006 Apr 8; 367(9517):1193-1208.The Disease Control Priorities Project (DCPP), a joint project of the Fogarty International Center of the US National Institutes of Health, the WHO, and The World Bank, was launched in 2001 to identify policy changes and intervention strategies for the health problems of low-income and middle-income countries. Nearly 500 experts worldwide compiled and reviewed the scientific research on a broad range of diseases and conditions, the results of which are published this week. A major product of DCPP, Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, 2nd edition (DCP2), focuses on the assessment of the cost-effectiveness of health-improving strategies (or interventions) for the conditions responsible for the greatest burden of disease. DCP2 also examines crosscutting issues crucial to the delivery of quality health services, including the organisation, financial support, and capacity of health systems. Here, we summarise the key messages of the project. (author's)
Journal of Health Communication. 2005; 10:375-378.The review of the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) this fall poses an opportunity to focus on and galvanize interest in health development. The MDGs are a framework of 8 goals, 18 targets, and 48 indicators with a target goal for attainment of 2015. These development goals were adopted by a consensus of experts from the United Nations Secretariat and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the World Bank. While health is directly reflected in three of the eight MDGs and eight of the 18 accompanying indicators, progress is choppy. Of course, the linkage of health as the foundation for the achievement of all the MDGs may seem to be an obvious antecedent as well as a sequela for development. No single pathogen or disease, however, appears to be ravaging unabated more than HIV=AIDS. HIV=AIDS continues to pose a significant drag on development indicators of those countries most affected. It has become a fundamental threat, not only to the health—and survival—of more than 25 million currently infected individuals in Africa, but also to the entire health system and workforce as well as overall governance, security, education, debt relief, economic development, and peace. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2004.  p.Influenza vaccines and antiviral drugs for influenza are essential components of a comprehensive pandemic response, which also includes planning for antibiotic supplies and other health care resources. However, the current reality is that most countries have no or very limited supplies. Such a situation would force national authorities to make difficult decisions concerning which citizens should receive first call on limited vaccines and drugs. This document provides guidance to health policy-makers and national authorities on planning principles and options for the prioritization of vaccine and antiviral use during an influenza pandemic. It includes recommendations on actions that can improve future supply for the many countries that currently have no national vaccine or antiviral production. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Division of Emerging and Other Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Control, 1998. 31 p. (WHO/EPI/GEN/98.08)The Yellow Fever Technical Consensus Meeting, organized jointly by EMC and GPV, was held in Geneva March 2-3, 1998 to examine the reasons for the dramatic re-surgence of outbreaks within the past 10-15 year period. Participants reviewed the strategies for the prevention and control of yellow fever in Africa and South America and identified the present barriers to implementation of effective programmes. The recommendations from this meeting will serve as the basis for action plans to reduce morbidity and mortality from yellow fever. With the recent increase in epidemics, yellow fever is once again a major public health concern. One important reason for the re-emergence of the disease is low immunization coverage in countries where the disease is present. Some reasons for poor coverage are lack of adequate funds for vaccine and injection equipment, lack of interested partners, and lack of political will and commitment for inclusion of yellow fever vaccine in the routine EPI. Where yellow fever has been included in EPI programmes, the overall performance of these programmes in some countries has not been adequate. Factors contributing to the spread of yellow fever outbreaks include an increase in the distribution and density of the mosquito vectors, and economic development that has caused increased intrusion of man into forested areas, substandard water systems that provide breeding sites for the vector, and widespread international air travel. Immunization coverage of less than 60% is not high enough to prevent epidemics. Depending on vegetation, vector efficiency, and vector density in the area, coverage of 80% or more may be needed to prevent disease outbreaks. Using these factors along with the interval since the last epidemic, urban to rural ratio, frequency of epidemics, and history of previous yellow fever immunization programmes, countries could be placed in order of priority for resources and financial assistance. (excerpt)
Journal of the Indian Medical Association. 2003 Mar; 101(3):150-151.Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious public health problem in spite of DOTS programme recommended by WHO. One person dies from TB in India every minute. Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) is playing a major role in global DOTS expansion. DOTS coverage has expanded from 2% of the population in mid-1998 to 57% by the end of January, 2003. RNTCP has made a significant contribution to public health capacity. The programme has saved the people of India hundreds of millions of dollars. Monitoring the clinical course using smear microscopy and accurately reporting treatment outcomes is essential in well-functioning DOTS programme. RNTCP has invested heavily and made significant strides in maintaining and improving quality DOTS. State and district level programme reviews are a key component of the process. RNTCP has established guidelines for the involvement of the private sector and medical colleges. A member by ongoing technical activities will improve RNTCP’s surveillance and monitoring systems. However a challenge lies with the programme and a collective effort is welcome. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2004 Jan 17; 363(9404):215.Health ministers from the world’s six remaining polio-endemic countries— Afghanistan, Egypt, India, Niger, Nigeria, and Pakistan —pledged in a declaration signed in Geneva on Jan 15 to boost their polio-eradication activities in a bid to wipe out the disease. The commitment came amid growing fears that the ongoing outbreak in west Africa—centred in Nigeria and Niger—and the importation of cases to neighbouring countries could derail the 15-year global effort to eradicate the disease. (excerpt)