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Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2014.  p. (WHO/NMH/NHD/14.7)In 2012, the World Health Assembly Resolution 65.6 endorsed a Comprehensive implementation plan on maternal, infant and young child nutrition, which specified six global nutrition targets for 2025. This policy brief covers the fifth target: Increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months up to at least 50%. The purpose of this policy brief is to increase attention to, investment in, and action for a set of cost-effective interventions and policies that can help Member States and their partners in improving exclusive breastfeeding rates among infants less than six months. (Excerpts)
American Journal of Public Health. 2013 Apr; 103(4):623-31.The low priority that most low-income countries give to neonatal mortality, which now constitutes more than 40% of deaths to children younger than 5 years, is a stumbling block to the world achieving the child survival Millennium Development Goal. Bangladesh is an exception to this inattention. Between 2000 and 2011, newborn survival emerged from obscurity to relative prominence on the government's health policy agenda. Drawing on a public policy framework, we analyzed how this attention emerged. Critical factors included national advocacy, government commitment to the Millennium Development Goals, and donor resources. The emergence of policy attention involved interactions between global and national factors rather than either alone. The case offers guidance on generating priority for neglected health problems in low-income countries.
Geneva, Switzerland, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR], 2008 Apr. 20 p.This Guidance on Infant feeding and HIV aims to assist UNHCR, its implementing and operational partners, and governments on policies and decision- making strategies on infant feeding and HIV in refugees and displaced populations. Its purpose is to provide an overview of the current technical and programmatic consensus on infant feeding and HIV, and give guidance to facilitate elective implementation of HIV and infant feeding programmes in refugee and displaced situations, in emergency contexts, and as an integral element of coordinated approach to public health, HIV and nutrition programming. The goal of this guidance is to provide tools to prevent malnutrition, improve the nutritional status of infants and young children, to reduce the transmission of HIV infection from mother to child after delivery, and to increase HIV-free survival of infants.
Lancet. 2008 Oct 25; 372(9648):1459.Your Aug 16 Editorial1 emphasises that India is far from its target of reaching Millennium Development Goal 4 on child survival, despite its impressive rate of economic growth compared with the other south Asian nations. You state that India is spending only 3% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on health, which is less than the other countries in the Asia-Pacific region; however, India has actually been spending only 0|9% of its GDP on heath for the past two decades.2 2-3% of GDP is the predicted level of spending by the Indian Government by 2010.2 Although the link between poverty and child mortality is very strong, some countries are better at translating their economic growth into pre venting child deaths. For example, India's gross national income (GNI) per head has in creased by a staggering 82% from US$450 in 2000 to $820 in 2006, yet its child mortality rate only declined by 19% from 94 per 1000 births to 76 per 1000. Over the same period, Bangladesh saw a much smaller 23% in crease in GNI per capita-from $390 in 2000 to $480 in 2006-but its child mortality dropped by 25% from 92 to 69 per 1000 births.3,4 The maternal mortality rate also declined from 440 per 10 000 births in 1997 to 315 in 2001 in Bangladesh.5 All countries, even the poorest, can reduce child mortality if they pursue the right policies and prioritise their poorest families. Good government choices save children's lives but bad ones are a death sentence. (full-text)
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2008 May. 54 p.Every year, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) publishes The State of the World's Children, the most comprehensive and authoritative report on the world's youngest citizens. The State of the World's Children 2008, published in January 2008, examines the global realities of maternal and child survival and the prospects for meeting the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) - the targets set by the world community in 2000 for eradicating poverty, reducing child and maternal mortality, combating disease, ensuring environmental sustainability and providing access to affordable medicines in developing countries. This year, UNICEF is also publishing the inaugural edition of The State of Africa's Children. This volume and other forthcoming regional editions complement The State of the World's Children 2008, sharpening from a worldwide to a regional perspective the global report's focus on trends in child survival and health, and outlining possible solutions - by means of programmes, policies and partnerships - to accelerate progress in meeting the Millennium Development Goals. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2007 Dec.  p.Five years after the Special Session, more than 120 countries and territories have prepared reports on their efforts to meet the goals of 'A World Fit for Children' (WFFC). Most have developed these in parallel with reports on the Millennium Development Goals, carrying out two complementary exercises. Reports on the Millennium Development Goals highlight progress in poverty reduction and the principal social indicators, while the World Fit for Children reports go into greater detail on some of the same issues, such as education and child survival. But they also extend their coverage to child protection, which is less easy to track with numerical indicators. The purpose of this document is to assemble some of the information contained in these reports, along with the latest global data - looking at what has been done and what remains to be done. It is therefore organized around the four priority areas identified in A World Fit for Children, discussing each within the overall framework of the Millennium Development Goals. To appreciate the achievements for children over the past two decades, it is also useful to reflect briefly on how their world has changed. Children born in 1989, the year when the Convention on the Rights of the Child was adopted, are now on the brink of adulthood. They have lived through a remarkable period of social, political and economic transformation. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2006 Sep 2; 368(9538):817-819.In 2003, as the Bellagio Study Group on Child Survival, we called on major international public-health organisations and funders to put child survival at the top of their priorities (panel). In January, 2006, the Executive Board of UNICEF approved, in principle, a new joint health and nutrition strategy for 2006-15. The UNICEF strategy is a landmark, signalling a substantial shift from the so-called "boat-adrift" pattern of child survival efforts over the past decade. The strategy can serve as a foundation for renewed, reinvigorated, and successful efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, all of which depend for their achievements on massive and unified efforts in child survival. Three elements of the strategy are courageous, building on evidence rather than politically correct rhetoric. First, the joining of health and nutrition into a unified movement rises above disciplinary infighting to recognise essential synergies--synergies between under-nutrition and infections that account for over half the deaths in children aged younger than 5 years, and potential synergies in prevention and treatment that make simple interventions to improve child nutrition the most cost-effective option for poor governments seeking to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1991 Jun; 28(2): p..The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) has made a "promise to children"--to try to end child deaths and child malnutrition on today's scale by the year 2000. The Fund estimates that a quarter of a million children die every week from common illnesses and one in three in the world are stunted by malnutrition. That broad goal, declared on 30 September 1990 by 71 Presidents and Prime Ministers attending the first World Summit for Children, includes 20 specific targets detailed in the Plan of Action for implementing the World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children in the 1990s, adopted at the Summit. Among them are: one-third reduction in under-five death rates; halving maternal mortality rates; halving of severe and moderate malnutrition among the world's under-fives; safe water and sanitation for all families; and measures covering protection for women and girls, nutrition, child health and education. Other goals include making family planning available to all couples and cutting deaths from diarrhoeal diseases--which kill approximately 4 million young children annually--by one half, and pneumonia--which kills another 4 million a year--by one third. (excerpt)
BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2005 Nov 26; 331(7527):1270.That the call for reassessing health outcomes by Evans et al is limited to a disease model as linked to millennium development goals 4, 5, and 6 alone is surprising. The World Health Organization listed child underweight as the leading risk factor contributing to the global burden of disease; and Pelletier et al have clearly shown that malnutrition underlies over 55% of all mortality in under 5s in developing countries. These results, which indicate that mild to moderate malnutrition is associated with higher mortality and that an epidemiological synergism exists between malnutrition and morbidity, have been substantiated by several other studies. So long as the global community continues to aim to tackle health as a disease model divorced from nutrition, as Evans et al propose, it will continue to fail in achieving the millennium development goals. Malnutrition represents the non-income aspects of poverty and a malnourished population cannot aspire to achieve the health goals without also dealing with nutrition. Furthermore, many nutrition interventions that can be made mainstream through the health sector are among the most cost effective best-buys in development as assessed by the Copenhagen consensus and others. Any future efforts at achieving the millennium development goals must incorporate these nutrition interventions. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2005 Jun 25; 365(9478):2153-2154.10 years from now, in 2015, governments of the world will meet to assess whether we have achieved the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the most widely ratified and loudly trumpeted set of development goals ever signed onto by every country in the world. MDG-4 commits the global community to reducing child deaths below age 5 years by three-quarters from a 1990 baseline. 2 years ago, in 2003, the Bellagio Lancet Child Survival Series drew attention to the fact that each year over 10 million children under 5 die in the world, mainly from preventable conditions that rarely kill children in rich countries. This year, a second Lancet series focused on a previously neglected subset of child deaths—the almost 40% of all under-5 deaths that occur in newborn babies. Together, these two series provided the necessary evidence to revitalise efforts to reduce child and newborn deaths and to achieve MDG-4, to which all countries have committed. Both series showed that most child deaths could be prevented with simple low-cost interventions feasible now, yet not reaching poor children. To reach MDG-4, massive increases are required in coverage of essential interventions. (excerpt)
Global HealthLink. 2001 Jul-Aug; (110):7.The United Nations General Assembly will convene a Special Session on Children Sept. 19-21 in New York City. At this decade-review of the goals set at the 1990 World Summit for Children, world leaders will come together to discuss the progress that has been made and the work that still remains in assuring child health and survival. A new plan of action to be followed globally will help to ensure the improvement of the health of children around the world. Organizations focusing on a wide variety of children’s issues will be involved in the special session both directly and indirectly. Although most groups will not be represented in their own country’s delegation, there are many actions that nonprofit and private voluntary organizations can take to affect the outcomes of the meeting and consequently make a difference in the lives of children worldwide. (excerpt)