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  1. 1
    394128

    Adoption of the 2015 World Health Organization guidelines on antiretroviral therapy: Programmatic implications for India.

    Rewari BB; Agarwal R; Shastri S; Nagaraja SB; Rathore AS

    WHO South - East Asia Journal of Public Health. 2017 Apr; 6(1):90-93.

    The therapeutic and preventive benefits of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV are now well established. Reflecting new research evidence, in 2015 the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended initiation of ART for all people living with HIV (PLHIV), irrespective of their clinical staging and CD4 cell count. The National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) in India is currently following the 2010 WHO ART guidelines for adults and the 2013 guidelines for pregnant women and children. This desk study assessed the number of people living with HIV who will additionally be eligible for ART on adoption of the 2015 WHO recommendations on ART. Data routinely recorded for all PLHIV registered under the NACP up to 31 December 2015 were analysed. Of the 250 865 individuals recorded in pre-ART care, an estimated 135 593 would be eligible under the WHO 2013 guidelines. A further 100 221 would be eligible under the WHO 2015 guidelines. Initiating treatment for all PLHIV in pre-ART care would raise the number on ART from 0.92 million to 1.17 million. In addition, nearly 0.07 million newly registered PLHIV will become eligible every year if the WHO 2015 guidelines are adopted, of which 0.028 million would be attributable to implementation of the WHO 2013 guidelines alone. In addition to drugs, there will be a need for additional CD4 tests and tests of viral load, as the numbers on ART will increase significantly. The outlay should be seen in the context of potential health-care savings due to early initiation of ART, in terms of the effect on disease progression, complications, deaths and new infections. While desirable, adoption of the new guidance will have significant programmatic and resource implications for India. The programme needs to plan and strengthen the service-delivery mechanism, with emphasis on newer and innovative approaches before implementation of these guidelines.
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  2. 2
    393656
    Peer Reviewed

    UNICEF's contribution to the adoption and implementation of option B+ for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV: a policy analysis.

    Chersich MF; Newbatt E; Ng'oma K; de Zoysa I

    Globalization and Health. 2018 Jun 1; 14(1):55.

    BACKGROUND: Between 2011 and 2013, global and national guidelines for preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV shifted to recommend Option B+, the provision of lifelong antiretroviral treatment for all HIV-infected pregnant women. METHODS: We aimed to analyse how Option B+ reached the policy agenda, and unpack the processes, actors and politics that explain its adoption, with a focus on examining UNICEF's contribution to these events. Analysis drew on published articles and other documentation, 30 key informants interviews with staff at UNICEF, partner organisations and government officials, and country case studies. Cameroon, India, South Africa and Zimbabwe were each visited for 5-8 days. Interview transcripts were analysed using Dedoose software, reviewed several times and then coded thematically. RESULTS: A national policy initiative in Malawi in 2011, in which the country adopted Option B+, rather than existing WHO recommended regimens, irrevocably placed the policy on the global agenda. UNICEF and other organisations recognised the policy's potential impact and strategically crafted arguments to support it, framing these around operational considerations, cost-effectiveness and values. As 'policy entrepreneurs', these organisations vigorously promoted the policy through a variety of channels and means, overcoming concerted opposition. WHO, on the basis of scanty evidence, released a series of documents towards the policy's endorsement, paving the way for its widespread adoption. National-level policy transformation was rapid and definitive, distinct from previous incremental policy processes. Many organisations, including UNICEF, facilitated these changes in country, acting individually, or in concert. CONCLUSIONS: The adoption of the Option B+ policy marked a departure from established processes for PMTCT policy formulation which had been led by WHO with the support of technical experts, and in which recommendations were developed following shifts in evidence. Rather, changes were spurred by a country-level initiative, and a set of strategically framed arguments that resonated with funders and country-level actors. This bottom-up approach, supported by normative agencies, was transformative. For UNICEF, alignment between the organisation's country focus and the policy's underpinning values, enabled it to work with partners and accelerate widespread policy change.
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  3. 3
    373777
    Peer Reviewed

    HIV/AIDS policy-making in Kyrgyzstan: a stakeholder analysis.

    Ancker S; Rechel B

    Health Policy and Planning. 2015 Feb; 30(1):8-18.

    Kyrgyzstan has adopted a number of policy initiatives to deal with an accelerating HIV/AIDS epidemic. This article explores the main actors in HIV/AIDS policy-making, their interests, support and involvement and their current ability to set the agenda and influence the policy-making process. Fifty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted in the autumn of 2011, complemented by a review of policy documents and secondary sources on HIV/AIDS in Kyrgyzstan. We found that most stakeholders were supportive of progressive HIV/AIDS policies, but that their influence levels varied considerably. Worryingly, several major state agencies exhibited some resistance or lack of initiative towards HIV/AIDS policies, often prompting international agencies and local NGOs to conceptualize and drive appropriate policies. We conclude that, without clear vision and leadership by the state, the sustainability of the national response will be in question.
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  4. 4
    337655

    Dissemination of WHO guidelines and recommendations on micronutrients: policy, practice and service delivery issues. Report of a regional meeting, Bangkok, 14-16 October 2014.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for South-East Asia

    New Delhi, India, WHO, Regional Office for South-East Asia, 2015. [86] p. (SEA-NUT-195)

    The public health implications of micronutrient deficiencies are very important since these deficiencies adversely affect fetal and child growth, cognitive development of infants, children and adolescents, women of reproductive age and the elderly, and lower their resistance to infection. Of all the micronutrient deficiencies, anaemia is the most common in the South-East Asia Region and an estimated 55% of preschool children, 45% of pregnant women and 40% of women of child-bearing age are anaemic. Low intake of iron and other important nutrients in the diet, parasitic infections and low bioavailability of iron from plant-based diets are considered to be the causative factors. In recent years, WHO has produced or updated several evidence-based guidelines and recommendations on a large number of nutrients of public health importance. These evidence-based guidelines for nutrition action will assist the Member States to focus on key areas of intervention and develop a harmonized monitoring framework to assess the impact of such interventions on the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies. A regional meeting on dissemination of WHO guidelines and recommendations on micronutrients: policy, practice and service delivery issues, was organized by the World Health Organization’s Regional Office for South-East Asia in collaboration with the Department of Nutrition for Health & Development, WHO Headquarters, the Institute of Nutrition – Mahidol University, Thailand and the Micronutrient Initiative, in Bangkok, Thailand from 14-16 October 2014. The overall objective of the meeting was to discuss the effective dissemination and incorporation of WHO guidelines and recommendations on micronutrients in national control and prevention programmes highlighting the following topics: i) dissemination of current WHO guidelines and recommendations on micronutrients; ii) overview of recent strategies and approaches for addressing anaemia in different population groups; and iii) review of national protocols for the control and prevention of micronutrients deficiencies, with particular focus on anaemia.
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  5. 5
    337537
    Peer Reviewed

    Strength of recommendations in WHO guidelines using GRADE was associated with uptake in national policy.

    Nasser SM; Cooke G; Kranzer K; Norris SL; Olliaro P; Ford N

    Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 2015; [5] p.

    Objectives: This study assesses the extent to which the strength of a recommendation in a World Health Organization (WHO) guideline affects uptake of the recommendation in national guidelines. Study Design and Setting: The uptake of recommendations included in HIV and TB guidelines issued by WHO from 2009 to 2013 was assessed across guidelines from 20 low- and middle-income countries in Africa and Southeast Asia. Associations between characteristics of recommendations (strength, quality of the evidence, type) and uptake were assessed using logistic regression. Results: Eight WHO guidelines consisting of 109 strong recommendations and 49 conditional ecommendations were included, and uptake assessed across 44 national guidelines (1,255 recommendations) from 20 countries. Uptake of WHO recommendations in national guidelines was 82% for strong recommendations and 61% for conditional recommendations. The odds of uptake comparing strong recommendations and conditional recommendations was 1.9 (95% confidence interval: 1.4, 2.7), after adjustment for quality of evidence. Higher levels of evidence quality were associated with greater uptake, independent of recommendation strength. Conclusion: Guideline developers should be confident that conditional recommendations are frequently adopted. The fact that strong recommendations are more frequently adopted than conditional recommendations underscores the importance of ensuring that such recommendations are justified.
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  6. 6
    359699
    Peer Reviewed

    Generating political priority for neonatal mortality reduction in Bangladesh.

    Shiffman J; Sultana S

    American Journal of Public Health. 2013 Apr; 103(4):623-31.

    The low priority that most low-income countries give to neonatal mortality, which now constitutes more than 40% of deaths to children younger than 5 years, is a stumbling block to the world achieving the child survival Millennium Development Goal. Bangladesh is an exception to this inattention. Between 2000 and 2011, newborn survival emerged from obscurity to relative prominence on the government's health policy agenda. Drawing on a public policy framework, we analyzed how this attention emerged. Critical factors included national advocacy, government commitment to the Millennium Development Goals, and donor resources. The emergence of policy attention involved interactions between global and national factors rather than either alone. The case offers guidance on generating priority for neglected health problems in low-income countries.
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  7. 7
    356906
    Peer Reviewed

    The World Health Organization-United Nations Population Fund Strategic Partnership Programme's implementation of family planning guidelines and tools in Asia-Pacific countries.

    Mody SK; Ba-Thike K; Gaffield ME

    Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research. 2013 Apr; 39(4):825-830.

    AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Strategic Partnership Programme, a collaboration between the World Health Organization and the United Nations Population Fund to improve evidence-based guidance for country programs through the introduction of selected practice guidelines to improve sexual and reproductive health. METHODS: Information for this report is from questionnaires sent to Ministries of Health in 2004 (baseline assessment) and in 2007 (assessment of outcome), annual country reports and personal communication with focal points from Ministries of Health and World Health Organization regional and country offices. RESULTS: Following the Strategic Partnership Programme, family planning guidance was used extensively to: formulate and update reproductive health policy; update standards and guidelines; improve training curricula; conduct training activities; develop advocacy and communication materials; and promote change in service. CONCLUSION: The Strategic Partnership Programme was successful in promoting the introduction of evidence-based guidelines for reproductive health in several Asian countries. The countries that adapted the family planning guidance observed an increase in demand for contraceptives commodities. (c) 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research (c) 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
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  8. 8
    352170
    Peer Reviewed

    REACH: an effective catalyst for scaling up priority nutrition interventions at the country level.

    Pearson BL; Ljungqvist B

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2011 Jun; 32(2 Suppl):S115-27.

    BACKGROUND: Renewed Efforts Against Child Hunger (REACH) is the joint United Nations initiative to address Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 10, Target 3, i.e., to halve the proportion of underweight children under 5 years old by 2015. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the World Food Programme (WFP), and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) developed and tested a facilitation mechanism to act as a catalyst for scaling up multisectoral nutrition activities. OBJECTIVE: The UN-REACH partners developed pilot projects in Mauritania and Lao PDR from 2008 to 2010 and deployed facilitators to improve nutrition governance and coordination. Review missions were conducted in February 2011 to assess the REACH approach and what it achieved. METHODS: The UN review mission members reviewed documents, assessed policy and management indicators, conducted qualitative interviews, and discussed findings with key stakeholders, including the most senior UN nutrition directors from all agencies. RESULTS: Among other UN-REACH achievements, the Prime Minister of Mauritania agreed to preside over a new National Nutrition Development Council responsible for high-level decision-making and setting national policy objectives. REACH facilitated the completion of Lao's first national Nutrition Strategy and Plan of Action and formation of the multistakeholder Nutrition Task Force. During the REACH engagement, coordination, joint advocacy, situation analysis, policy development, and joint UN programming for nutrition were strengthened in Lao PDR and Mauritania. CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in the nutrition governance and management mechanisms in Mauritania and Lao PDR were observed during the period of REACH support through increased awareness of nutrition as a key development objective, establishment of governmental multisectoral coordinating mechanisms, improved government capacity, and new joint UN-government nutrition programming.
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  9. 9
    333325

    HIV in Asia and the Pacific: Getting to zero.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]. Regional Support for Asia and the Pacific

    Bangkok, Thailand, UNAIDS, Regional Support for Asia and the Pacific, 2011. [144] p. (UNAIDS / 11.05E)

    This report provides the most up to date information on the HIV epidemic in the region in 2011. While the region has seen impressive gains -- including a 20% drop in new HIV infections since 2001 and a three-fold increase in access to antiretroviral therapy since 2006 -- progress is threatened by an inadequate focus on key populations at higher risk of HIV infection and insufficient funding from both domestic and international sources.
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  10. 10
    345225
    Peer Reviewed

    Extreme condition, extreme measures? Compliance, drug resistance, and the control of tuberculosis.

    Harper I

    Anthropology and Medicine. 2010 Aug; 17(2):201-214.

    This paper explores the issue of compliance by focusing on the control of tuberculosis. In the last ten years, patient compliance in tuberculosis control has discursively shifted from 'direct observation' of therapy to more patient-centred focus and support drawing on rights-based approaches in dealing with health care provision. At the same time, there has been an increased international concern with the rise of drug resistant forms of tuberculosis, and how to manage this. This paper looks at these issues and the tensions between them, by discussing the shift in discourses around the two and how they relate. Drawing on experience from work in Nepal, and its successful tuberculosis control programme, it looks at debates around this and how these two arenas have been addressed. The rise of increasingly drug resistant forms of tuberculosis has stimulated the development of new WHO and other guidelines addressing how to deal with this problem. The links between public health, ethics and legal mandate are presented, and the implications of this for controlling transmission of drug resistant disease, on the one hand, and the drive for greater patient support mechanisms on the other. Looking forwards to uncertain ethical and public health futures, these issues will be mediated by emergent WHO and international frameworks.
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  11. 11
    331968

    From advocacy to access: Bangladesh. 360 degrees advocacy: Strengthening a weak contraceptive supply chain in Bangladesh. Fact chart.

    Family Planning Association of Bangladesh; International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, England, IPPF, 2009 Nov. [2] p.

    In Bangladesh, the IPPF Member Association, the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB), worked with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare to improve the dysfunctional supply chain. Results to date include: The Ministry of Health reactivated the Logistical Coordination Forum, a donor, government and civil society led group, to identify and solve blockages in the supply chain; Capacity building and training for staff in the Logistics and Supply Unit were increased; The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare committed to using government resources to make up the shortfall from declining donor contributions.
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  12. 12
    331817

    Coordination, management and utilization of foreign assistance for HIV / AIDS prevention in Vietnam. Assessment report.

    Center for Community Health Research and Development [CCRD]

    Ha Noi, Vietnam, CCRD, 2006 Oct. 82 p. (CCRD Assesssment Report)

    International assistance for HIV / AIDS prevention and control in Vietnam has significantly contributed to combating this epidemic. However, while current resources have not yet fully met the needs, the management and utilization of resources still had many limitations which affect the effectiveness of foreign assistance and investments. The independent assessment was prepared for the Conference on “the Coordination of Foreign Assistance for HIV / AIDS Prevention and Control”. Analytical assessment and comments on the management and coordination of foreign aid were made on the basis of Government’s official procedures and regulations on those issues. This research was carried out in October, 2006.
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  13. 13
    329062

    Wealth and child survival: India and Bangladesh [letter]

    Billal DS; Hotomi M; Yamanaka N

    Lancet. 2008 Oct 25; 372(9648):1459.

    Your Aug 16 Editorial1 emphasises that India is far from its target of reaching Millennium Development Goal 4 on child survival, despite its impressive rate of economic growth compared with the other south Asian nations. You state that India is spending only 3% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on health, which is less than the other countries in the Asia-Pacific region; however, India has actually been spending only 0|9% of its GDP on heath for the past two decades.2 2-3% of GDP is the predicted level of spending by the Indian Government by 2010.2 Although the link between poverty and child mortality is very strong, some countries are better at translating their economic growth into pre venting child deaths. For example, India's gross national income (GNI) per head has in creased by a staggering 82% from US$450 in 2000 to $820 in 2006, yet its child mortality rate only declined by 19% from 94 per 1000 births to 76 per 1000. Over the same period, Bangladesh saw a much smaller 23% in crease in GNI per capita-from $390 in 2000 to $480 in 2006-but its child mortality dropped by 25% from 92 to 69 per 1000 births.3,4 The maternal mortality rate also declined from 440 per 10 000 births in 1997 to 315 in 2001 in Bangladesh.5 All countries, even the poorest, can reduce child mortality if they pursue the right policies and prioritise their poorest families. Good government choices save children's lives but bad ones are a death sentence. (full-text)
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  14. 14
    327409
    Peer Reviewed

    Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2003 and 2006 data to tobacco control policy in India.

    Sinha DN; Gupta PC; Reddy KS; Prasad VM; Rahman K

    Journal of School Health. 2008 Jul; 78(7):368-373.

    India made 2 important policy statements regarding tobacco control in the past decade. First, the India Tobacco Control Act (ITCA) was signed into law in 2003 with the goal to reduce tobacco consumption and protect citizens from exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Second, in 2005, India ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). During this same period, India conducted the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in 2003 and 2006 in an effort to track tobacco use among adolescents. The GYTS is a school-based survey of students aged 13-15 years. Representative national estimates for India in 2003 and 2006 were used in this study. In 2006, 3.8% of students currently smoked cigarettes and 11.9% currently used other tobacco products. These rates were not significantly different than those observed in 2003. Over the same period, exposure to SHS at home and in public places significantly decreased, whereas exposure to pro-tobacco ads on billboards and the ability to purchase cigarettes in a store did not change significantly. The ITCA and the WHO FCTC have had mixed impacts on the tobacco control effort for adolescents in India. The positive impacts have been the reduction in exposure to SHS, both at home and in public places. The negative impacts are seen with the lack of change in pro-tobacco advertising and ability to purchase cigarettes in stores. The Government of India needs to consider new and stronger provisions of the ITCA and include strong enforcement measures. (author's)
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  15. 15
    326315

    Public-private partnerships: Managing contracting arrangements to strengthen the Reproductive and Child Health Programme in India. Lessons and implications from three case studies.

    Bhat R; Huntington D; Maheshwari S

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2007. [30] p.

    Strengthening management capacity and meeting the need for reproductive and child health (RCH) services is a major challenge for the national RCH program of India. Central and state governments are using multiple options to meet this challenge, responding to the complex issues in RCH, which include social, cultural and economic factors and reflect the immense geographical barriers to access for remote and rural population. Other barriers are also being addressed, including lessening financial burdens and creating public-private partnerships to expand access. For example, the National Rural Health Mission was initiated in order to focus on rural populations, although departments of health face a number of challenges in implementing this initiative. In this document, we focus on a key area: the development of management capacity for working with the private sector. We synthesize the lessons learnt from three case studies of public-private partnerships in RCH: two are state initiatives, in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, and the third is the national mother nongovernmental organization scheme. The case studies were conducted to determine how management capacity was developed in these three public-private partnerships in service delivery, by examining the structure and process of partnerships, understanding management capacity and competence in various public-private partnerships in RCH, and identifying the means for developing the management capacity of partners. (author's)
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  16. 16
    322576

    Pakistan still falls short of Millennium Development Goals for infant and maternal health.

    Yin S

    Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau [PRB], 2007 Dec. [2] p.

    With continuing political turmoil, emergency rule declared, and concerns about how free and fair January elections will be, Pakistan has been under the spotlight recently. But the political arena isn't the only area where challenges persist. Beneath the surface, more problems are brewing in the sixth most populous country in the world. Some of the challenges are fueled by the country's rapidly growing population, which is making increasing demands on social services, especially the health care system. A comparison of population pyramids reflects how Pakistan has grown and how its needs will multiply. Between 1970 and 2000, Pakistan more than doubled in population to 144 million from 60 million. Its population ages 15 to 49 more than tripled to 68 million from 14 million. As the number of people in that age group rose, so did demand for maternal and child health care. And health care needs are likely to grow as the 2025 projection for those ages 15 to 49 rises to 121 million, nearly double the 2000estimate. (excerpt)
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  17. 17
    310678
    Peer Reviewed

    The Georgian healthcare system: is it reaching the WHO health system goals?

    Collins T

    International Journal of Health Planning and Management. 2006 Oct-Dec; 21(4):297-312.

    After the break-up of the Soviet Union, the country of Georgia suffered from intense civil unrest and socio-economic deterioration, which particularly affected the health sector. To remedy the situation, the government initiated health sector reform, which introduced major changes in healthcare financing in Georgia: the previously free healthcare model was replaced by social insurance, and patients were required to pay out-of-pocket for services not covered by insurance. This paper is an attempt to determine if the health system of Georgia is reaching the WHO health system goals of improved health status, responsiveness to patients' needs (consumer satisfaction), and financial risk protection as a result of health reforms. (author's)
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  18. 18
    306103

    The concept of gender policy and the Millennium Development Goals in Kazakhstan.

    Kazakhstan; United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]; United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM]

    [New York, New York], UNIFEM, 2004. [15] p.

    At the Millennium Summit held in September in September 2000, the leaders of the majority of the countries in the world adopted the UN Millennium Declaration where the promotion of gender equality was determined as one of eight goals. The XXIII Special Session of the UN General Assembly "Women in 2000: Equality Between Men and Women. Development and Peace in XXI century" was dedicated to this issue (June 2000). The Session recommended representatives of the Governments of the participating countries to take measures to ensure women equal access and full participation in all spheres and at all levels of life. The Concept of Gender Policy (hereinafter called the Concept) determines the basic principles, priorities and tasks for gender policy in Kazakhstan. The basic principles of the gender policy are based on the equal rights and freedom for women and men that are guaranteed in the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The gender policy should deal with he following tasks: the achievement of equal participation of women and men in decision-making structures: the realisation of equal opportunities for economic independence, the development of business and career promotion; conditions for equal realization of rights and responsibilities for the family; and freedom from gender based violence. The Concept is based on the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Development Strategy of Kazakhstan to 2030, the National Action Plan on Improvement of Women's Status Kazakhstan, the United Nations Conventions on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women, United Nations Recommendations for its implementation in Kazakhstan and other ratified international agreements. The Concept of Gender Policy in Kazakhstan is designed both for the contemporary period of stabilization of the socio-economic situation with sustainable growth of the national economy (up to 2010) as well as for the long-term perspective (up to 2030). ( excerpt)
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  19. 19
    303285

    Evaluation of the 100% Condom Programme in Thailand. UNAIDS case study.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]; Thailand. Ministry of Public Health. AIDS Division

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2000 Jul. 47 p. (UNAIDS Case Study; UNAIDS/00.18E)

    Thailand was the first Asian nation to recognize that it had a major HIV/AIDS problem, a problem so serious as to deserve priority on the national agenda. While sporadic testing among female sex workers, injecting drug users (IDUs), and men having sex with men detected little HIV through the end of 1987, the rapid growth of HIV infections among IDUs in early 1988 spurred efforts to monitor the epidemic systematically. By mid-1989, a national sentinel serosurveillance system had been established. In the first round of testing in 14 provinces conducted in June 1989, high infection levels were detected among sex workers in the country's northern provinces, especially among sex workers in brothels. By June 1990, with the system expanded to include all 73 provinces, HIV prevalence among brothel-based sex workers had risen from 3.1 per cent in June 1989 to 9.3 per cent nationally (provincial median) and was climbing fast. By June 1991, it had grown to 15.2 per cent. Prevalence was also growing rapidly among young Thai men - who were tested when conscripted into the military at age 21 - from 0.5 per cent in November 1989 to 3.0 per cent in November 1991. Studies of behaviour and HIV infection among these conscripts and other populations soon demonstrated that most new HIV infections in Thailand were occurring through commercial sex. (excerpt)
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  20. 20
    300755

    HIV / AIDS, law and human rights: a handbook for Russian legislators.

    Narkevich MI; Polubinskaya SV

    Moscow, Russia, Transatlantic Partners Against AIDS, 2005. 52 p.

    The purpose of this Handbook is to assist members of the Federation Council and deputies of the State Duma of the Russian Federation, and other Russian officials on the federal and regional levels, in enacting appropriate legislation and legislative reform to address AIDS, whether they be initiatives prohibiting discrimination against PLWHA or members of highly vulnerable groups, laws guaranteeing reliable HIV prevention information for all Russian citizens, or other policy priorities — and ensuring adequate fiscal and other resources to support them. This Handbook provides examples of the best legislative and regulatory practices gathered from around the world. Best practices are given for each of the 12 guidelines contained in the International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights, published in 1998 by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). The Handbook also presents detailed information on the Russian AIDS epidemic with regard to the establishment and implementation of these Guidelines. Most importantly, the Handbook outlines concrete recommendations on measures that legislators can take to protect human rights and promote public health in responding to the epidemic. (author's)
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  21. 21
    287447

    Condemned to death: thanks to the US-led drug war, AIDS is exploding among injection drug users. (Thailand).

    Wolfe D

    Nation. 2004 Apr 26; 278(16):[13] p..

    In addition to the obligatory red ribbons, the logo for the XV international AIDS Conference features three Asian elephants raising their trunks as if in welcome. The world's most important gathering of AIDS specialists will be held this July in Bangkok, a location chosen not only because Asia is thought to be the site of the next big wave of HIV infections but because Thailand is one of only a few developing countries that have thus far seemed able to control them. International experts have hailed Thailand's 100 percent condom program, which in the 1990s distributed some 60 million condoms for free sex establishments, engaged brothel owners and government officials alike to make sure they were used and helped bring down rates of HIV and sexually transmitted infections as much as fourfold. Thailand is also the first developing country to create a functional program to stop mother-to-child HIV transmission, providing free prenatal care and preventive medication to more than three-quarters of pregnant women testing positive for HIV. Last June Kofi Annan's praise of Thailand was one of the few bright spots in an otherwise grim report to the UN General Assembly on lack of global progress against AIDS. (excerpt)
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  22. 22
    296614

    Female circumcision, AIDS discrimination to be monitored - Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women.

    UN Chronicle. 1990 Jun; 27(2):[1] p..

    The eradication of female circumcision and avoidance of discrimination against women victims of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were the subjects of two general recommendations adopted at the ninth annual session of States Parties to the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. The 100 States Parties were asked to report to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women-the 23-member body which monitors compliance with the instrument-on measures taken to eliminate female circumcision which, it stated, has "serious health and other consequences for women and children". (excerpt)
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  23. 23
    296414

    HIV/AIDS awareness in East Timor - Peace Watch - brief article.

    Taylor R

    UN Chronicle. 2002 Sep-Nov; 39(3):[1] p.

    The United Nations has helped launch a HIV/AIDS public awareness campaign in East Timor. The awareness drive will also promote ongoing HIV/AIDS initiatives by the Government, UN agencies and non-governmental organizations. East Timor's Ministry of Health also initiated priority short-term interventions among marginalized youth and sex workers. The stakeholders are now working on an HIV-testing and counselling policy, a national HIV/AIDS situation assessment and a national strategic plan. The Catholic Church has also established a programme aimed at raising awareness through health clinics run by the international NGO Caritas. (excerpt)
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  24. 24
    283982

    Drug use and HIV vulnerability: policy research study in Asia.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]. Asia Pacific Intercountry Team. Regional Task Force on Drug Use and HIV Vulnerability; United Nations International Drug Control Programme [UNDCP]. Regional Centre for East Asia and the Pacific

    Bangkok, Thailand, UNAIDS, Asia Pacific Intercountry Team, 2000 Oct. 236 p.

    Drug use in Asian countries continues to increase and new and ever more hazardous and harmful drug use patterns are continuing to emerge. Many use multiple substances, inject in preference to smoking, ‘chasing’ or snorting, share needles, syringes, drug paraphernalia and drug solutions and preparations indiscriminately, and use alcohol and other psychoactive drugs excessively. These drug use behaviours occur in the context of countries in Asia, which are highly affected by HIV/AIDS. The present study was commissioned by the UNAIDS Asia Pacific Inter-country Team, Bangkok, to follow upon the report ‘Situation Assessment of Injecting Drug use in South East and East Asia in the context of HIV’ which was conducted by the Asian Harm Reduction Network (AHRN) in 1997. The situation assessment indicated that urgent action is needed to reduce the transmission of HIV/AIDS among drug users and their sexual partners. (excerpt)
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  25. 25
    282821

    Responding to questions about the 100% condom use programme: an aid for programme staff.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for the Western Pacific

    Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, STI, HIV and AIDS Focus, 2004. 41 p.

    This document is intended to support the 100% condom use programme (CUP) technical staff to: anticipate the kinds of questions that may be asked about the programme; and, begin to plan the approach and to identify points of information that may help to respond in their settings. Contained in this document are a sample of 25 questions that have, at one point or another, been posed to programme staff about the 100% CUP. Points that might be addressed in a response to these questions are also suggested. (excerpt)
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