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Our families, our friends: an action guide. Mobilize your community for HIV / AIDS prevention and care.
[Bangkok, Thailand], United Nations Development Programme [UNDP], South East Asia HIV and Development Project, 2000. vi, 30 p. (Best Practice Documentation on Community Mobilization for HIV / AIDS: Case of Thailand)Community actions on the prevention and control of AIDS are initiated based on the community’s needs. The community hospital may play an important role in promoting and supporting care for people with HIV/AIDS (PWHA) within their area. In turn, the sustainability of controlling HIV problems in the community is based on the strength of that community. Therefore, building resources within the community should be promoted, so that those concerned understand the problems, provide acceptance to PWHA, and work together to reduce the impact of HIV/AIDS. Religious leaders can play a major role in providing support and encouraging social change towards the acceptance of PWHA. Self-help groups are very important community units, they provide care, psychosocial support and generate income for PWHA. The work plan of activities needs to be flexible, based on the needs of PWHA and their community. This action guide can help people in your community to understand how to help one another and work together for their mutual benefit, now and in the future. (excerpt)
Arlington, Virginia, John Snow, Inc. [JSI], Resources for Child Health Project [REACH], 1987. iii, 33,  p. (USAID Contract No.: DPE-5927-C-00-5068-00)Sudan is one of 8 USAID African child survival emphasis countries. This documents focuses upon linking the discrete areas of child survival to each other in efforts to achieve sustained reductions in national morbidity and mortality rates. The scope of the problem is briefly considered as background in the text, followed by a more in-depth presentation of government policy and programs. This section includes examination of the structure and organization of existing health services, child survival activities, and current progress and constraints. Child survival activities are listed as immunization, control of diarrheal diseases, nutrition, child spacing, malaria control, acute respiratory infections, and AIDS. The current strategy of USAID support for these activities is outlined, and includes mention of private volunteer organization and private sector participation. The role of UNICEF, WHO, and the World Bank in child survival in Sudan is also highlighted. Recommendations for child survival strategy in Sudan are presented and discussed at length in the text. Continued support to UNICEF, cost recovery and health care financing efforts through WHO, child spacing and population program support, and support to on-going USAID projects constitute USAID's priorities and emphasis in child survival strategy for Sudan. Detailed short- and long-term recommendations for immunization, control of diarrheal diseases, nutrition, child spacing, and child survival and health care financing are provided following the section on priorities. In closing, staffing and recommendations for malaria and other endemic disease, acute respiratory infections, AIDS, and management are considered. Appendices follow the main body of text.
BULLETIN OF THE PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION. 1988; 22(4):447-55.To better understand and implement the extensive World Bank study on the financing of health, this limited article was enjoined to discuss salient features of the study and their potential for implementation. With technology for diagnosis and treatment driving health costs up, we are left with still affordable and all around more effective programs on protection and prevention that would be more cost- and health effective in a world where financial health resources are static or being cut back. Health programs and hospitals are generally inefficient with an underutilization of peripheral services. A redesign of integration systems is discussed. 4 policy reforms do, in effect, constitute a positive and feasible agenda. All of these policies will require great political commitment for their unpopularity. 1st, charging users of health services except those truly unable to pay is deemed more just. 2nd, provisions of insurance or other risk coverage (e.g. social security) need expansion. 3rd, effective use of nongovernment resources, the most vague policy reform, is discussed in terms of its implementation. 4th, decentralization of government health services is a prerequisite for achieving significant reform in financing the services. The main point of the World Bank study is active community participation which stops the paternalistic government-mendicant demanding populace pathology that is common today. A special study is suggested which would involve the World Bank and other internal organizations in analyzing the financial and technical support furnished to strengthen, endorse, and empower the reform policies.
The integrated MCH-family planning development project in Mojokerto, East Java: a summary of experiences and results.
Jakarta, Indonesia National Family Planning Coordinating Board, Nov. 1981. 61 p. (Technical Report Series Monograph No. 29.)Discusses the Mojokerto Project in East Java, Indonesia, which was selected as 1 of 4 world-wide areas by the International Maternal and Child Health/Family Planning Program. The project was directed towards the integration of MCG/Family Planning services with other aspects of health, nutrition, immunization, and education, in accordance with the general development of the village communities. Mojokerto was chosen as the project site because it met the preconditions of a sufficiently large rural population, and its health facilities and socioeconomic level make it representative of the larger part of East Java. It was viewed as a development project in which immediate processes such as the delivery system, management, and utilization could be studied. By June 1975 integrated MCH/family planning services were implemented throughout the Mojokerto Regency. Several innovations were introduced in the Project area; among the most important was the establishment of a health subcenter system--a team effort which mobilizes the government staff as well as community leaders. Health and family planning services are brought as close to the people as possible. The strength of the program is the team work of the nurse and the field worker, as well as the mobilization of community organizations such as mothers' clubs. The findings of the Mojokerto Project demonstrate that the integration of health and family planning services is necessary and can be achieved at various levels.
The World Health Organization in encounter with African traditional medicine: theoretical conceptions and practical strategies.
In: Ademuwagun ZA, Ayoade JA, Harrison IE, Warren DM, ed. African therapeutic systems. Waltham, Massachusetts, Crossroads Press, 1979. 182-6.In contrast with other African intergovernmental agencies that equate traditional medicine with medicinal plants, the WHO Regional Bureau in Brazzaville considers it to be a whole medical system with original concepts and practices and a public health resource for the future. The author discusses proposals regarding promotion of African traditional medicine within health policy, offered by WHO at the Regional Committee Session in Kampala in September 1976. The documents presented are critized as being too metaphysical and not practical enough in terms of recommendations for integration of traditional medicine with official health services. However, WHO is seen as far ahead of the Regional Bureau in terms of promoting traditional medicine. (author's modified)
Brazzaville, Congo, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa, 1979. 283 p.From 1965 to 1978, the author made numerous formal addresses in conjunction with his duties as the World Health Organization's (WHO) Regional Director for Africa. The addresses provide a theoretical and practical foundation for the development of a health care strategy and are grouped in sections concerning general policy, ways and means, health services delivery and development, disease control, and training and development of health team personnel. Health development in African nations demands planning for the implementation of health services to meet local community needs and appropriate training and utilization of health care personnel. The ultimate goal of health development is social justice, defined as the proper amount of health care available to all. The benefits will be realized in increased labor productivity and economic development, better quality of life, and self reliance in African nations. To achieve social justice, African nations must abandon foreign concepts of medical care and develop their own solutions to health problems that are realistic for their populations. Through the application of the techniques of scientific management and the development of cooperative international forums, these solutions can be discovered. Planning, aided by the development of information systems, research, and regional cooperation, is vital to assure both curative and preventive health programs are delivered that meet the health services needs of the population. Disease control is important to the economic development of African nations. Preventive action can be realized through planning and organized delivery of health services, including immunization programs, which enhance the population's general health status. Where prevention is not possible, early detection followed by swift response is an objective of effective health services. Training of health care and service personnel should focus on preparing professionals to contribute to the welfare of the community and to African development. The development of the health care team, which encompasses traditional and nontraditional personnel, adequately utilizes available resources and is responsive to both curative and preventive health needs.
The feasibility of establishing a world population institute: report of a United Nations/UNESCO/WHO mission.
N.Y., United Nations, 1971. 69 pAdd to my documents.
New policies for health education in primary health care. Background document for Technical Discussions Thirty-sixth World Health Assembly, 1983.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1983 Feb 25. 32 p. (A36/Technical Discussions/1)The 36th World Health Assembly Technical Discussions, which will focus on "New Policies for Health Education in Primary Health Care," seek to support efforts aimed at promoting community involvement and self-reliance, a greater diversity of objectives in policy making, harmonization of national and local plans, and facilitation of intersectoral action and the use of appropriate technology. As a basis for discussion, a 12-step model of the contribution of health education to primary health care strategy is proposed: 1) the movement starts with the people, 2) verification of whether felt needs reflect community issues is obtained, 3) priorities are dilineated, 4) central support comes into play in plan formulation, 5) implementation and coordination of resources begins, 6) action develops and the technology's appropriateness is evaluated, 7) program effectiveness is evaluated, 8) new needs emerge and unused resources are identified, 9) the cycle for increased involvement and self-reliance develops at another level, 10) the community develops new resources, 11) central and local activities are evaluated, and 12) greater involvement of all sectors fills existing gaps and self-reliance is realized. Health education must be supported by policies which: reflect a commitment to the equitable distribution of resources; provide for its integration at stages of the health care process where people's involvement and increased self-reliance requires additional understanding and skills; stress the need for coordination and an intersectoral approach; assign health education responsibilities to all health workers, teachers, and media personnel; provide an institutional framework and economic and legislative supports for increased individual, family, and community responsibility for health and welfare; and specify clearly the fundamental objective of health education and community involvement, i.e., to help each individual, family member, and community to acheive the harmonious development of their physical, mental, and social potential. Development of skilled manpower trained to introduce the educational dimension, linkages of the mass media to the development process, research on priority areas of input, and collaboration with nongovernmental agencies are essential to this process.
[The strategy of health for all in all its magnitude] Estrategia de salud para todos en toda su magnitud.
Boletin de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana. 1983 Oct; 95(4):361-6.Around 1970, interest in the concept of social justice began to be reflected in analyses of health systems in developing countries, and in the rapid acceptance and popularization of the goal of health for all by the year 2000, to be achieved through primary health care programs providing universal coverage. UN member states can maintain the impulse to provide universal health care by carrying out within their borders the health care policies collectively recommended by the UN General Assembly, aided by the World Health Organization (WHO) which has put aside the paternalistic policies of the past and which now seeks to assist nations in carrying out their own goals. 1 step in assuring that the goals will be met involves continual surveillance of the progress of implementation, which is to be reported in various meetings and conferences at regional levels and at the World Health Assembly in 1984. Identification of problems in implementation should not be interpreted as placing blame, but rather as signalling the need to search for common solutions to them. New principles in the use of WHO aid are that the member governments should assume responsibility for the application in their countries of the jointly agreed upon policies as well as the utilization of WHo resources reserved for that end, that WHO resources be used only for activities compatible with policies defined at the national and international levels; that WHO resources be used to achieve adequate planning and administration of the health infrastructure, with assistance from WHO; that individual countries participate in evaluation of WHO sponsored activities to assure the optimal use of resources; and that countries assume much greater responsibility for the use of WHO resources. Application of the new principles will require a new type of interaction with the various organs and personnel of WHO at different levels. External aid which requires excessive concentration on only 1 aspect of health care, such as immunization or control of some forms of diarrhea, is counterproductive and continues past tendencies to impose health goals and programs from outside.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1982 Dec. xi, 44,  p. (Project SWA/75/P01)The long range objective of this project (1976-1981) was to improve and enhance the health and welfare of mothers and children, especially in rural areas. In assessing Project achievements and the degree to which progress toward the long term objective has been accomplished, the Evaluation Mission found that the immediate objectives had, to a large degree, been met within the general framework of the Ministry of Health's (MOH) development program. Service delivery points in governmental, mission private and industrial/plantation health facilities are now widely distributed throughout Swaziland. The integration of preventive and curative is clearly in place in the rural health clinics and health centers. Analysis of service statistics data indicates that a large % of pregnant women attend antenatal clinics. Family planning services are now offered in 86 clinics with 27,094 clinic attendances recorded for 1981. The pill is the most popular method, followed by condoms, injectables and IUDs. An adequate though incipient health education program is functioning. The MOH strengthened the health infrastructure for, and has in place a program of, maternal child health (MCH) and family planning (FP). The strong points of the program are the government's commitment to MCH/FP, the general strategy, the training component, the number and quality of staff involved in service delivery, the number of service delivery points and the system of recruitment and the employment of Rural Health Motivators (RHM). Weak points, which appear to have hindered a more effective program performance, are planning and management, the lack of solid socio-anthropological knowledge to base, the lack of a focal point for FP, supervision at all levels and the lack of monitoring and evaluation which, if properly undertaken, could have led to changes and adjustments in the program. Future activities supported by the United Nations Fund for Population in the organization and management of family planning activities within the MCH program and within other government and voluntary organizations. UNFPA should help the government prepare a new proposal for UNFPA assistance to family planning activities in the country and should consider supporting supervision and training activities.