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An evidence map of social, behavioural and community engagement interventions for reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 190 p.The Every Woman Every Child (EWEC) Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health (2016-2030) calls for action towards three objectives: Survive (end preventable deaths), Thrive (ensure health and well-being) and Transform (expand enabling environments). The strategy recognizes that “women, children and adolescents are potentially the most powerful agents for improving their own health and achieving prosperous and sustainable societies”. Social, behavioural and community engagement (SBCE) interventions are key to empowering individuals, families and communities to contribute to better health and well-being of women, children and adolescents. Policy-makers and development practitioners need to know which interventions work best. WHO has provided global guidance on some key SBCE interventions, and we recognize there is more work to be done as this will be an area of increasing importance in the era of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the EWEC Global Strategy. This document provides an evidence map of existing research into a set of selected SBCE interventions for reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH), the fruit of a collaboration between the WHO, the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn & Child Health (PMNCH) and the International Initiative for Impact Evaluations (3ie), supported by other partners. It represents an important way forward in this area, harnessing technical expertise, and academia to strengthen knowledge about the evidence base. The evidence map provides a starting point for making available existing research into the effectiveness of RMNCH SBCE interventions, a first step toward providing evidence for decision-making. It will enable better use of existing knowledge and pinpoint where new research investments can have the greatest impact. An online platform that complements the report provides visualization of the findings, displaying research concentrations and gaps.
Cervical cancer screening and management of cervical pre-cancers. Training of community health workers.
New Delhi, India, WHO, Regional Office for South-East Asia, 2017. 92 p.The training manual is designed to assist in building capacity of community health workers (CHWs) in educating women and community members on relevant aspects of cervical cancer prevention. The manual aims to facilitate improvement in communication skills of CHWs for promoting uptake of cervical cancer screening services in the community. The primary intention of this manual is to assist CHWs in spreading community awareness on cervical cancer prevention and establishing linkage between the community and available screening services. The information and instructions included in the manual can be used by both the facilitators and CHWs while participating in the training. The manual contains nine different sessions to assist CHWs to be acquainted with different aspects of cervical cancer prevention at the community level with focus on improving their communication skills. Each session contains key information in ‘question and answer’ format written in simple language so that CHWs can comprehend the contents better. At the end of each session, there are group activities like role plays, group discussion and games for active learning. These are intended to give opportunity to CHWs to learn by interacting with each other and also relate themselves with their roles and responsibilities at the community level. The manual includes ‘notes to the facilitator’ on how to conduct various sessions as per the given session plan. A set of ‘Frequently Asked Questions’ has been included to help the CHWs provide appropriate information to women and community members.
The effectiveness of the WHO training course on complementary feeding counseling in a primary care setting, Ismailia, Egypt.
Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association. 2014 Apr; 89(1):1-8.BACKGROUND: The adequacy and timing of complementary feeding of the breastfed child are critical for optimal child growth and development.Considerable efforts have been made to improve complementary feeding in the first 2 years of life. One of them was the WHO complementary feeding counseling course (CFC). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of the WHO CFC on knowledge and counseling abilities of primary healthcare physicians; on caretaker's knowledge and adherence to physicians' recommendations and their feeding practices; and on children's growth. PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: A single-blinded randomized-controlled study was carried out in 40 primary healthcare centers divided into matched pairs according to their location, either in rural or urban areas, and training of the selected physicians on integrated management of childhood illness. One center from each pair was selected randomly for its physician to receive CFC training in nutrition counseling and the matched center was selected as a control. Forty primary healthcare center physicians and 480 mother-child (6-18 months) pairs were included in the study. The mother-child pairs recruited were visited at home within 2 weeks, 90, and 180 days after the initial consultation with trained health workers. Special questionnaires were used to collect information on healthcare providers' knowledge of nutrition counseling and practice (counseling skills); maternal knowledge of basic nutrition-counseling recommendations, maternal compliance with the recommended feeding practice; child dietary intake; and gains in weight and length. RESULTS: CFC-trained physicians were more likely to engage in nutrition counseling and to deliver more appropriate advice. This was reflected in improvements in maternal recall of complementary feeding messages, which were higher in the intervention group compared with the control group. Six months after the consultation, children in the intervention group had significantly greater weight gains compared with the control group (0.96 vs. 0.78 kg; P=0.038). Children in the intervention group, who were 12-18 months of age at the time of recruitment, had significantly less faltering in length gain compared with the control group (height/age Z-score; 0.23 vs. 0.04; P=0.004). CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Nutrition counseling training improved counseling abilities of primary healthcare physicians and led to improvements in mothers' knowledge and practices of complementary feeding. In turn, this led to improved growth of children. We recommend wide and regular utilization of the CFC course to improve the knowledge and skills of health workers who provide counseling to mothers for complementary feeding.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2014.  p.This publication, Comprehensive cervical cancer control: a guide to essential practice (C4GEP), gives a broad vision of what a comprehensive approach to cervical cancer prevention and control means. In particular, it outlines the complementary strategies for comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control, and highlights the need for collaboration across programmes, organizations and partners. This new guide updates the 2006 edition and includes the recent promising developments in technologies and strategies that can address the gaps between the needs for and availability of services for cervical cancer prevention and control.
MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2015 Feb 20; New Delhi, India, WHO, Regional Office for South-East Asia, 2015. 64(6):137-140.  p.The overall objective of the strategic framework for comprehensive control of cancer cervix in South-East Asia is to guide and assist Member States to develop or strengthen national strategies to improve cervical cancer control activities; to reduce the burden of morbidity, disability and death from cervical cancer; and, to promote women’s health. The specific objectives of the framework are to help countries to prepare country-specific protocols to: 1. Introduce or scale up delivery of HPV vaccine to girls aged 9 to 13 years through a coordinated multisectoral approach involving national immunization, cancer control, reproductive and adolescent health programmes. 2. Implement or scale up organized cervical cancer screening programmes utilizing evidence-based, cost-effective interventions through effective service delivery strategies across the different levels of health care. 3. Strengthen health systems to ensure equitable access to cervical cancer screening services for all eligible women, with particular attention to socioeconomically disadvantaged population groups. 4. Augment management facilities for invasive cancer cervix and introduce palliative care services into the health system as part of a comprehensive cancer control programme. 5. Encourage / create convergence with related health programmes to ensure a coordinated and operationally feasible approach for cervical cancer control within the health system. 6. Initiate / augment a structured and coordinated advocacy and educational campaign so that the benefits of cervical cancer control are universally available and accessible. The framework discusses the determinants of a successful and organized screening programme, and feasible options that the countries can adopt. It recommends that cervical cancer screening services should be organized as a functional continuity across different levels of health-care delivery, from community to first-level health centres and to referral hospitals, so as to ensure high coverage of the target population and linkage between screening and treatment. Augmentation of cancer treatment services and improving palliative care are also crucial components of cervical cancer control that are discussed in the framework. (Excerpts)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2013.  p. (WHO Guidance Note)This WHO Guidance Note advocates for a comprehensive approach to prevention and control of cervical cancer and is aimed at senior policymakers and program managers. It describes the need to deliver effective interventions across the female lifespan. These interventions include community education; social mobilization; HPV vaccination; and cancer screening, treatment, and palliative care. The document outlines complementary strategies for comprehensive prevention and control, and it highlights collaboration across national health programs (particularly immunization, reproductive health, cancer control and adolescent health), organizations, and partners.
Paris, France, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization [UNESCO], 2012. 158 p.The education sector has a significant role to play in the response to HIV and AIDS. The sector can help to prevent the spread of HIV through education, and, in countries that are highly affected by HIV, by taking steps to protect itself from the effects of the epidemic. It can also make a significant contribution by supporting health improvement more generally and by helping to improve the sexual and reproductive health of young people in particular.This framework is designed to help those working in the education sector at a national level to understand the need for a robust response to HIV and AIDS in order to achieve Education for All (EFA) and the education-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The document also highlights the education sector’s role in contributing to universal access to HIV and AIDS prevention, treatment, care and support.
Third World Quarterly. 2011; 32(3):435-52.Governments, UN agencies and international and local NGOs have mounted a concerted effort to remobilise sport as a vehicle for broad, sustainable social development. This resonates with the call for sport to be a key component in national and international development objectives. Missing in these efforts is an explicit focus on physical education within state schools, which still enroll most children in the global South. This article focuses on research into one of the few instances where physical education within the national curriculum is being revitalised as part of the growing interest in leveraging the appeal of sport and play as means to address social development challenges such as HIV/AIDS. It examines the response to the Zambian government's 2006 Declaration of Mandatory Physical Education (with a preventive education focus on HIV/AIDS) by personnel charged with its implementation and illustrates weaknesses within the education sector. The use of policy instruments such as decrees/mandates helps ensure the mainstreaming of physical education in development. However, the urgency required to respond to new mandates, particularly those sanctioned by the highest levels of government, can result in critical pieces of the puzzle being ignored, thereby undermining the potential of physical education (and sport) within development.
Journal of Child Health Care. 2010 Jun; 14(2):142-50.The aims of the study were to find out the routine immunization coverage in under-five children; and to impart correct health education regarding the importance of complete immunization. This hospital- and outreach-session-based cross-sectional study was carried out by the interview method in two underserved areas of Aligarh city. Two thousand five hundred and thirty-one under-five children and their mothers or family members were included in the population sample. Statistical analysis was done by proportions and chi-square test. In Shahjamal area, a maximum 86.5 percent of children were immunized with DPT, OPV (86.5%) first doses followed by BCG (84.9%). DPT and OPV second and third doses were given in 64.5 percent and 54.8 percent respectively. Measles and DPT booster coverage was low at 39.0 percent and 11.4 percent respectively. Similarly, in Bhojpura, 99 percent of children received DPT and OPV first doses followed by BCG (94.1%). DPT and OPV second and third doses were given in 67.7 percent and 47.4 percent of children respectively. Measles and DPT booster coverage was low as 31.9 percent and 6.7 percent respectively. The results reveal high coverage of DPT1, OPV1, BCG, DPT2 and OPV2 in both areas. Immunization services need to be strengthened beyond infancy.
Synthetic evaluation of the effect of health promotion: impact of a UNICEF project in 40 poor western counties of China.
Public Health. 2010 Jul; 124(7):376-91.OBJECTIVE: To synthetically evaluate the effects of a health promotion project launched by the Ministry of Health of China and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) in 40 poor western counties of China. STUDY DESIGN: The two surveys were cross-sectional studies. Stratified multistage random sampling was used to recruit subjects. METHODS: Data were collected through two surveys conducted in the 40 'UNICEF project counties' in 1999 and 2000. After categorizing the 27 evaluation indicators into four aspects, a hybrid of the Analytic Hierarchy Process, the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution, and linear weighting were used to analyse the changes. The 40 counties were classified into three different levels according to differences in the synthetic indicator derived. Comparing the synthetic evaluation indicators of these two surveys, issues for implementation of the project were identified and discussed. RESULTS: The values of the synthetic indicators were significantly higher in 2000 than in 1999 (P=0.02); this indicated that the projects were effective. Among the 40 counties, 11 counties were at a higher level in 2000, 10 counties were at a lower level, and others were in the middle level. Comparative analysis showed that 36% of village clinics were not licensed to practice medicine, nearly 50% of village clinics had no records of medicine purchases, nearly 20% of village clinics had no pressure cooker for disinfection, and 20% of pregnant women did not receive any prenatal care. CONCLUSIONS: The health promotion projects in the 40 counties were effective. Health management, medical treatment conditions, maternal health and child health care have improved to some extent. However, much remains to be done to improve health care in these 40 poor counties. The findings of this study can help decision makers to improve the implementation of such improvements. Copyright 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. All rights reserved.
New York, New York, Center for Reproductive Rights, 2008. 7 p.This document discusses governments’ obligation under international human rights law to provide school-based sexuality education that is scientifically accurate and objective and free of prejudice and discrimination.
Paris, France, UNESCO, Education Sector, Division for the Coordination of UN Priorities in Education, Section on HIV and AIDS, 2008 Jan. 27 p.The EDUCAIDS Framework for Action: 1) Articulates what is EDUCAIDS; 2) Outlines components of a comprehensive education sector response; 3) Proposes methods to plan and proritise actions, improve coordination and build partnerships among key education sector stakeholders; and 4) Provides an overview of implementation support tools. This version of the EDUCAIDS Framework for Action is an update of the previous version, taking into account feedback from recent regional and sub-regional meetings and workshops involving 39 countries.
MJAFI. Medical Journal Armed Froces India. 2008; 64(1):57-60.World Health Organization (WHO) estimates 1.7-2.5 million deaths and 300-500 million cases of malaria each year globally. As an initiative WHO has announced Roll Back Malaria (RBM) programme aimed at 50% reduction in deaths due to malaria by 2010. The RBM strategy recommends combination approach with prevention, care, creating sustainable demand for insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and efficacious antimalarials in order to achieve sustainable malaria control. Malaria control in India has travelled a long way from National Malaria Control Programme launched in 1953 to National Vector Borne Diseases Control Programme in 2003. In India, the malaria eradication concept was based on indoor residual spraying to interrupt transmission and mop up cases by vigilance. This programme was successful in reducing the malaria cases from 75 million in 1953 to 2 million but subsequently resulted in vector and parasite resistance as well as increase in P falciparum from 30-48%. In view of rapidly growing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to conventional monotherapies and its spread in newer areas, the programme was modified with inclusion of RBM interventions and revision of treatment guidelines for malaria. Early case detection and prompt treatment, selective vector control, promotion of personal protective measures including ITNs and information, education, communication to achieve wider community participation will be the key interventions in the revised programme. (author's)
Paris, France, UNESCO, Education Sector, Division for the Coordination of UN Priorities in Education, Section on HIV and AIDS, 2007. 83 p. (ED-2006/WS/43)The purpose of this publication is to share UNESCO's experience and our thinking behind a number of projects that have sought to address the needs of some of the disadvantaged and in particular those impacted by drug misuse. The experience of these projects demonstrates key factors that impinge progress towards social inclusion: homelessness; unemployment; discrimination and stigma; low levels of education; health inequalities; crime and violence. (excerpt)
Acta Paediatrica. 2007 Aug; 96(8):1135-1138.The objectives were to evaluate the effectiveness of the World Health Organization (WHO) Essential Newborn Care (ENC) course in improving knowledge and skills of nurse midwives in low-risk delivery clinics in a developing country. The investigators identified the content specifications of the training material, developed both written and performance evaluations and administered the evaluations both before and after training clinical nurse midwives in Zambia. Based on these evaluations, both the knowledge and skills of the nurse midwives improved significantly following the course (from a mean of 65% correct pretraining to 84% correct post-training and from 65% to 77% correct on the performance and written evaluations, respectively). The ENC course written evaluation was validated and both tools allowed evaluation of the ENC course training. We found significant improvements in trainees' knowledge and skills in essential newborn care following the WHO ENC course; however, lack of basic resources may have limited the application of the ENC guidelines. Implementation of the ENC course should be undertaken in consideration with the local conditions available for newborn care. (author's)
WHO global strategy for the prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections: Time for action.
Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2007; 83:508-509.Worldwide, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Global estimates suggest that more than 340 million new cases of syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydial infection and trichomoniasis occurred throughout the world in 1999. Congenital syphilis, prevention of which is relatively easy and cost-effective, may still be responsible for as many as 14% of neonatal deaths. Up to 10% of those women who are untreated, or inadequately treated, for chlamydial and gonococcal infections may become infertile as a consequence. On a global scale, up to 4000 newborn babies each year may become blind because of gonococcal and chlamydial ophthalmia neonatorum. There is evidence that STIs may enhance both the transmission and acquisition of HIV infection, and that improved control of STIs may slow down HIV transmission. The prevention and control of STIs is not an easy task. Epidemiological patterns of STIs vary geographically and are influenced by cultural, political, economical and social forces. Many affected by STIs are in marginalised vulnerable groups. The asymptomatic nature of some STIs remains a challenge to healthcare providers in areas of the world where laboratory screening tests are unaffordable. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2007.  p.Congress participants recognized a need to think further about what successful change looks like, in terms of both what is seen to be a success and what is considered to be good change. Reconsidering the nature of change is an increasingly pressing need in a development context that is increasingly driven by top-down global indicators of success and uniform measures of development. Communication for Development is not the miracle cure. It must not overlook the real politics and structural and power issues, which need to be addressed. The Congress showcased many examples of successful Communication for Development but recognized that there is inadequate documentation of these successes. The many voices at the Congress were evidence of just how far Communication for Development has come in 40 years and of the variety of people now working in this field from all over the world. "This Congress has given us confidence that we are not alone in our profession," said one participant. The words of some of its original founders still ring true: "The core of all development is empowerment, and the key to empowerment is communication" (Donald Snowden, Fogo Process activist). The next stage is for Congress participants to use the ideas gleaned during the three days to make this a reality in the world in which they work. (excerpt)
Youth Development Notes. 2006 Nov; 2(1):1-4.Young people are at the heart of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Not only are they disproportionately represented in terms of new infections, but they are also key to overcoming the disease. Effective HIV prevention efforts that focus on youth are crucial to reversing the pandemic. The World Bank is one of the largest official financiers of HIV/AIDS programs in the world, with over $2.7 billion committed for HIV/AIDS prevention, care, support and treatment since 1988. A recent review of Bank projects related to HIV/AIDS (1999-2004) reveals that over 40% include specific youth components, and virtually all include youth as a target group. This note summarizes the growing body of evidence of what works to prevent HIV/AIDS among youth in developing countries. (excerpt)
London, England, International Community of Women Living with HIV / AIDS, 2006.  p.Namibia, Kenya and Tanzania. The findings will contribute to advocacy for increased political support and resources to address gendered barriers to care, treatment and support. The project complements a mapping and database of civil society organizations (CSOs) providing treatment by the French consortium - SIDACTION. The research was carried out in Homabay (rural) and Kibera community (urban) involving women and men living with HIV and AIDS (13th December 2005 - 31st January 2006). Data was gathered through questionnaires and focus group discussions (FGDs). Women who participated in the focus group discussions were aged between 22 - 45 years old and in total 100 people took part in the project, including questionnaire respondents. The service providers in both sites were of varied age group (28-45 years) and both female and male service providers participated in the focus group discussions. Results from the mixed sex and service provider focus groups are presented here but the main emphasis is onthe results from the women only focus groups. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2006.  p.Even though children living with HIV/AIDS respond very well to treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART), to date few children living with HIV/AIDS have access to ART mostly due to a lack of cheap feasible diagnostic tests for infants, lack of affordable child-friendly ARV drugs and lack of trained health personnel. This course aims to address the issue of lack of trained personnel. With an ever increasing burden of HIV and a high percentage of children infected, health workers urgently require accurate, up to date training and information on assessment and management of HIV in children. The IMCI complementary course on HIV is designed to assist health workers to assess, classify, treat and follow up HIV exposed infants and children, to identify the role of family and community in caring for the child with HIV/AIDS and also to enhance health workers' skills in counseling of caretakers around HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2006. 11 p.The Code is a set of recommendations to regulate the marketing of breast-milk substitutes, feeding bottles and teats. The Code was formulated in response to the realization that poor infant feeding practices were negatively affecting the growth, health and development of children, and were a major cause of mortality in infants and young children. Poor infant feeding practices therefore were a serious obstacle to social and economic development. The 34th session of the World Health Assembly (WHA) adopted the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes in 1981 as a minimum requirement to protect and promote appropriate infant and young child feeding. The Code aims to contribute "to the provision of safe and adequate nutrition for infants, by the protection and promotion of breastfeeding, and by ensuring the proper use of breast-milk substitutes, when these are necessary, on the basis of adequate information and through appropriate marketing and distribution". The Code advocates that babies be breastfed. If babies are not breastfed, for whatever reason, the Code also advocates that they be fed safely on the best available nutritional alternative. Breast-milk substitutes should be available when needed, but not be promoted. The Code was adopted through a WHA resolution and represents an expression of the collective will of governments to ensure the protection and promotion of optimal feeding for infants and young children. (excerpt)
From microfinance to macro change: integrating health education and microfinance to empower women and reduce poverty.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2006. 26 p.This document is a call to action for development agencies, governments, MFIs and donors that are committed to finding practical strategies to fulfill the shared vision for human development. Built upon the backbone of a poverty alleviation mechanism already reaching more than 66.6 million of the world's poorest families, the proposed strategy calls for combining reproductive health education with microfinance services in developing countries. The first section of the document acknowledges and reviews the intimate link between poverty, poor health outcomes and inequality. The next section presents microfinance as an effective poverty reduction strategy and reviews the evidence for its impact on poverty as well as its broader impacts. The third section proposes microfinance as a vehicle for improving reproductive health outcomes, HIV prevention and women's empowerment by combining health education with microfinance programs. Summaries of case study institutions in Bolivia that are already employingthis strategy are presented, along with evidence of the impact of combined microfinance and health education services. Finally, recommendations for action are made to development agencies, governments, MFIs and donors to promote and expand this essential strategy. (excerpt)
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2006 May. 24 p. (Good Policy and Practice in HIV and AIDS and Education Booklet No. 1; ED-2006/WS/2; cld 26002)HIV and AIDS affect the demand for, supply and quality of education. In some countries, the epidemic is reducing demand for education, as children become sick or are taken out of school and as fewer households are financially able to support their children?s education. However, it is difficult to generalize about the impact of HIV and AIDS on educational demand and important not to make assumptions about declining enrolments. Lack of accurate data on this question is a problem. For example, in Botswana absenteeism rates are relatively low in primary schools and there is some evidence to show that orphans have better attendance records than non-orphans. In Malawi and Uganda, where absenteeism is high among all primary school age students, there is less difference in school attendance between orphans and non-orphans than expected . (excerpt)
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Address on the occasion of the Information Meeting with Permanent Delegates on HIV and AIDS, UNESCO, 9 May 2006.
[Unpublished] 2006. 5 p. (DG/2006/067)It is a pleasure to welcome you here for an update on UNESCO?s role, aims and programme regarding HIV and AIDS. The last time we held an information session was almost exactly one year ago, when Dr Peter Piot, the Executive Director of UNAIDS, was with us. I am particularly pleased that Ms Cristina Owen-Jones, UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador for HIV and AIDS Prevention Education, has joined with us today for this meeting. I greatly appreciate her work on UNESCO?s behalf and the valuable advice and support she provides in this area. I would like to begin by saying that the past year has been an extremely busy time, with significantly increased global efforts against the terrible AIDS epidemic. And this is very welcome since we have absolutely no time to waste. AIDS is recognized as one of the most serious threats to global stability and progress. Adult HIV prevalence has reached 40% in parts of Southern Africa, and the virus is spreading rapidly in West and Central Africa, Eastern Europe, China, India, Latin America and the Caribbean. The impact of AIDS is also amplified because the disease mainly strikes adults, particularly young adults, who drive economic growth and raise the next generation of society. Close to 40 million people are estimated to be living with HIV, with women accounting for over half of HIV-positive persons in sub-Saharan Africa. Globally, AIDS is responsible for the deaths of more than 20 million children, women and men, 3 million in the last year alone. (excerpt)
Expanding the field of inquiry: a cross-country study of higher education institutions' responses to HIV and AIDS.
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2006 Mar. 73 p. (ED-2006/WS/25; CLD 27584)This report compares, analyses, and summarises findings from twelve case studies commissioned by the United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in higher education institutions in Brazil, Burkina Faso, China, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Lebanon, Lesotho, Suriname, Thailand, and Viet Nam. It aims to deepen the understanding of the impact of HIV and AIDS on tertiary institutions and the institutional response to the epidemic in different social and cultural contexts, at varying stages of the epidemic, and in different regions of the world. The overall objective is to identify relevant and appropriate actions that higher education institutions worldwide can take to prevent the further spread of HIV, to manage the impact of HIV and AIDS on the higher education sector, and to mitigate the effects of HIV and AIDS on individuals, campuses, and communities. Specific focus includes: Institutional HIV and AIDS policies and plans; Leadership on HIV and AIDS; Education related to HIV and AIDS (including pre- and in-service training, formal and nonformal education); HIV and AIDS research; Partnerships and networks; HIV and AIDS programmes and services; and Community outreach. (excerpt)