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Engaging young people for health and sustainable development. Strategic opportunities for the World Health Organization and partners.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2018. 72 p. (WHO/CDS/TB/2018.22)This report builds on WHO’s long-standing work on young people’s health and rights, including the Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health (2016-2030), the Global Accelerated Action for the Health of Adolescents (AA-HA!) guidance, and contribution to the new UN Youth Strategy. It was developed as part of the roadmap towards the development of a WHO strategy for engaging young people and young professionals. The world today has the largest generation of young people in history with 1.8 billion between the ages of 10 and 24 years. Many of them already are driving transformative change, and many more are poised to do so, but lack the opportunity and means. This cohort represents a powerhouse of human potential that could transform health and sustainable development. A priority is to ensure that no young person is left behind and all can realize their right to health equitably and without discrimination or hindrance. This force for change represents an unparalleled opportunity for the WHO and partners to transform the way they engage with young people, including to achieve the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This report describes strategic opportunities to meaningfully engage young people in transforming health and sustainable development. This will mean providing opportunities for young people’s leadership and for their engagement with national, regional and global programmes.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2018. 91 p.he Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals 2018 is a visual guide to the trends, challenges and measurement issues related to each of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. The Atlas features maps and data visualizations, primarily drawn from World Development Indicators (WDI) - the World Bank’s compilation of internationally comparable statistics about global development and the quality of people’s lives. Given the breadth and scope of the SDGs, the editors have been selective, emphasizing issues considered important by experts in the World Bank’s Global Practices and Cross Cutting Solution Areas. Nevertheless, The Atlas aims to reflect the breadth of the Goals themselves and presents national and regional trends and snapshots of progress towards the UN’s seventeen Sustainable Development Goals related to: poverty, hunger, health, education, gender, water, energy, jobs, infrastructure, inequalities, cities, consumption, climate, oceans, the environment, peace, institutions, and partnerships.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2018. 100 p.The World Health Statistics series is WHO’s annual snapshot of the state of the world’s health. This 2018 edition contains the latest available data for 36 health-related Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) indicators. It also links to the three SDG-aligned strategic priorities of the WHO’s 13th General Programme of Work: achieving universal health coverage, addressing health emergencies and promoting healthier populations.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 184 p. (Interactive Visualization of Health Data)In order to reduce health inequalities and identify priority areas for action to move towards universal health coverage, governments first need to understand the magnitude and scope of inequality in their countries. From April 2016 to October 2017, the Indonesian Ministry of Health, WHO, and a network of stakeholders assessed country-wide health inequalities in 11 areas, such as maternal and child health, immunization coverage and availability of health facilities. A key output of the monitoring work is a new report called State of health inequality: Indonesia, the first WHO report to provide a comprehensive assessment of health inequalities in a Member State. The report summarizes data from more than 50 health indicators and disaggregates it by dimensions of inequality, such as household economic status, education level, place of residence, age or sex. This report showcases the state of inequality in Indonesia, drawing from the latest available data across 11 health topics (53 health indicators), and eight dimensions of inequality. In addition to quantifying the magnitude of health inequality, the report provides background information for each health topic, and discusses priority areas for action and policy implications of the findings. Indicator profiles illustrate disaggregated data by all applicable dimensions of inequality, and electronic data visuals facilitate interactive exploration of the data. This report was prepared as part of a capacity-building process, which brought together a diverse network of stakeholders committed to strengthening health inequality monitoring in Indonesia. The report aims to raise awareness about health inequalities in Indonesia, and encourage action across sectors. The report finds that the state of health and access to health services varies throughout Indonesia and identifies a number of areas where action needs to be taken. These include, amongst others: improving exclusive breastfeeding and childhood nutrition; increasing equity in antenatal care coverage and births attended by skilled health personnel; reducing high rates of smoking among males; providing mental health treatment and services across income levels; and reducing inequalities in access to improved water and sanitation. In addition, the availability of health personnel, especially dentists and midwives, is insufficient in many of the country’s health centres. Now the country is using these findings to work across sectors to develop specific policy recommendations and programmes, such as the mobile health initiative in Senen, to tackle the inequalities that have been identified.
Who pays for cooperation in global health? A comparative analysis of WHO, the World Bank, the Global Fund to Fight HIV / AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance.
Lancet. 2017; 390:324-332.In this report we assess who pays for cooperation in global health through an analysis of the financial flows of WHO, the World Bank, the Global Fund to Fight HIV / AIDS, TB and Malaria, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. The past few decades have seen the consolidation of influence in the disproportionate roles the USA, UK, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation have had in financing three of these four institutions. Current financing flows in all four case study institutions allow donors to finance and deliver assistance in ways that they can more closely control and monitor at every stage. We highlight three major trends in global health governance more broadly that relate to this development: towards more discretionary funding and away from core or longer-term funding; towards defined multi-stakeholder governance and away from traditional government-centred representation and decision-making; and towards narrower mandates or problem-focused vertical initiatives and away from broader systemic goals.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO , 2017. 116 p.The World Health Statistics series is WHO’s annual compilation of health statistics for its 194 Member States. World Health Statistics 2017 compiles data on 21 health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) targets, with 35 indicators, as well as data on life expectancy. This edition also includes, for the first time, success stories from several countries that are making progress towards the health-related SDG targets.
Washington, D.C., International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank, 2017. 131 p.The Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals 2017 uses maps, charts and analysis to illustrate, trends, challenges and measurement issues related to each of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. The Atlas primarily draws on World Development Indicators (WDI) - the World Bank's compilation of internationally comparable statistics about global development and the quality of people's lives Given the breadth and scope of the SDGs, the editors have been selective, emphasizing issues considered important by experts in the World Bank's Global Practices and Cross Cutting Solution Areas. Nevertheless, The Atlas aims to reflect the breadth of the Goals themselves and presents national and regional trends and snapshots of progress towards the UN's seventeen Sustainable Development Goals: poverty, hunger, health, education, gender, water, energy, jobs, infrastructure, inequalities, cities, consumption, climate, oceans, the environment, peace, institutions, and partnerships. Between 1990 and 2013, nearly one billion people were raised out of extreme poverty. Its elimination is now a realistic prospect, although this will require both sustained growth and reduced inequality. Even then, gender inequalities continue to hold back human potential. Undernourishment and stunting have nearly halved since 1990, despite increasing food loss, while the burden of infectious disease has also declined. Access to water has expanded, but progress on sanitation has been slower. For too many people, access to healthcare and education still depends on personal financial means. To date the environmental cost of growth has been high. Accumulated damage to oceanic and terrestrial ecosystems is considerable. But hopeful signs exist: while greenhouse gas emissions are at record levels, so too is renewable energy investment. While physical infrastructure continues to expand, so too does population, so that urban housing and rural access to roads remain a challenge, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Meanwhile the institutional infrastructure of development strengthens, with more reliable government budgeting and foreign direct investment recovering from a post-financial crisis decline. Official development assistance, however, continues to fall short of target levels.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2016.  p.This pocket guide is a quick reference for users interested in gender statistics. The book presents gender-disaggregated data for more than 200 economies in an easy country-by-country reference on demography, education, health, labor force, political participation and the Millennium Development Goals. The book’s summary pages cover regional and income group aggregates.
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2016 May.  p. (TR-16-128; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)This document offers concrete guidance on how organizations can comprehensively and explicitly integrate gender in their monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems. It describes how to make each component of a functioning M&E system gender-sensitive and provides guidance on how to assess an M&E system to ensure that gender is fully integrated throughout the system for appropriate collection, compilation, analysis, dissemination, and use of gender data for decision making. This document outlines why it is important to apply a gender lens to M&E processes and structures and contextualizes gender in an M&E system. It then walks you through how to think about gender and address it in each of the components of an M&E system. This guide includes examples of gender-specific assessment questions that can be integrated in an M&E system assessment and provides guidance on how to plan and conduct an M&E system assessment. This guidance document is intended for national health program and M&E managers, subnational health program staff with M&E responsibilities, M&E officers from different agencies or organizations, and development partners who provide M&E support to national and subnational M&E systems.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO , 2016.  p.The World Health Statistics series is WHO’s annual compilation of health statistics for its 194 Member States. World Health Statistics 2016 focuses on the proposed health and health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and associated targets. It represents an initial effort to bring together available data on SDG health and health-related indicators. In the current absence of official goal-level indicators, summary measures of health such as (healthy) life expectancy are used to provide a general assessment of the situation.
London, United Kingdom, Save the Children, 2016.  p.The Millennium Development Goals were a crucial starting point in galvanising international support for poverty reduction and illustrate the role international frameworks can play in driving national policy change. The Sustainable Development Goals -- if implemented enthusiastically and effectively -- will help us finish the job and ensure that no one is left behind. “From Agreement to Action” provides guidance and recommendations for governments, international actors and other stakeholders as they develop their implementation plans, and identifies five areas of action.
[Washington, D,.C.], World Bank, 2015 Jun.  p.The Roadmap articulates a shared strategic approach to support effective measurement and accountability systems for a country’s health programs. The Roadmap outlines smart investments that countries can adopt to strengthen basic measurement systems and to align partners and donors around common priorities. It offers a platform for development partners, technical experts, implementers, civil society organizations, and decision makers to work together for health measurement in the post-2015 era. Using inputs and technical papers developed by experts from international and national institutions, the Roadmap was completed following a public consultation that received extensive contributions from a wide number of agencies and individuals from across the globe. (Excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2015.  p.World Health Statistics 2015 contains WHO’s annual compilation of health-related data for its 194 Member States, and includes a summary of the progress made towards achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and associated targets. WHO presents World Health Statistics 2015 as an integral part of its ongoing efforts to provide enhanced access to comparable high-quality statistics on core measures of population health and national health systems.
Monitoring health inequality: an essential step for achieving health equity. Illustrations of fundamental concepts.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2014.  p. (WHO/FWC/GER/2014.1)This booklet communicates fundamental concepts about the importance of health inequality monitoring, using text, figures, maps and videos. Following a brief summary of main messages, four general principles pertaining to health inequalities are highlighted: 1. Health inequalities are widespread; 2. Health inequality is multidimensional; 3. Benchmarking puts changes in inequality in context; and 4.Health inequalities inform policy. Each of the four principles is accompanied by figures or maps that illustrate the concept, a question that is posed as an extension and application of the material, and a link to a video, demonstrating the use of interactive visuals to answer the question. The videos are accessible online by scanning a QR code (a URL is also provided). The next section of the booklet outlines essential steps forward for achieving health equity, including the strengthening and equity orientation of health information systems through data collection, data analysis and reporting practices. The use of visualization technologies as a tool to present data about health inequality is promoted, accompanied by a link to a video demonstrating how health inequality data can be presented interactively. Finally, the booklet announces the upcoming State of inequality report, and refers readers to the Health Equity Monitor homepage on the WHO Global Health Observatory.
The African Development Bank, structural adjustment, and child mortality: a cross-national analysis of Sub-Saharan Africa.
International Journal of Health Services. 2013; 43(2):337-61.We conduct a cross-national analysis to test the hypothesis that African Development Bank (AfDB) structural adjustment adversely impacts child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. We use generalized least square random effects regression models and two-step Heckman models that correct for selection bias using data on 35 nations with up to four time points (1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005). We find substantial support for our hypothesis, which indicates that Sub-Saharan African nations that receive an AfDB structural adjustment loan tend to have higher levels of child mortality than Sub-Saharan African nations that do not receive such a loan. This finding remains stable even when controlling for selection bias on whether or not a Sub-Saharan African nation receives an AfDB structural adjustment loan. We conclude by discussing the methodological implications of the article, policy suggestions, and possible directions for future research.
[Washington, D.C.], Center for Global Development, 2013 Aug.  p. (Center for Global Development Essay)In 2000, the UN General Assembly endorsed the Millennium Declaration, a statement that provided the source and inspiration for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The effects of the declaration -- and the MDGs - -are difficult to measure, but it certainly framed important global discussions about development. In 2015, the UN’s world leaders will likely agree to a new set of goals to follow the Millennium Declaration. In this essay, Charles Kenny proposes that -- instead of getting bogged down hammering out details of how to measure progress -- the UN craft a new consensus statement to replace the Millennium Declaration. Kenny proposes such a statement in the pages that follow and provides commentary in the margins.
A life of dignity for all: Accelerating progress towards the Millennium Development Goals and advancing the United Nations development agenda beyond 2015. Report of the Secretary-General.
[New York, New York], United Nations, 2013 Jul 26.  p. (A/68/202)The present report is submitted pursuant to General Assembly resolution 65/1, in which the Assembly requested the Secretary-General to report annually on progress in the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals until 2015 and to make recommendations for further steps to advance the United Nations development agenda beyond 2015. Renewed efforts are essential for achieving the Millennium Development Goals by the end of 2015. While providing an assessment of progress to date, the report also identifies policies and programmes that have driven success in the achievement of the Goals and can contribute to accelerating it. These include emphasizing inclusive growth, decent employment and social protection; allocating more resources for essential services and ensuring access for all; strengthening political will and improving the international policy environment; and harnessing the power of multi-stakeholder partnerships. A new post-2015 era demands a new vision and a responsive framework. Sustainable development -- enabled by the integration of economic growth, social justice and environmental stewardship -- must become our global guiding principle and operational standard. This is a universal agenda that requires profound economic transformations and a new global partnership. It also requires that the international community, including the United Nations, embrace a more coherent and effective response to support the agenda. As we make the transition to this new era, we need to continue the work begun with the Millennium Development Goals and ensure that extreme poverty is ended within a generation. In keeping with United Nations principles, this post-2015 framework can bring together the full range of human aspirations and needs to ensure a life of dignity for all.
Dark sides of the proposed Framework Convention on Global Health's many virtues: A systematic review and critical analysis.
Health and Human Rights. 2013 Jun; 15(1):117-134.The costs of any proposal for new international law must be fully evaluated and compared with benefits and competing alternatives to ensure adoption will not create more problems than solutions. A systematic review of the research literature was conducted to categorize and assess limitations and unintended negative consequences associated with the proposed Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH). A critical analysis then interpreted these findings using economic, ethical, legal, and political science perspectives. Of the 442 documents retrieved, nine met the inclusion criteria. Collectively, these documents highlighted that an FCGH could duplicate other efforts, lack feasibility, and have questionable impact. The critical analysis reveals that negative consequences can result from the FCGH’s proposed form of international law and proposed functions of influencing national budgets, realizing health rights and resetting global governance for health. These include the direct costs of international law, opportunity costs, reducing political dialogue by legalizing political interactions, petrifying principles that may have only contemporary relevance, imposing foreign values on less powerful countries, forcing externally defined goals on countries, prioritizing individual rights over population-wide well-being, further complicating global governance for health, weakening the World Health Organization (WHO), reducing participation opportunities for non-state actors, and offering sub-optimal solutions for global health challenges. Four options for revising the FCGH proposal are developed to address its weaknesses and strengthen its potential for impact. These include: 1) abandoning international law as the primary commitment mechanism and instead pursuing agreement towards a less formal “framework for global health”; 2) seeking fundamental constitutional reform of WHO to address gaps in global governance for health; 3) mobilizing for a separate political platform that completely bypasses WHO; or 4) narrowing the scope of sought changes to one particular governance issue such as financing for global health needs.
Washington, D.C., Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2013 May.  p.This report tracks the evolution of the MDGs and their impact on global health policy in the Bush and Obama administrations. While the Bush administration had a mixed reaction to the goals, they were embraced by President Obama. Despite the shift, the goals appear to have had little direct effect on global health programming in either administration. Nonetheless, they helped focus resources toward long-standing U.S. priorities including maternal and child health and infectious disease control. As policy makers consider the next wave of priorities, such as universal health coverage and prevention and treatment of noncommunicable diseases, a global consensus beyond the MDGs could help guide an effective response while ensuring the unmet needs associated with the current goals are not forgotten.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2013 May 1.  p. (A66/47)This report updates the report considered by the Executive Board at its 132nd session in January 2013. It summarizes processes that have been established in response to both mandates, focusing on the several streams of work taking place in the lead up to a final review of the current Goals at a high-level meeting during the sixty-eighth United Nations General Assembly, due to be held in September 2013. It also outlines an emerging narrative in relation to health, showing how health in the post-2015 environment can provide a link between concerns for sustainable development and poverty reduction -- meeting the needs of people and the planet. (Excerpt)
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2013 Mar 11.  p. (A66/15)Following the close attention given by WHO’s governing bodies to the important role played by social determinants of health in global health, especially in relation to the WHO reform process and the Organization’s future activities, further review and consultation have taken place. Tackling social determinants of health is recognized as being both a fundamental approach to the work of the Organization and a priority area of work in itself in the draft twelfth WHO general programme of work 2014–2019, which has been discussed by the regional committees before its further consideration by Executive Board and the Health Assembly.
Health in the post-2015 development agenda. Report of the Global Thematic Consultation on Health. Draft for public comment.
[Unpublished] 2013 Feb 1.  p.The purpose of this report is to present a summary of the main themes and messages that have emerged from the consultation and to make recommendations to inform the deliberations of the High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons and the UN Secretary-General’s report to the General Assembly. Annex 1 captures in more detail the depth and breadth of the analyses and proposals in the more than 100 papers and meeting reports that were submitted to the consultation; all the inputs and a digest summarizing the papers are available from www.worldwewant2015.org/health. Chapter 2 describes the consultation process, detailing the processes that were used to reach out to different constituencies. Chapters 3-5 explain why health should be at the centre of the post-2015 development agenda. Chapter 3 summarizes the inputs about the successes and shortcomings of the MDGs, many of which were unintended and only became apparent with the benefit of hindsight. Important lessons can be learned from this assessment. Chapter 4 describes the interdependent linkages between health and development. Chapter 5 considers some of the most significant changes that have happened (and in some cases continue to happen at an accelerated pace) since the MDGs were launched in 2000. Understanding how the world, global health and priority health needs have changed and what changes are likely in the next 15 years is critical to defining the health agenda for the coming years in terms of both what needs to be done (the content) and how (the approach). Chapter 6 presents guiding principles for the post-2015 development agenda and the various options for health goals and indicators that were put forward during the consultation. Chapter 7 focuses on the importance of accountability, inclusive partnerships, innovation, and learning. Chapter 8 includes the report’s main recommendations on how to frame the future agenda for health. The contributors to this consultation are looking in the same general direction: all agree that the new development agenda needs strong and visible health goals supported by measurable indicators. The recommendations in this chapter are those that garnered the most support during the consultation. Chapter 9 concludes by suggesting concrete actions that could be taken between now and 2015 by those advocating for health to feature prominently in the next development agenda. (Excerpt)
Journal of the European Economic Association. 2012 Oct; 10(5):1025-1058.This paper estimates whether exports affect the incidence of HIV in Africa. This relationship has implications for HIV prevention policy as well as for the consequences of trade increases in Africa. I estimate this impact using two sources of data on HIV incidence, one generated based on UNAIDS estimates and the other based on observed HIV mortality. These data are combined with data on export value and volume. I find a fairly consistent positive relationship between exports and new HIV infections: doubling exports leads to a 10%-70% increase in new HIV infections. Consistent with theory, this relationship is larger in areas with higher baseline HIV prevalence. I interpret the result as suggesting that increased exports increase the movement of people (trucking), which increases sexual contacts. Consistent with this interpretation, the effect is larger for export growth than for income growth per se and is larger in areas with more extensive road networks.
Brazzaville, Republic of Congo, WHO, Regional Office for Africa, 2012.  p.With over 730 million inhabitants in 46 countries, the African Region accounts for about one seventh of the world’s population. This statistical atlas provides the health status and trends in the countries of the African Region, the various components of their health systems, coverage and access levels for specific programmes and services, and the broader determinants of health in the Region, and the progress made on reaching the Millennium Development Goals. Each indicator is described, as appropriate, in terms of place (WHO regions and countries in the African Region), person (age and sex) and time (various years) using a bar graph. The aim is to give a comprehensive overview of the health situation in the African Region and its 46 Member States. The main source for the data is WHO-AFRO’s integrated database, based on the World Health Statistics 2012. Other UN agency databases have been used when necessary. All the data and figures in this atlas can be accessed through the African Health Observatory..
Assessing implementation mechanisms for an international agreement on research and development for health products.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2012; 90:854-863.The Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) are currently debating the substance and form of an international agreement to improve the financing and coordination of research and development (R&D) for health products that meet the needs of developing countries. In addition to considering the content of any possible legal or political agreement, Member States may find it helpful to reflect on the full range of implementation mechanisms available to bring any agreement into effect. These include mechanisms for states to make commitments, administer activities, manage financial contributions, make subsequent decisions, monitor each other’s performance and promote compliance. States can make binding or non-binding commitments through conventions, contracts, declarations or institutional reforms. States can administer activities to implement their agreements through international organizations, sub-agencies, joint ventures or self-organizing processes. Finances can be managed through specialized multilateral funds, financial institutions, membership organizations or coordinated self-management. Decisions can be made through unanimity, consensus, equal voting, modified voting or delegation. Oversight can be provided by peer review, expert review, self-reports or civil society. Together, states should select their preferred options across categories of implementation mechanisms, each of which has advantages and disadvantages. The challenge lies in choosing the most effective combinations of mechanisms for supporting an international agreement (or set of agreements) that achieves collective aspirations in a way and at a cost that are both sustainable and acceptable to those involved. In making these decisions, WHO’s Member States can benefit from years of experience with these different mechanisms in health and its related sectors.