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  1. 1

    Applied interest-group analysis in reproductive health policy [letter]

    O'Brien B; Janeja M; Gopalakrishnan A

    Lancet. 2007 Feb 3; 369(9559):368.

    We fully agree with the Viewpoint by Kent Buse and colleagues about the need for agencies working in sexual and reproductive health policy to engage in applied political analysis as part of their core activities. We would like to draw your attention to the work of the United Nation Population Fund (UNFPA). UNFPA's country office in Guatemala used a form of interest-group analysis to plan and facilitate the adoption of that country's first social development and population law in 2001. UNFPA's Strategic Planning Office, with six country offices, has introduced interest-group analysis to scan the environment and engage with key players who influence the implementation of goals agreed at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in 1994. The approach has been applied to issues including early marriage and gender-based violence. In short, UNFPA, as the agency primarily responsible for sexual and reproductive health policy, is doing what Buse and colleagues recommend. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    International Workshop on Food Aid: Contributions and Risks to Sustainable Food Security -- Berlin Statement.

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2004; 25(1):89-92.

    For decades, food aid has been a contentious instrument for addressing hunger and food insecurity. The workshop carefully considered the pros and cons of food aid on the basis of past and current evidence, including practitioners' experiences. In particular, the workshop re-visited food aid in view of the perspectives of the ongoing WTO trade negotiations, the experience gained with the Food Aid Convention, the initiatives related to the human right to adequate food resulting from the World Food Summit, and the challenges of health crises, i.e. HIV/AIDS. The "Statement" results from an open and participatory process of working groups, and from more comprehensive plenary presentations by main actors in food aid (recipient governments, bilateral and multilateral donors, international agencies, NGOs). While reflecting a fair amount of consensus, the individual workshop participants and delegates cannot be held responsible for the "Statement". It is meant to serve stimulation of further discussion for innovation and improvement of key aspects of food aid for sustainable food security. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Community-based education of health personnel. Report of a WHO Study Group.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Study Group on Community-Based Education of Health Personnel


    A World Health Organization (WHO) Study Group on Community-based Education of Health Personnel met during November 1985 to clarify the meaning of the term community-based education, to determine its implications, to suggest how to put it into practice, and to recommend ways of fostering it. This report of the meeting defines terms and covers the following: the rationale of community-based education (a historical account, underlying principles, 6 reasons in support of community-based education, the organization of community-based educational programs, major problems and constraints, and quantitative and qualitative considerations); and the principles and issues (educational principles and issues, coordination between the health and educational systems, the intersectoral approach, community involvement, the health team, the competency-based learning approach, problem-based learning, performance assessment, and recapitulation of the action to be taken in implementing a community-based educational program). Recommendations to the WHO are included along with recommendations on how to start a community-based educational program and on how to foster an understanding of the concept of community-based education. An educational program, or curriculum, can be termed community-based if, for its entire duration, it consists of an appropriate number of learning activities in a balanced variety of educational settings, i.e., in both the community and a diversity of health care services at all levels. Participation in community-based educational activities gives the students a sense of social responsibility, enables the students to relate theoretical knowledge to practical training and makes them better prepared for life and their future integration into the working environment, helps to break down barriers between trained professionals and the lay public and to establish closer communication between educational institutions and the communities they serve, helps to keep the educational process current, helps students to acquire competency in areas relevant to community health needs, and is a powerful means of improving the quality of the community health services. A clear organizational design is needed to create a community-based educational program.
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  4. 4

    Engaging the poor. Civil society in development.

    McNeil M

    Development Outreach. 2002 Winter; 4(1):28-30.

    Civil society is a potent political force, which has been bolstered by the information age and the greater dissemination and transparency of information that it brings. Although it is key to effective development, the World Bank pointed out that the poor are often untouched by formal society organizations; instead, they rely on a host of informal associations within their communities that often lack the ability to effect government decision-making. Thus, facilitating the organizational capacity of communities is one of the most important functions an active civil society can play in helping the poor. A renewed emphasis on community-driven development provides the opportunity to look beyond project implementation in building a long-term capacity to organize and to therefore participate effectively. Moreover, it is noted that government has a much more integral role to play than donors do. Instruments, laws and tools that encourage more active participation by civic groups, including the poor and those who represent them, provide an essential incentive for communities to come together and build their capacity to participate.
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  5. 5

    World AIDS Day 1991 -- sharing the challenge. HIV: a dangerously divisive virus.

    WORLD AIDS DAY NEWSLETTER. 1991 Jul; (1):1-4.

    This year's World AIDS Day, an annual observance day and a day to strengthen worldwide efforts to stop AIDS, will stress the need for forming partnerships in order to combat the disease. As this article explain, the AIDS pandemic has shown not only physical, but also psychological manifestations. AIDS has widened the divisions along race, sex, and social lines. For example, while in some countries prostitutes have been arrested on charges of being public health risks, their clients have not been imprisoned. Also, many groups considered to be high-risk -- like Haitians in the US -- have suffered reprisals from society at large. But as the article points out, ostracism and quarantine are inappropriate and cruel responses to AIDS, sine the disease spreads through deliberate human behavior (especially sexual behavior) and not ordinary behavior. Not only does ostracism of AIDS victims constitute human rights violations, it also works against controlling the spread of the disease. Those outside the stigmatized groups may consider themselves to be invulnerable to the disease. Furthermore, discrimination against HIV-infected people may discourage these individuals from contacting health and social services. The World Health Organization (WHO), the organizer of World AIDS Day, reports that in little over a decade, 8-10 million people worldwide have become infected with HIV, and that 1.5 million have developed AIDS. By the year 2000, WHO believes that the figures will rise to 30-40 million HIV cases and 10-15 million AIDS cases. In order to control the disease, it is necessary to end the isolation of groups and to form partnerships. Some of the most important partnerships, are between infected and noninfected people, between peers, and between men and women.
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  6. 6

    Towards effective family planning programming.

    Dondi NN

    Nairobi, Kenya, Family Planning Association of Kenya, 1980. [5], 164 p.

    The proceedings of the Second Management Seminar for senior volunteers and staff of the Family Planning Association of Kenya (FPAK), held in December 1979, with appendices, are presented. The 1st 3 days consisted of lectures and plenary discussions on topics such as communication strategies, family guidance, youth problems, and contraceptive methods; the last 2 days were group discussions, reports and summary evaluations. 40 participants took part in the evaluation, expressing satisfaction with knowledge gained in communications, family life education, and IPPF organization and skills. They expressed the need to learn more about family counseling, youth problems, population, and integrated approaches. The seminar recommended that FPAK be more innovative to retain volunteers, plan its communication strategy more carefully, train and involve volunteers in programming, study traditional family planning methods, provide family counseling services, fully exploit the media, and use it to clarify misconceptions and introduce community-based distribution.
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  7. 7

    America's challenge.

    Lindsay GN

    Victor-Bostrom Fund Report. 1968 Fall; (10):24-6.

    As government increasingly recognizes its own obligations to support and provide family planning as a health and social measure, serious questions are raised as to the proper role for Planned Parenthood World Federation as a private organization. Federal programs both at home and abroad tend to make private fundraising more difficult, whatever the role of this organization may be. Contrary to common impression, experience thus far indicates that the existence of governmental programs does not decrease demands on Planned Parenthood as a private agency. A wide gap also exists between public acceptance, which has been realized, and public conviction, which still has not been accepted. Only those who feel distress at the vision of an all-encompassing megalopolis, only those with concern for the qualify of life in the crowd, and only those who see finite limits of resources recognize that the US must someday plan a halt to population growth. As the gap between the developed and the underdeveloped world widens, economists point out that the US, with less than 6% of the world's population, already consumes some 50% of the world's available raw materials. Business and government leaders are beginning to understand the rate at which an industrial and affluent society consumes the world's substance and threatens the environment. If the assumption is correct that the population explosion constitutes a major threat to life on earth, then America's own attitudes and actions at home, as well as abroad and in the developing countries, are vital. In the next few years Planned Parenthood faces the task of converting the tide of public acceptance into one of conviction and effective action on a giant scale both at home and abroad. In its effort, Planned Parenthood has continued to expand its own service functions. It now has 157 local affiliates with an additional 30 in the organizational stage. In 1967 Planned Parenthood affiliates operated 470 family planning centers, 71 more than in the previous year. Beginning in 1964 an attempt was made to quantify the needs and the costs of bringing birth control services to all who need it in the US. The partnership with government has been more intimate than simple parallelism of effort. Planned Parenthood initiated or helped to administer nearly half of the family planning projects sponsored by the War on Poverty. It has served as a consultant on family planning programs to the Department of Health, Education and Welfare and assisted affiliates and other community agencies in developing project applications for federal funds totalling about $4 million, of which about $2 million for 25 projects has been funded. Planned Parenthood World Population has undertaken the planning function and has for that purpose established a national technical assistance center and program.
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