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United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Distribution, Urbanization, Internal Migration and Development, New York, 21-23 January 2008.
New York, New York, United Nations, 2008 Mar. 364 p. (ESA/P/WP.206)In 2008, the world is reaching an important milestone: for the first time in history, half of the world population will be living in urban areas. Urbanization has significant social and economic implications: Historically, it has been an integral part of the process of economic development and an important determinant of the decline in fertility and mortality rates. Many important economic, social and demographic transformations have taken place in cities. The urban expansion, due in part to migration from rural to urban areas, varies significantly across regions and countries. The distribution and morphology of cities, the dynamics of urban growth, the linkages between urban and rural areas and the living conditions of the rural and urban population also vary quite substantially across countries and over time. In general, urbanization represents a positive development, but it also poses challenges. The scale of such challenges is particularly significant in less developed regions, where most of the urban growth will take place in the coming decades. To discuss trends in population distribution and urbanization and their implications, the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat organized an Expert Group Meeting on Population Distribution, Urbanization, Internal Migration and Development. The meeting, which took place from 21 to 23 January at the United Nations Headquarters in New York, brought together experts from different regions of the world to present and discuss recent research on urbanization, the policy dimensions of urban growth and internal migration, the linkages and disparities between urban and rural development, aspects of urban infrastructure and urban planning, and the challenges of climate change for the spatial distribution of the population. (excerpt)
Public policy and franchising reproductive health: current evidence and future directions. Guidance from a technical consultation meeting.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2007.  p.To assist policymakers and researchers to take advantage of lessons learned in the area of private-provider networks, particularly franchises, and to explore the types of policy options available to facilitate a greater role for the private sector, the World Health Organization's Department of Reproductive Health and Research, in collaboration with the United States Agency for International Development's (USAID) Private Sector Partnerships-One project, convened a technical consultation from 7 to 9 December, 2006 in Geneva, Switzerland. The meeting, entitled "Public Policy and Franchising Reproductive Health: current evidence and future directions", brought together experts in private-provider networks and franchises as well as in public policy. The consultation: reviewed the evidence to date on the performance and impact of health networks and franchises in low- and middle-income countries; explored public policy options that can facilitate and support the delivery of reproductive health through private-provider networks and health franchises in low- and middle-income countries. This Guidance Note is based on the proceedings of the meeting and offers policymakers and researchers the latest evidence on private-provider networks and franchises, lessons learned in the field, and policy recommendations on how to mobilize private-provider networks and health franchises to help address reproductive health care needs in developing countries. (excerpt)
Third World Quarterly. 2007 Jul; 28(5):871-886.In 2006 the Secretary General's High-Level Panel on UN Systemwide Coherence called for a dynamic new gender entity led by an Under-Secretary General. The follow-up to this recommendation is still ongoing, leaving the UN gender machinery in its current fragmented and weakened state. This enduring dilemma has its origins in bureaucratic incoherence, lack of senior management support for UN gender equality efforts, the failure of member states to support the Beijing Platform for Action, the impact of conservative regimes, and recent US dominance over the UN reform process. Is a new women's agency, with increased authority, new staffing and significantly increased resources possible, or should transnational feminists seek to establish an autonomous women's agency outside the UN system to provide better leadership for gender equality efforts world-wide? (author's)
One Country. 2006 Jul-Sep; 18(2):7.UNITED NATIONS -- Stemming the global tide of violence against women will require changes in deeply rooted attitudes that for the most part transcend culture and national borders, said participants in a panel discussion here on 8 September 2006. Titled "Beyond Violence Prevention: Creating a Culture to Enable Women's Security and Development," the discussion was hosted by the Baha'i International Community and the International Presentation Association. It was held as part of the 59th Annual United Nations Department of Public Information/ Non-Governmental Organization conference. The panelists agreed that violence against women remains a severe problem in almost every nation and culture. "We all know that at least one out of every three women around the world has been beaten, coerced into sex, or otherwise abused in her lifetime," said Letty Chiwara, a program specialist with the Africa section of the United Nations Fund for Women (UNIFEM). In some places, such as rural Ethiopia, some 71 percent of women are abused, she said. "Harmful traditional practices -- female genital mutilation, dowry murder, the so-called honor killings, and early marriage -- bring death, disability, and psychological dysfunction for millions of women," said Ms. Chiwara. (excerpt)
Good practices in combating and eliminating violence against women. Expert group meeting. Organized by: United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women in collaboration with United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 17 to 20 May 2005, Vienna, Austria. Report of the expert group meeting.
[New York, New York], United Nations, Division for the Advancement of Women, 2005.  p.Comprehensive multidisciplinary strategies are necessary to combat violence against women. Governments, non-governmental organizations and women's rights activists all over the world have used different approaches in dealing with violence against women, with varying degrees of success. To gain an understanding of what makes an approach to combat violence against women effective, the United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women, in collaboration with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, convened a group of experts in Vienna from 17 to 20 May 2005. The purpose of the meeting was to identify the factors which make a specific initiative, or type of initiative, a good practice example, evaluate the determinants or indicators of the effectiveness of strategies in various areas and identify legislation, plans, policies and other approaches that have been effective in combating violence against women. The aim of the expert group meeting was to arrive at a set of recommendations on 'good practice examples' in combating and eliminating violence against women. This report lays out the expert group's recommendations for elements of effective practices in combating violence against women in the areas of law, prevention, and provision of services. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 2006 Sep 21. 4 p.In just a few weeks, on October 11, the Secretary-General's independent expert, Paulo Sérgio Pinheiro, will present the findings of a comprehensive and ground-breaking global study of violence against children. As members of an international NGO advisory panel for the study, we take this opportunity to share our recommendations for action and our hope that your government will take leadership to address the devastating and pervasive violence documented by this report. In particular, we urge you to support the appointment of a Special Representative to the Secretary General on violence against children to ensure effective follow-up to the study, maintain high-level visibility to these crucial issues, and guarantee that the momentum created by the study is not lost. The Pinheiro study finds that shocking levels of violence affect the lives of children on all parts of the globe. Among the report's findings: Between 20 and 65 percent of school-age children report having been verbally or physically bullied in the past 30 days. Corporal punishment such as beating and caning is standard practice in schools in a large number of countries, and is often responsible for school drop-out; 126 million children are involved in hazardous work, often enduring beatings, humiliation and sexual violence by their employers; Institutionalized children--whether in orphanages or detention facilities--are at particular risk of violence from the staff responsible for their care, including torture, beatings, isolation, restraints, rape, and harassment. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2006 Nov 25; 368(9550)The first African Regional Health Report, finally released this week more than a year after its initial launch target, is one of the first products to emerge from Luis Sambo's Directorship of WHO's African Regional Office. In his inaugural speech on Feb 1, 2005, Sambo urged his colleagues, in country offices and regional headquarters, to "intensify efforts at identifying the best practices in health" and "document and disseminate" them so they can be replicated. This regional health report is, he believes, a key step in upgrading WHO AFRO's stewardship role in the region. It is a disappointing effort, one that reveals WHO's weaknesses rather than its strengths. It is clearly intended as an overview rather than as a detailed analysis, but even so it still suffers from being light on facts and heavy on well-rehearsed rhetoric. Much is simply lifted from past World Health Reports that have emerged from Geneva headquarters, supplemented by data from the World Bank and other institutions. There are some useful asides: briefly reported successes, such as a remarkable reduction in road traffic deaths in Rwanda and improvements to health-service access in South Africa's rural areas. However, it will take much more than an assemblage of isolated anecdotes to create a strategy for Africa's renaissance. (excerpt)
Integration of the human rights of women and a gender perspective: violence against women. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Yakin Erturk. Addendum. Communications to and from governments.
[Geneva, Switzerland], United Nations, Commission on Human Rights, 2006 Mar 27. 82 p. (E/CN.4/2006/61/Add.1)At its sixty-first session, the Commission on Human Rights, in its resolution 2005/41 entitled "Elimination of violence against women", encouraged the Special Rapporteur to respond effectively to reliable information that comes before her and requested all Governments to cooperate with and assist the Special Rapporteur in the performance of her mandated tasks and duties, to supply all information requested, including with regard to implementation of her recommendations, and to respond to the Special Rapporteur's visits and communications. The present report contains, on a country-by-country basis, summaries of general and individual allegations, as well as urgent appeals transmitted to Governments between 1 January and 31 December 2005, as well as replies received during the same period. Observations made by the Special Rapporteur have also been included where applicable. Government replies received after 31 December 2005 will be included in the Special Rapporteur's next communications report. Due to restrictions of length of the report, the Special Rapporteur has been obliged to summarize the details of all correspondence sent and received. The Special Rapporteur wishes to emphasize that the omission of a particular country or territory should not be interpreted as indicating that there is no problem of violence against women in that country or territory. (excerpt)
Cadernos de Saude Publica. 1995 Apr-Jun; 11(2):175-176.The World Summit on Social Development (WSSD) convened by the United Nations (UN) in March this year meant that social development was emerging as a global issue for the first time in history. While the Summit was a significant step forward in the world debate to the extent that it focused on human beings and the notions of equality and equity, in the Latin American context it also laid bare the essential contradiction between current economic stabilization and adjustment policies and social development as a priority. In this sense, one can raise the hypothesis that the Latin American image transmitted by various countries in various ways in the world scenario was one of a continent marked by internal economic problems prevailing over social issues. For example, one noted the absence of heads of state from the most economically significant countries, like Brazil, Mexico, and Argentina, the fact that only the Brazilian and Chilean delegations were present in the negotiations over the Summit's final position papers, and the very nature of the official documents submitted to the UN by the various countries, wavering between a bureaucratic and officialist tone in their final reports. (excerpt)
Female Migrants: Bridging the Gaps throughout the Life Cycle. Selected papers of the UNFPA-IOM Expert Group Meeting, New York, 2-3 May 2006.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2006. 136 p.Women make up nearly half of all migrants, an estimated 95 million of 191 million people living outside their countries of origin in 2005. Having said this, after many years of observing migration and collecting data there is remarkably little reliable information about women as migrants. This anomaly underlines their continuing invisibility to policymakers and development planners. The High-Level Dialogue on International Migration and Development by the General Assembly on 14-15 September 2006 offers the best opportunity in a generation to address the rights, needs, capabilities and contribution of women migrants. Equal numbers do not confer equality of treatment. Women have fewer opportunities than men for legal migration; many women become irregular migrants with concomitant lack of support and exposure to risk. Whether they migrate legally or not, alone or as members of a family unit, women are more vulnerable than men to violence and exploitation. Their needs for health care, including reproductive health care, and other services are less likely to be met. They have more limited opportunities than men for social integration and political participation. Migration can be beneficial, both for women and for the countries which send and receive them. Women migrants make a significant economic contribution through their labour, both to their countries of destination and, through remittances, to their countries of origin. In societies where women's power to move autonomously is limited, the act of migration is in itself empowering. It stimulates change in women migrants themselves, and in the societies which send and receive them. In the process women's migration can become a force for removing existing gender imbalances and inequities, and for changing underlying conditions so that new imbalances and inequities do not arise. Women's voluntary migration is a powerful force for positive change in countries both of origin and of destination. (excerpt)
Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus. Roll Back Malaria East African Regional Network Partners Meeting, Kampala, Uganda, January 2005: trip report.
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health [MSH], Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus, 2005 Feb.  p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PD-ACH-012; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-00-00016-00)More than 90% of the clinical cases of malaria each year occur in Africa with much of the burden in children under five years of age. Pregnant women are especially at risk and strategies to decrease the morbidity in this group have been found to be effective. Strategies to address these challenges must be implemented in collaboration with programs aimed at integrated approaches to childhood illness and reproductive health. Management Sciences for Health's (MSH) Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus (RPM Plus) Program has received funds from USAID to develop strategies to implement malaria policies and to provide technical assistance in pharmaceutical management issues for malaria. RPM Plus is a key technical partner in the USAID Malaria Action Coalition (MAC), a partnership among four technical partners: The World Health Organization (WHO), working primarily through its Africa Regional Office (AFRO), the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the ACCESS Program of JHPIEGO and RPM Plus. RPM Plus has been working to improve pharmaceutical management for malaria in countries in Africa by identifying and addressing the causes of poor access, ineffective supply, and inappropriate use of antimalarials. RPM Plus has developed and applied tools to assess pharmaceutical management for malaria and has worked to provide technical assistance to countries by working with policymakers, researchers, managers, and providers in the public and private sectors to implement new and proven interventions. Significant among these interventions are Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies. (excerpt)
Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus. Meeting of the Consultative Group on Engaging the Private Sector for Child Health and Malaria, April 1-2, 2004: trip report.
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health [MSH], Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus, 2005 Feb 11.  p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PD-ACH-010; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-00-00016-00)As a partner of the Child Survival Partnership, RPM Plus, through support of the SO3 Child Survival portfolio, has continued to grow in support of exploring and promoting proven private sector interventions in support of child survival. RPM Plus' contributions have included participation in technical and advocacy meetings to develop and implement activities to further this agenda. Maria Miralles traveled to the London School of Tropical Hygiene and Health to attend a meeting of the Consultative Group on Engaging the Private Sector for Child Health and Malaria. The meeting took place April 1 and 2, 2004. The purpose of the meeting was to participate in drafting an agenda for an international conference to be held later in the year to raise the awareness of donors, Ministries of Health, NGOs and key private sector entities of the value of collaboration to fight basic child health and malaria health problems. (excerpt)
Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. 2003 Winter; 29(2):387-416.This essay aims to advance feminist debates around globalization in a number of directions. By means of a transnational perspective that takes gender into the heart of the analysis, the essay challenges the erasure of gender from grand theories of globalization, leaving gender difference as merely a local effect of globalization (Freeman 2001). Following path-breaking work, we share the feminist view that globalization is inherently gendered and multiply produced by diverse actors in varied times and spaces and that its theorization has often been implicitly masculine. Our definition of transnationalism owes much to feminist work on globalization, which stresses the complex topographies of political-economic-social and cultural transformations at interconnected scales (the body, the national, and international) that comprise "globalization" (Katz 2001; Nagar et al. 2002; Radcliffe, Laurie, and Andolina 2002). Andean development transnationalism rises to the feminist challenge to move beyond conceptual frameworks that "implicitly construe... global as masculine and local as feminine" (Nagar et al. 2002, 1009). Compared with previous globalization analyses that took a decontextualized and institutional focus (see critique in Adam 2002), our essay delves through the national, local, and bodily scales to trace the impacts of new institutional initiatives such as gender mainstreaming and ethnodevelopment. (excerpt)
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Address by Mr Koichiro Matsuura, Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), on the occasion of the Information Meeting with Permanent Delegates on HIV / AIDS, UNESCO, 10 May 2005.
[Paris, France], UNESCO, 2005.  p. (DG/2005/074)It is a pleasure to welcome you to this information session on UNESCO's role, aims and programme in the fight against HIV and AIDS. We are very lucky to have with us Dr Peter Piot, whose excellent work and results as the Executive Director of UNAIDS have recently been underscored by his re-appointment for a new five-year mandate from this year. I am also delighted to welcome Mrs Cristina Owen-Jones, UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador with a special brief for the fight against HIV/AIDS, who will also address you this afternoon. In my introductory remarks to you today, I would like to briefly outline the process through which UNESCO has engaged with the HIV/AIDS challenge during the past few years. That engagement has taken place within an overall context marked by three main features: first, the continuing spread of the epidemic; second, its devastating impact on whole societies and their key institutions (such as education systems) as well as upon communities and families; and, third, the emphasis upon treatment as the major response to HIV and AIDS. (excerpt)
Indian Journal of Tuberculosis. 2002 Jan; 49(1):53-54.The 56th National Conference on Tuberculosis and Chest Diseases was held in Chennai from 9th to 12th October, 2001, under the joint auspices of the Tuberculosis Association of India, the Anti-TB Association of Tamil Nadu and the Institute of Thoracic Medicine, Chennai. Nearly 550 delegates attended the Conference. Preceding the Conference, there was a highly educative programme of CME on the morning of 9th October, 2001, which was attended by about 200 participants and covered varied subjects such as HIV and tuberculosis, drug resistant tuberculosis in an Indian scenario, Interventions in pulmonary medicine, concurrent concepts in the management of lung cancer and management of respiratory failure. It was decided that the entire proceedings of the CME should be printed and circulated to all the delegates. (excerpt)
IAEN and current issues. Notes and commentary. Eleventh Meeting of the International AIDS and Economics Network (IAEN) Conference, Current Issues in the Economics of HIV / AIDS, held at Kaiser Family Foundation, Washington D.C., April 24-25, 2003.
[Geneva, Switzerland], International AIDS Economics Network [IAEN], 2003. 11 p.Having raised and committed about US$1.5 billion to more than sixty countries, the Global Fund and its informal network of friends and supporters will need to show, through effective monitoring and evaluation (M&E) that the donors’ resources can be proved to be well spent. The two-day conference reflected on M&E data requirements, how country managers can be helped to show progress, and what factors, such as education, prospects for treatment via anti-retroviral therapy (ART), and strategic planning, can help demonstrate effective use of resources. The paragraphs below summarize meeting highlights. Sown among the comments are ample Web- links that aim to help the reader learn more on any of the topics of special interest. Author names and e-mail addresses appear at the end of this note. Alan Whiteside, Director of the Health Economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division of the University of Natal (HEARD), opened the meeting raising the three main challenges to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, 1) Prevention 2) Treatment and Care and 3) Mitigating the Impact. Alan Whiteside mentioned the two conferences he had recently attended relevant to the IAEN Conference. The first, Empirical Evidence for the Demographic and Socio- Economic Impact of AIDS, was held in Durban, South Africa. (excerpt)
In: Towards adulthood: exploring the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents in South Asia, edited by Sarah Bott, Shireen Jejeebhoy, Iqbal Shah, Chander Puri. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2003. 223-226.Representatives from governments, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and international agencies participated in a panel discussion entitled “Enhancing Adolescents’ Reproductive Health: Strategies and Challenges”, moderated by Dr Iqbal Shah. The objective of this discussion was to share information about adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) programmes from different sectors and different countries. Panellists were asked to draw from their personal and institutional experiences in discussing strategies and approaches used by ASRH programmes, as well as challenges and opportunities confronting those who work in this area. Panellists included government representatives from India, Nepal and Sri Lanka, as well as NGO representatives from Bangladesh and Pakistan, and representatives from international agencies with a wide regional presence, including UNAIDS (the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS) and the World Health Organization Regional Office for South-East Asia (WHO/ SEARO). (excerpt)
Monday Developments. 2003 Aug 11; 21(14):6, 13.In his introductory remarks at the opening of the Global Fund's July 16 meeting in Paris, Secretary of Health and Human Services Tommy Thompson, chairman of the Global Fund on AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis, called on the other donor nations to do their fair share and noted the $15 billion AIDS Initiative launched by President Bush and, from this initiative, the U.S. contribution era $1 billion to the Global Fund. Thompson said it was imperative to mobilize more financial contributions to the Fund and that funded programs must be based on research and science. He also called upon the private sector to step up its support of the Global Fund, both through financial resources and in-kind contributions, and advocated for the mobilization of nongovernmental organizations and faith-based responses to the fight against these three diseases. (excerpt)
One Country. 2003 Jan-Mar; 14(4):7, 14.That connection was among the key points that emerged at a panel discussion entitled "Violence against Women," held on 4 March 2003 during the 47th Commission on the Status of Women. Sponsored by the Bah'i International Community and the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), the panel was among dozens of side events at the Commission. The Commission this year addressed two major themes: 1) violence against women and girls, and 2) women and the media, in relation to their participation and access and to new technologies. (excerpt)
Behavioral interventions for the prevention of sexual transmission of HIV. [Intervenciones conductuales para la prevención de la transmisión sexual del VIH]
Washington, D.C., Institute of Medicine, International Forum for AIDS Research, . 8 p.The fourth meeting of the International Forum for AIDS Research was organized around three overall objectives: a) to consider a model for categorizing behavioral interventions; b)to share information about current behavioral intervention programs in which IFAR members are involved; and c) to foster discussion about the adequacy of present strategies. The meeting began with an analytical phase that explored aspects of methodology, followed with presentations on selected programs, and concluded with a generic case study exercise that highlighted different social scientific perspectives on producing change in human behavior. (excerpt)
New York, New York, Population Council, 2001. vii, 56 p.This document summarizes the proceedings of a meeting held in March 2001 in Washington, District of Columbia. The meeting was co-sponsored by the Population Council and US Agency for International Development's Inter-agency Gender Working Group's Men and Reproductive Health Subcommittee. Gender-based power inequalities hinder communication between partners, limit the ability of individuals and couples to talk about or achieve desired child spacing and family size goals, limit effective use of reproductive health services, undercut men's and women's attainment of sexual health and pleasure, and increase substantially their vulnerability to HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. The contents of this document include discussions on the evidence of power in sexual relationships; field-based efforts on service delivery, community, and socialization; and comments from the community of donors and implementing agencies.
International parliamentarian conference in 2002. Consultation meeting of regional parliamentarian groups to start preparations.
Asian Forum Newsletter. 2001 Oct-Nov; 12-3.In 2002, the UN Population Fund organized a meeting of regional parliamentarians groups to explore the possibility of organizing an international parliamentarians conference on implementing the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The two major challenges confronting the parliamentarians at the global level are: 1) meeting the resource needs to finance the ICPD agenda; and 2) creating an enabling environment at the national level through positive changes in policies and legislation related to population and development. It is believed that parliamentarians can play a major role in pushing these two issues forward.
Drug-resistant strains of TB increasing worldwide. New WHO report shows super-deadly TB strain is spreading. Drug resistant cases increase by 50% in parts of Western Europe. Countries to announce urgent control measures at ministerial summit. Press release.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2000 Mar 24 2 p. (Press Release WHO/19)Multidrug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) is a strain that cannot be cured with the most effective anti-TB medicines. The WHO and the International Union Against TB and Lung Disease warns that if countries do not act quickly to strengthen their control of TB, the MDR strains will continue to emerge in other parts of the world. It is reported that MDR strains have cost hundreds of lives and more than US$1 billion each in New York and Russia. Since 1996, resistance to at least one TB drug has increased by 50% in both Denmark and Germany, and it has doubled in New Zealand. It is also reported that when drug resistance is permitted to flourish in developing countries, people in wealthy countries inevitably feel the consequences. However, countries that use the WHO's recommended Direct Observation Treatment, Short-course, also known as DOTS, have been able to prevent drug resistance from increasing. The governments of the 20 countries with the largest number of TB patients are expected to announce a series of initiatives to prevent the MDR crisis from worsening. The WHO and the World Bank have called the meeting in Amsterdam to plan strategies to stop the spread of MDR-TB, and reduce deaths from TB.
DISPATCHES: NEWS FROM UNFPA. 1996 Nov; (11):2.As part of a series of Arab regional meetings on social affairs, an expert group meeting was held September 25-27, 1996. Participants included Jordan's Minister for Social Development, Abu Jamous, who emphasized a new role for women, one in which they could participate actively in society without restriction by tradition and culture. Recommendations included improving women's access to quality reproductive health care (including family planning), particularly in rural areas. Raising awareness among women and among communities concerning the positive outcome of reproductive health and decreased maternal mortality due to repeated childbearing was stressed. At the first meeting of this event, representatives of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) discussed follow-up for the recommendations of the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, 1995) and adopted a Plan of Action. Her Royal Highness Basma Bint Talal of Jordan, in her opening remarks, spoke about the vital role of NGOs "in women's development and their fight against discrimination, so that they will be equal to men and be able to serve their community based on the Islamic sharia and our Arab tradition". Atef Khalifa, director of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) Country Support Team for Arab States and Europe, reported that all delegations had "keen understanding and great awareness of reproductive health issues" and "fully endorsed programs and mechanisms related to reproductive health and rights". UNFPA representatives provided presentations during several panel discussions at this event.
Lancet. 1995 May 27; 345(8961):1358.Paul Livingstone Armstrong, 82, has sought to convince the medical profession and the general public of the known hazards of adolescent pregnancy since 1973. According to the "World Health Report" of the World Health Organization (WHO), maternal mortality rates at ages 15-19 are double those at 20-24; those at 10-14 are 5 times higher in some countries. In 14 African countries at least 50% of the women marry before age 18; in Niger, where nearly 50% marry before age 15, 2 out of 5 have one child by age 17. In China, due to family control, the maternal age range is 23-26; the paternal age range is 26-29. In Japan, 16% of women under 25 bear children; in the US, 43% do (1993 data). Livingstone Armstrong has produced demonstration kits with life-size plastic pelvises for ages 16, 19, and 23 for the Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School, London, UK. In 1985, the World Health Assembly (WHA), whose meetings Livingstone Armstrong has attended steadily, approved a resolution urging governments to promote a delay in child bearing until both parents, but especially the mother, are adults--fully grown, adequately nourished, and disease-free. However, some governments viewed the resolution as useless because of the social, economic, and religious circumstances of their populations. Livingstone Armstrong continued his efforts and donated his kits in a limited, judicious manner to places such as one of the refugee camps along the Thai-Cambodian border. The result was genuine interest by delegations to the most recent WHA meeting and orders from Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya, Zimbabwe, and Zambia for the kits, which are now being used in Gambia to train traditional birth attendants and village elders (all men).