Your search found 30 Results

  1. 1
    336174
    Peer Reviewed

    Population Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case of Both Normative and Coercive Ties to the World Polity.

    Robinson RS

    Population Research and Policy Review. 2014 Jun 15;

    During the 1980s and 1990s, two-thirds of sub-Saharan African countries adopted national population policies to reduce population growth. Based on multivariate statistical analysis, I show that countries with more ties to the world polity were more likely to adopt population policies. In order to refine world polity theory, however, I distinguish between normative and coercive ties to the world polity. I show that ties to the world polity via international nongovernmental organizations became predictive of population policy adoption only after the 1994 United Nations International Conference on Population and Development institutionalized reproductive health as a global norm to which countries could show adherence through population policies. Ties to the World Bank in the form of indebtedness, presumed to be coercive, were associated with population policy adoption throughout the time period observed. Gross domestic product per capita, democracy, and religion also all predicted population policy adoption. The case of population policy adoption in sub-Saharan Africa thus demonstrates that ties to organizations likely to exert normative pressure are most influential when something about international norms is at stake, while ties to organizations with coercive capacity matter regardless of time, but may be easier for wealthier countries to resist.
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  2. 2
    336102
    Peer Reviewed

    Applying lessons learned from the USAID family planning graduation experience to the GAVI graduation process.

    Shen AK; Farrell MM; Vandenbroucke MF; Fox E; Pablos-Mendez A

    Health Policy and Planning. 2015 Jul; 30(6):687-95.

    As low income countries experience economic transition, characterized by rapid economic growth and increased government spending potential in health, they have increased fiscal space to support and sustain more of their own health programmes, decreasing need for donor development assistance. Phase out of external funds should be systematic and efforts towards this end should concentrate on government commitments towards country ownership and self-sustainability. The 2006 US Agency for International Development (USAID) family planning (FP) graduation strategy is one such example of a systematic phase-out approach. Triggers for graduation were based on pre-determined criteria and programme indicators. In 2011 the GAVI Alliance (formerly the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations) which primarily supports financing of new vaccines, established a graduation policy process. Countries whose gross national income per capita exceeds $1570 incrementally increase their co-financing of new vaccines over a 5-year period until they are no longer eligible to apply for new GAVI funding, although previously awarded support will continue. This article compares and contrasts the USAID and GAVI processes to apply lessons learned from the USAID FP graduation experience to the GAVI process. The findings of the review are 3-fold: (1) FP graduation plans served an important purpose by focusing on strategic needs across six graduation plan foci, facilitating graduation with pre-determined financial and technical benchmarks, (2) USAID sought to assure contraceptive security prior to graduation, phasing out of contraceptive donations first before phasing out from technical assistance in other programme areas and (3) USAID sought to sustain political support to assure financing of products and programmes continue after graduation. Improving sustainability more broadly beyond vaccine financing provides a more comprehensive approach to graduation. The USAID FP experience provides a window into understanding one approach to graduation from donor assistance. The process itself-involving transparent country-level partners well in advance of graduation-appears a valuable lesson towards success. Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
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  3. 3
    325831

    Urban population, development and the environment 2007 [Wallchart].

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2008 Mar. [2] p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/274)

    The wall chart on Urban Population, Development and the Environment 2007 displays information on various aspects of population, environment and development, including changes in urban populations and their relationship with development and the environment. The wall chart include information for 228 countries or areas as well as data at the regional and sub-regional levels. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    285232

    Can debt relief boost growth in poor countries?

    Clements B; Bhattacharya R; Nguyen TQ

    Washington, D.C., International Monetary Fund, 2005 Apr. 13 p. (Economic Issues No. 34)

    Twenty-eight heavily indebted poor countries (HIPCs) were receiving debt relief under the HIPC Initiative by mid-2004, eight years after the Initiative was launched by the IMF and the World Bank and endorsed by governments around the world, and about four years after it was enhanced to provide more substantial and faster debt relief. The HIPC Initiative, the first coordinated effort by the international financial community to reduce the foreign debt of the world's poorest countries, was based on the theory that economic growth in these countries was being stifled by heavy debt burdens, making it virtually impossible for them to escape poverty. However, most of the empirical research to date on the effects of debt on growth has lumped together a diverse group of countries, including both emerging market and low-income countries; the literature focusing on the impact of debt on low-income countries (those with 2001 per capita gross national income of less than US$865) is scant. The paper on which this pamphlet is based, "External Debt, Public Investment, and Growth in Low-Income Countries" (IMF Working Paper No. 03/249, December 2003), addresses this gap in the literature. The paper also appeared as a chapter in a book published by the IMF in 2004, Helping Countries Develop: The Role of Fiscal Policy, edited by Sanjeev Gupta, Benedict Clements, and Gabriela Inchauste. It assesses empirically the effects of external debt on growth in low-income countries and analyzes the channels through which these effects are transmitted, giving special attention to the indirect effects of external debt on growth through its impact on public investment. Readers seeking a more detailed description of our analysis and of the literature on debt and growth are directed to the original working paper, which is available free of charge at www.imf.org/pubs. Brenda Szittya prepared the text for this pamphlet. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    282343

    Successes and failures of development experience since the 1980s.

    Ranis G

    New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University, Economic Growth Center, 1996 Sep. 28 p. (Center Discussion Paper No. 762)

    This paper reviews the development experience since the 1980's and finds room for guarded optimism about what we can learn from it. Firstly, a global consensus is emerging on the need for macro-economic stability through prudent fiscal, monetary and foreign exchange policies. However, at the micro or structural level, while governments need to decentralize their decision- making authority more fully than they have thus far, in reaction to the recent reappraisal of the East Asian model there is some danger that development policy will swing too far in rejecting liberalization and returning to government intervention. Secondly, the paper points out that, while there exists a well-recognized causal nexus between exports and growth, the reverse causation also holds, i.e. domestic growth patterns conditioned by education and R&D expenditures and policies determine whether or not a country can take full advantage of existing export opportunities. Finally, although fast-disbursing policy-based loans have not been as successful as they could be, largely because of the World Bank's chosen modus operandi, they represent potentially highly effective instruments that should not be abandoned. Rather, the Bank should help render such loans more fully "owned" by recipients, replace country-specific lending quotas by aid ballooning related to carefully worked out reform packages, and develop a better division of labor with other multilateral and bilateral donors. (author's)
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  6. 6
    296623

    Poverty may lessen by 2000, except in Africa - according to World Bank's 'World Development Report 1990' - Special Section - Future of the Global Economy: Challenges of the 90s. [La pobreza puede reducirse para el año 2000, salvo en África, de acuerdo con el Informe sobre Desarrollo Mundial de 1990 del Banco Mundial. Sección especial. El futuro de la economía global: desafíos de la década del 90.]

    UN Chronicle. 1990 Sep; 27(3):[2] p..

    Sub-Saharan Africa is the only region where poverty is not likely to decline by the year 2000, the World Bank says. While 400 million people elsewhere could rise from poverty by the beginning of the twenty-first century if the Bank's two-pronged strategy is adopted, high fertility rates in Africa would still make the number of the poor swell by nearly 100 million. The Bank's World Development Report 1990 states that family planning services are vital for poverty reduction, especially where a high population growth rate--such as the 3 to 4 per cent in sub-Saharan Africa-- depresses per capita income which results in low wages and growing poverty. The Report forecasts that some 265 million people, or 43.1 per cent of the population of Africa, south of the Sahara, would live in poverty in the year 2000. In 1985, the figure was 180 million (46.8 per cent). "By the end of the century, sub-Saharan Africa will account for more than 30 per cent of the developing world's poor, as against 16 per cent in 1685." (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    191577
    Peer Reviewed

    Infant mortality in Arab countries: sociodemographic, perinatal and economic factors.

    Shawky S

    Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2001 Nov; 7(6):956-965.

    The infant mortality rates for 1978 and 1998 of 16 Arab countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region were studied. The data were extracted from World Health Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund sources. The impact of demographic, social, perinatal care and economic indicators on infant mortality rates in 1998 was studied using Spearman rank coefficient to detect significant correlations. All countries, except Iraq, showed a sharp decline in rates from 1978 to 1998. Infant mortality rates were directly related to population size, annual total births, low birth weight and maternal mortality ratios. Also, infant mortality rates were inversely related to literacy status of both sexes, annual gross national product per capita and access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation facilities. (author's)
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  8. 8
    184914

    Indonesia burdened by population ills, political and social pressures.

    Collymore Y

    Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau [PRB], 2003 Aug. 3 p.

    Still reaping the repercussions of the Asian financial crisis, Indonesia has in recent years struggled with numerous difficulties ranging from social unrest, political instability, and ethnic and sectarian violence to a decline in access to health care and other public services. More recent events, including the bomb blast in Jakarta — which followed other deadly bombings in 2002 — have increased fears that the sprawling archipelago may be facing new political and population pressures. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    082348

    Notes on per capita income in the case study areas.

    Preston SH

    In: Good health at low cost. Proceedings of a Conference held at the Bellagio Conference Center, Bellagio, Italy, April 29 - May 3, 1985. Sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation. Edited by Scott B. Halstead, Julia A. Walsh, Kenneth S. Warren. New York, New York, Rockefeller Foundation, 1985 Oct. 159-61.

    In its World Development Report, 1984, the World Bank gave the following 1982 figures for gross national product (GNP) per capita in 1982 dollars and average annual growth rate of GNP per capita (1960-82); China--$310 and 5.0%; Sri Lanka--$320 and 2.6%; Costa Rica--$1430 and 2.8%. World Bank tables supplied income data on Cuba in 1968: GNP per capita (in 1964 dollars) was $275, nearly identical to the figure of $283 for 1950. In 1950, Costa Rica had an income level equivalent to Cuba's ($264), but by 1968, Costa Rica's had grown to $403. Making the conversion from 1964 to 1982 dollars would put Cuba in 1968 at a GNP/capita of $821. In 1977, Costa Rica's revised real per capita gross domestic product was $1414 (in 1970 dollars) and Sri Lanka's was $553. With regard to the distribution of income, the World Development Report, 1984, presented figures for Sri Lanka, Costa Rica, and India. India and Sri Lanka had more evenly distributed incomes than typical, while Costa Rica's was less evenly distributed. Cuba had achieved one of the highest life expectancies in the developing world in the 1950s, at a time when its income was also relatively high. Mortality had continued to decline to the point where life expectancy was approximately 72 years in 1985. In 1960, life expectancy was about 64 years. The 1985 UN figure for Sri Lankan life expectancy in 1965-69 was 64.2 years, and in 1975-79 it had increased only to 65.0 years. In China, a major economic setback occurred during the Great Leap Forward period of 1958-61, when a shortfall in agricultural production was greatly exacerbated by policies that deemphasized the rural sector. The age distributions from the 1953 and 1964 censuses indicated that some 23-30 million excess deaths occurred during this period. Subsequently, the mortality decline was extremely rapid. Income growth probably facilitated this decline, but China's achievement in mortality far surpassed what could have been expected on the basis of its income level.
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  10. 10
    082349

    Introduction.

    Goodland R; Webb M

    In: Race to save the tropics. Ecology and economics for a sustainable future, edited by Robert Goodland. Washington, D.C., Island Press, 1990. 3-32.

    Economic development has not always increased the quality of life; the impact of economic development on the natural environment has caused failure in specific development projects. Applied ecology can enhance economic development so that it preserves rather than damages the quality of life and of the environment. The influence of multilateral development banks (the World Bank, founded in 1945; Inter-American Development Bank, founded in 1959; the African Development Bank, founded in 1964; and the Asian Development Bank, founded in 1966) on the economic development process is also discussed. How applied ecology can enhance these multilateral development banks is described, and critical areas for future research are suggested. Regarding economic development and quality of life, the acute environmental stresses many developing countries experience are intensifying. Many of today's activities are degrading the world environment at an accelerating rate. More environmental degradation and destruction has probably occurred in the last 20 years than the previous 50 years, while GNP was rising 3% a year in developing countries. The systematic use of ecological principles in development planning can alleviate problems and is beneficial in increasing the quality of life: 1) by fostering the productivity of the natural resources upon which all development depends; 2) by favoring the maintenance of environmental quality; 3) by promoting efficient and sustainable natural resource use; and 4) by avoiding unexpected negative consequences of actions. Applied ecology in national planning consists of: national conservation strategies based on the World Conservation Strategy of 1980; environmental profiles which provide a comprehensive picture of a country's natural resources; natural resource inventories including forests, fisheries, woodlands, and grasslands; environmental sector reviews; year 2000 or 21st century studies; environmental statistics and the calculation of GNP; and carrying capacity. Applied ecology in specific development projects includes pre-project studies; design; mitigatory/compensatory measures; implementation and monitoring; evaluation; and cost/benefit analysis.
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  11. 11
    082305

    Jessica Tuchman Mathews: the case for reinventing technology to promote sustainable development.

    Lerner SD

    In: Earth summit. Conversations with architects of an ecologically sustainable future, by Steve Lerner. Bolinas, California, Commonweal, 1991. 25-38.

    The public debate on the environment leading to the 1992 Earth Summit in Brazil has been restricted to global climate change instead of global change. The Summit should be part of an ongoing process and not a framework convention followed by protocols. Separate conventions for biodiversity and deforestation are likely to emerge, even though one convention integrating both biodiversity and deforestation is needed. Many environmental and development issues overlap, suggesting a need for an international group to coordinate these issues. Negotiating separate conventions for the various issues is costly for developing countries. Rapid population growth contributes to environmental degradation, but no coordinated effort exists to reduce it. The US continues to not support the UN Population Fund which, along with threats of US boycotts and disapproval, curbs initiatives to reduce population. At present population and economic growth rates, an environmental disaster will likely happen in the early 2000s. Developing countries, which also contribute greatly to global warming, will not take actions if industrialized nations do not initiate reductions of greenhouse gases. Developed countries emit the most greenhouse gases, have been responsible for most past emissions, and have the means to initiate reductions. Of industrialized nations, the US stands alone in setting targets to reduce carbon dioxide. Unlike some European nations, the US does not have an energy policy. The US abandoned public transportation for the automobile while Europe has a strong public transportation system. The World Bank has improved greatly in addressing global environmental issues, but only 1% of its energy lending is for energy efficiency. The Bank knows that projects implemented by nongovernmental organizations are more successful than those implemented by governments, yet it continues to lend money to governments. Humans need to redesign existing linear systems to be like nature's circular systems in which by-products are starting products for another reaction.
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  12. 12
    075479

    Accounting for the environment.

    Lutz E; Munasinghe M

    FINANCE AND DEVELOPMENT. 1991 Mar; 19-21.

    Environmental awareness in the 1980s has led to efforts to improve the current UN System of National Accounts (SNA) for better measurement of the value of environmental resources when estimating income. National governments, the UN, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank are interested in solving this issue. The World Bank relies heavily on national aggregates in income accounts compiled by means of the SNA that was published in 1968 and stressed gross domestic product (GDP). GDP measures mainly market activity, but it takes does not consider the consumption of natural capital, and indirectly inhibits sustained development. The deficiencies of the current method of accounting are inconsistent treatment of manmade and natural capital, the omission of natural resources and their depletion from balance sheets, and pollution cleanup costs from national income. In the calculation of GDP pollution is overlooked, and beneficial environmental inputs are valued at zero. The calculation of environmentally adjusted net domestic product (EDP) and environmentally adjusted net income (ENI) would lower income and growth rate, as the World Resources Institute found with respect to Indonesia for 1971-84. When depreciation for oil, timber, and top soil was included the net domestic product (NDP) was only 4% compared with a 7.1% GDP. The World Bank has advocated environmental accounting since 1983 in SNA revisions. The 1989 revised Blue Book of the SNA takes environment concerns into account. Relevant research is under way in Mexico and Papua New Guinea using the UN Statistical Office framework as a system for environmentally adjusted economic accounts that computes EDP and ENI and integrates environmental data with national accounts while preserving SNA concepts.
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  13. 13
    075359

    The World Bank atlas 1991.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1991. 29 p.

    The 1991 World Bank Atlas provides 1990 statistics in 1 table for 185 countries on the following: gross national product (GNP) and rate, population and growth rate, GNP/capita and real growth rate, agriculture's share of gross domestic product (GDP), daily calorie supply/capita, life expectancy at birth, total fertility rate (TFR), and school enrollment (%) and literacy (%). Charts in 6 colors depict GNP/capita, the population growth rate between 1980-90 and ranking by country, GNP/capita growth rate between 1980-90 and ranking by country, GDP share in agriculture and ranking, daily calorie supply/capita in 1988 and ranking, life expectancy at birth and ranking, TFR and ranking, and illiteracy rate in 1985 and ranking. The ranking is of GNP/capita from lowest to highest by country against the indicator and the trend line.
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  14. 14
    072745
    Peer Reviewed

    More resources better health? A cross-national perspective.

    Kim K; Moody PM

    Social Science and Medicine. 1992 Apr; 34(8):837-42.

    Researchers analyzed data from 117 countries taken from 2 1988 World Bank publications to determine the relative importance of health care resources in predicting infant mortality within developed, developing and underdeveloped countries. Overall the variance of infant mortality, accounted by only socioeconomic resources, was 32.8% in underdeveloped (p<.01), 34.3% in developing countries (p<.05), and 60.6% in developed countries (p<.1). Further almost all these variables had constant directions of relationship with infant mortality across the 3 subgroups. For example, GNP and education were always negatively associated with infant mortality and urbanization and water were always positively associated with infant mortality. In fact, water had the greatest effect in developing countries and the smallest in underdeveloped countries. Further education was the only statistically significant socioeconomic variable in underdeveloped and developing countries (p<.05). Energy was inversely related with infant mortality in underdeveloped and developing countries, but positively related with it in industrialized countries. Further calorie had an inverse relationship with infant mortality in underdeveloped countries, but a positive relationship in developing and developed countries. In terms of health resources, the variance of infant mortality was not significant and was only an additional 8.6% of that above the variance explained by socioeconomic resources in underdeveloped countries, 5.6% in developing countries, and 3.3% in industrialized countries. Yet the association between inhabitants/ physician was consistent across all subgroups. Further the physician's role in reducing infant mortality was greatest in developing countries. The other 2 health care variables were inhabitants/nurse and inhabitants/hospital bed. In addition, as life expectancy increased, the effects of health care resources on infant mortality fell.
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  15. 15
    071713
    Peer Reviewed

    Population, development, and tropical deforestation: a cross-national study.

    Rudel TK

    RURAL SOCIOLOGY. 1989 Fall; 54(3):327-38.

    A cross-sectional analysis using data from 36 countries with tropical forests found in the 1982 Food and Agriculture Organization and United Nations Environment Programme deforestation study was conducted to examined the role population growth and capital availability play in deforestation. The unweighted analysis using data from all 36 countries found population growth to significantly account for the variations in tropical deforestation (p<.05); its significance was even greater when data from Guinea-Bissau was removed from the analysis (p<.01). Rural population growth contributed directly to deforestation by increasing the population which clears the land and indirectly by increasing the demand for wood products (p<.001). Gross national product (GNP) did not play a substantial role in deforestation in the unweighted analyses, but it did in the weighted analyses (p<.01). Since the weighted analyses exaggerated the significance of countries with large rain forests, this result suggested an interaction between forest size and the effects of capital availability on deforestation. Moreover, the correlation between GNP per capita and the area deforested for the 8 countries with the largest tropical forests stood at .575 compared with .011 for the 28 countries with small forests. Wood and agricultural exports did not account much for the variation in the extent of deforestation. the demand for tropical hardwoods did not contribute much to the rapid deforestation in African and Latin American countries, buy did in the Southeast Asian countries. Export agriculture did not account for deforestation in African and Amazon basin countries, but did play a role in deforestation in Central America. It is concluded that the efficacy of policies to preserve rain forests will depend on the size of the forest.
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  16. 16
    055098

    Syrian Arab Republic.

    Al-Assad H

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 152.

    Despite Syria's high rate of population increase, the implementation of certain socioeconomic policies will lead to a reduction of the rate of growth. During 1960-70, the growth rate stood at 32.8/1000, increasing to 33.5/1000 during 1970-81, a product of the country's young age structure and stable -- but high -- fertility rate. The country has also experienced a drop in the mortality rate, from 15/1000 during the 1960s to 8.2/1000 during the 1970s. Should these figures remain unchanged, Syria's population will double by the beginning of the next century. Nonetheless, the high population growth rate and rural-urban migration has stimulated socioeconomic improvements within an already existing development framework designed to meet the needs of population increase, to improve income levels and income distribution. These improvements can be seen in Syria's per capita GNP growth, which more than doubled between 1970-1982. The government has also adopted measures to improve health, education, cultural, and housing conditions, and has sought to create a more balanced economy. These socioeconomic policies and others -- including women's education -- will ultimately reduce population growth.
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  17. 17
    065271

    The World Bank atlas 1990.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1990. 29 p.

    The social and economic indicators presented in the 1990 edition of the World Bank Atlas provide evidence of improved living standards in most world regions since the early 1970s. 30 economies, representing half of the world's population, demonstrated a real per capita growth in the gross national product of at least 3%/year in the 1980s. On the other hand, in 1989, 46 countries (56% of the world's population) lived in economies with a gross national product per capita of under US$500. The population growth rate in 1980-89 was 1% or under in 50 countries, while total fertility was under 3.0 children in 66 countries in 1989. there were 30 countries in which fertility showed no decline in the 1970-89 period; in 10 of these countries, fertility remained unchanged but did not increase. School enrollment showed increases in all but 4 countries in this same period in the countries for which data were available, and the rate of illiteracy is now under 50% in 60 in the 97 countries that provided such statistics. Other indicators presented in this atlas include: total population in 1988 and 1989, the share of the growth domestic product represented by agriculture, daily calorie supply per capita, life expectancy. Each of these indicators is presented in both tabular and graphic form.
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  18. 18
    077120

    The World Bank atlas 1989. 22nd edition.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1989. 29 p.

    This 22nd edition of the Atlas presents current economic and social indicators that describe trends, indicate orders of magnitude, and characterize significant differences among countries. This year illiteracy rates, share of agriculture in gross domestic product, and daily calorie supply per capita are presented in the main table, and illiteracy rates rather than school enrollment ratios are charted. The Atlas reveals that real per capita income has risen during the 1980s for the majority of countries. However, more than 10% of the world's population lives in countries where the real gross national product per capita is not growing; more than half live in countries where the average gross national product per capita is still under $500. Relative income levels are also affected by fluctuations in exchange rates and terms of trade, which have been sharp during the decade. Hence the levels and ranking of gross national product per capita estimates have changed in ways not necessarily related to economic performance. The social indicators provide evidence of improved standards of living since the early 1970s. Recent trends are difficult to discern because conditions change gradually and data on these conditions are less current and less frequently gathered.
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  19. 19
    057903

    Wasting assets: natural resources in the national income accounts.

    Repetto R; Magrath W; Wells M; Beer C; Rossini F

    Washington, D.C., World Resources Institute, 1989 Jun. vi, 68 p.

    Sustainable development implies meeting the needs of today's population in terms of production and income without compromising the ability of future generations to meet theirs. The present system of national income accounting includes provision for the depreciation of man-made assets, such as plant and equipment, but it fails to show how much of current income and product are made by depleting the natural resource base of the economy. Such methods of income accounting are dangerously asymmetric. They were developed by Keynesian economists of the 1930s, who were concerned with national production under conditions of less than full employment. Under these systems of national accounting a country could exhaust its natural resources and still show a net profit. The UN Statistical Office's system of national accounts, which has been adopted by most developing countries, fails to account adequately for depreciation of publically owned natural resources. The integration of natural resource accounting into national income accounts can be achieved by assigning a cost value to natural resources, which would have to be subtracted, as are other costs, when the gross national product is adjusted to calculate the net national product. A case study of national resource accounting applied to petroleum, timber, and soil resources of the island of Java in Indonesia is presented. By usual accounting methods, Indonesia's gross domestic product increased on average 7.1%/yr between 1971 and 1984. But this figure does not take into account the depreciation of oil and timber reserves or land. Upland farm production during these years, for example, increased Indonesia's total agricultural by 4% a year, but the capitalized losses in future productivity due to soil erosion are approximately 4% of the annual value of upland farm production, thus cancelling out the productivity increase, and, since the population is increasing, borrowing from the future. Failure to subtract depreciation of soil, timber, and petroleum accounts for 3.1% of the annual increase in Indonesia's gross domestic product. If sustainable development is to be achieved, resource depletion must be included in cost accounting for national income accounts.
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  20. 20
    052075

    The World Bank atlas 1988.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1988. 29 p.

    This 21st edition of the Atlas presents economic, social and demographic indicators in the form of tables and charts covering the world. The main yardstick of economic activity in a country is the gross national product. 60 developing countries have had declining gross national product, although for most countries real per capita income has risen. Social indicators show evidence of improved standards of living since the early 1980s. Population estimates and other demographic data are from the UN Population Division; education data are from the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, and calorie data are from the Food and Agriculture Organization. A total of 10 charts and maps show world population; statistics on 185 countries and territories; gross national product, 1987; population growth rate, 1980-87; gross national product per capita growth rate, 1980-87; agriculture in gross domestic product, 1987; daily calorie supply, 1985; life expectancy at birth, 1987; total fertility rate, 1987; and school enrollment ratio, 1985. Throughout the Atlas, data for China do not include Taiwan. The World Bank, a multilateral development institution, consists of 2 distinct entities: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, which finances its lending operations from borrowings in the world capital markets, and the International Development Association, which extends assistance to the poorest countries on easier terms.
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  21. 21
    049240

    Uganda.

    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1988 Mar; 1-6.

    Uganda occupies 94,354 square miles in central Africa, bounded by Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Zaire, and Sudan. It includes part of Lake Victoria, and the Ruwenzori mountains are on its border with Zaire. The country is largely on a plateau and thus has a pleasant climate. 12% of the land is devoted to national parks and game preserves. The northeast is semiarid; the southwest and west are rainy. The population of 15,900,896, growing at 3.7% a year, is mostly rural and is composed of 3 ethnic groups: The Bantu, including the Buganda, the Banyankole and the Basoga; the Nilo-Hamitic Iteso; and the Nilots. There are also some Asians and Arabs. The official language is English, but Luganda and Swahili are widely used. The majority of the people are Christian. Literacy is about 52%, and 57% of school-age children attend primary school. Infant mortality rate is 108/1000, and life expectancy is 49 years. The 1st Englishman to see Uganda was Captain John Speke in 1862. The Kingdom of Buganda became a British protectorate in 1894, and the protectorate was extended to the rest of the country in 1896. In the 1950s the British began an africanization of the government prior to formal independence, but the 1st general elections in 1961 were boycotted by the Bugandans, who wanted autonomy. In the 2nd election, in March, 1962, the Democratic Party, led by Benedicto Kiwanuka, defeated the Uganda People's Congress (UPC), led by Apollo Milton Obote; however, a month later, the UPC allied with the Buganda traditionalists, the Kabaka Yekka, and formed a collision government under Obote. Uganda became independent in 1962 with the King of Buganda, Sir Edward Frederick Mutesa II as president. Political rivalries continued, and in 1966 Prime Minister Obote suspended the constitution, and the Buganda government lost its semiautonomy. Obote's government was overthrown in 1971 by Idi Amin Dada, under whose 8-year reign of terror 100,000 Ugandans were murdered. Amin was ousted by an invading Tanzanian army, and various governments succeeded one another in Uganda, including one headed by Obote from 1980-85, which laid waste a large section of the country in an attempt to stamp out an insurgency led by the National Resistance Army (NRA). Obote was overthrown by an army brigade, but the insurgency continued until, in 1986, the NRA seized power and established a transitional government with Yoweri Museveni as president. The transitional government has established a human rights commission and has instituted wide-ranging economic reforms with the help of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to rehabilitate the economy, restore the infrastructure of destroyed transportation and communications facilities, and bring the annual inflation rate of 250% under control. Uganda has ample fertile land and rich deposits of copper and cobalt, but, due to economic mismanagement and political instability, is one of the world's poorest countries. The gross domestic product in 1983 was $5.9 billion. Exports totalled $380 million, 90% of which was accounted for by coffee. Most industry is devoted to the processing of agricultural produce and the manufacture of agricultural tools, but production of construction materials is resuming. Uganda has 800 miles of railroad, linking Mombasa on the Indian Ocean with the interior, and 20,000 miles of roads, radiating from Kampala, the capital. There is an international airport at Entebbe, built with Yugoslav assistance. The army, i.e., the National Resistance Army, receives military aid from Libya and the Soviet Union. The United States broke off diplomatic relations with Uganda during the Amin regime, but has provided roughly $43 million of aid and development assistance during the 1980s.
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  22. 22
    049238

    Kuwait.

    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1988 Mar; 1-8.

    The Republic of Kuwait occupies an area of 6,880 square miles at the head of the Persian Gulf, bounded on the north and west by Iraq and on the south by Saudi Arabia. 1.7 million people live in Kuwait, of whom 680,000 are Kuwaitis; the rest are expatriate Arabs, Iranians, and Indians. The annual growth rate of Kuwaitis is 3.8%. The Kuwaitis are 70% Sunni and 30% Shi'a Muslims. Arabic is the official language, but English is widely spoken. Kuwait is a highly developed welfare state with a free market economy. Education is free and compulsory, and literacy is 71%. Infant mortality among Kuwaitis is 26.1/1000, and life expectancy is 70 years. Medical care is free. Kuwait was first settled by Arab tribes from Qatar. In 1899 the ruler, Sheikh Mubarak Al Sabah, whose descendents still rule Kuwait, signed a treaty with Britain; and Kuwait remained a British protectorate until it became independent in 1961. A constitution was promulgated in 1962, and a National Assembly was elected by adult male suffrage in 1963. However, the Assembly has since been suspended due to internal friction. Kuwait and Iraq have been disputing Kuwait's northern border since 1913, and the southern border includes a Divided Zone, where sovereignty is disputed by Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Despite the fall in oil prices in 1982 and the loss of trade due to the Iran-Iraq war, Kuwait is one of the world's wealthiest countries with a per capita gross domestic product of $10,175. Oil accounts for 85% of Kuwait's exports, which total $7.42 billion; income from foreign investments (about $60 billion) makes up most of the balance. All petroleum-related activities are managed by the Kuwait Petroleum Corporation (KPC), which includes the nationalized Kuwait Oil Company, petrochemical industries, the 22-vessel tanker fleet, and refineries and service stations in Europe, where Kuwaiti oil is marketed under the brand name Q8. Kuwait has more than 66 billion barrels of recoverable oil but limits production to 999,000 barrels per day. Other industrial products include ammonia, chemical fertilizers, fishing and water desalinization (215 million gallons a day). Kuwait imports machinery, manufactured goods, and food. Nevertheless exports exceed imports by $2 billion, and the Kuwaiti dinar is a strong currency (1 KD=US$3.57). About $75 billion is kept in 2 reserve funds: the Fund for Future Generations and the General Reserve Fund. In addition to domestic expenditures and imports, Kuwait has extended $5 billion worth of loans to developing countries, made through the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development. Kuwait has been engaged in continuing border disputes with Iraq since 1961, but the most immediate threat to Kuwait has been the Iran-Iraq war. Kuwait lent Iraq $6 billion, in retaliation for which Iran bombed a Kuwaiti oil depot, and Shi'a Muslim terrorists bombed the French and US embassies and hijacked a Kuwaiti airliner in 1984. Iran also attacked Kuwaiti tankers. In 1987 the US reflagged 11 Kuwaiti tankers to protect them from Iranian attacks. Kuwait has been modernizing its own military forces as well as purchasing sophisticated weapons from the UK, the US, France, and the USSR. In 1981 Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Oman formed the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) for mutual defense, and in 1987 Kuwait was elected chairman of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). Kuwait has diplomatic relations with the USSR and the People's Republic of China, as well as with the US, which has supplied Kuwait with $1.5 billion of sophisticated weaponry from foreign military sales (FMC). The US is Kuwait's largest supplier (after Japan), and Kuwait is the 5th largest market in the Middle East for US goods, despite the disincentives brought about by the Arab boycott of Israel.
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  23. 23
    049237

    Djibouti.

    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1988 Feb; 1-7.

    The Republic of Djibouti, an area of 9,000 square miles on the Horn of Africa, is bounded on 3 sides by Ethiopia and Somalia and on the 4th by the Gulf of Aden, where the capital city, Djibouti, with its good natural harbor, is located. The population of 387,000, growing at 5.1% a year, is divided between the majority Somalis (of the Issa, Ishaak and Gadaboursi tribes) and the Afars and Danakils. All are Cushite-speaking, although the official language is French. Almost all of the people are Muslim. The country became independent of France in 1977; it had been the French Territory of Afars and Issas from 1966-77 and French Somaliland from 1884 to 1966. During the Second World War, Djibouti was governed from Vichy until 1942, when the country joined the Free French, and a Djibouti battalion participated in the liberation of France. The country is governed by a president (Mr. Hassan Gouled Aptidon), a prime minister (Mr. Barkat Gourad Hammadou), and a 65-member parliament, elected by universal suffrage. There is only 1 permitted political party, the Rassemblement Populaire Pour le Progres (RPP), which is dominated by the Issas. There are no women in high government positions, but the status of women is somewhat higher than in most Islamic countries. Djibouti has a small army, navy, and air force, supplemented by 4000 French troops. The level of socioeconomic development is not good. The economy is stagnant, and the country is afflicted with recurring drought. Only 20% of the people are literate; infant mortality is 114/1000, and life expectancy is 50 years. Per capita income is $450. Malaria is prevalent; there is only 1 hospital; and drinking water is unsafe. There are no natural resources, no industry, and very little agriculture. Most of the country's gross domestic product of $339 million is derived from servicing the port's facilities for container shipment and transshipment and maintaining the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad. The unit of currency is the Djibouti franc, and the official exchange rate is 177 DF to US$1. Djibouti's imports amount to $230 million, most of which are consumed in the country and paid for by French economic assistance and $3 million a year from the US. Djibouti is a member of the UN, the Organization of African Unity, the Arab League, the Nonaligned Movement, the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), and the Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development (IGADD).
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  24. 24
    049236

    Zimbabwe.

    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1988 Mar; 1-8.

    Zimbabwe is a land-locked plateau country of 151,000 square miles, divided into 8 provinces, in Southeastern Africa, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. Its population consists of 8.8 million blacks, divided between the Shona-speaking Mashona (80%) and the Sindebele-speaking Matabele (19%), 100,000 whites, 20,000 coloreds, and 10,000 Asians. Many of the blacks are Christians. More than 1/2 the whites migrated to Zimbabwe after the Second World War at a rate of about 1000 a year until the mid-1970s; since then 12,000 whites have left the country. The official language is English, and education is free. Most African children 5-19 years old attend school, and literacy is between 40% and 50%. The University of Zimbabwe is located in Harare, the capital, and there are several technical institutes and teacher-training colleges. Zimbabwe has been inhabited since the stone age, and evidence of a high indigenous civilization remains in the "Great Zimbabwe Ruins" near Masvingo. The present black population is descended from later migrations of Bantu people from central Africa. Cecil Rhodes was granted concessions for mineral rights in the area in 1888, and the territory, which administered by the British South Africa Company, was called Rhodesia. Southern Rhodesia became a self-governing entity within the British Empire in 1913. In 1953 Southern Rhodesia was joined with the British protectorates of Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland in the Central African Federation, but this dissolved in 1963, and Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland became independent as Zambia and Malawi in 1964. Independence was withheld from Rhodesia because Prime Minister Ian Smith refused to give Britain assurances that the country would move toward majority rule. In 1965 Smith issued a Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) from the UK. In 1966 the UN Security Council imposed mandatory economic sanctions on Rhodesia. Within Rhodesia the major African nationalist groups -- the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) and the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) united into the "Patriotic Front" and began to engage in guerrilla warfare against the minority government. Finally, in 1979, Rhodesia returned briefly to colonial status, during which time a new constitution was written, implementing majority rule; the UN Security Council called off economic sanctions; and elections were held. Robert Mugabe, leader of the victorious ZANU Party, was asked to form Zimbabwe's 1st government. The British Government formally granted independence to Zimbabwe on April 18, 1980. THe new government was to consist of a President (Mr. Mugabe), elected by universal suffrage, and a bicameral parliament. Zimbabwe has followed a policy of national reconciliation at home and "active nonalignment" abroad. In 1982, Zimbabwe was chosen by the Organization of African Unity to hold one of the nonpermanent seats in the UN Security Council, and in 1986, Zimbabwe was the site of the Nonaligned Movement summit meeting, and Mr. Mugabe became chairman of that organization. The years of sanctions, guerrilla warfare, and white emigration, combined with a foreign exchange crisis (the Zimbabwe dillar = US$.60), and the drought of 1987 took their toll on the Zimbabwean economy. Gross domestic product declined between 1974 and 1979, although by 1986, it was $4.7 billion, with per capita income $275. Zimbabwe is rich in natural resources, especially coal and chrome; and industry, which accounts for 69% of the gross domestic product, was forced by the sanctions to diversify. Plentiful coal deposits make the country less dependent on imported oil for an energy source. Agriculture, which constitutes 15% of the gross domestic product, is the backbone of the economy, with corn as the largest crop and tobacco as the largest export crop; both were hurt by the 1987 drought. Another drain on the economy was the money diverted to pay for training and equipping the armed forces. The British Military Assistance Training Team has been the largest source of training, but jet fighters had to be bought from China and helicopters from Italy. The United States, which broke off relations after the Unilateral Declaration of Independence, has contributed $380 million in loans and grants to Zimbabwe in the years between 1981 and 1986.
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  25. 25
    043909
    Peer Reviewed

    An economic evaluation of "health for all".

    Patel M

    HEALTH POLICY AND PLANNING. 1986 Mar; 1(1):37-47.

    This economic analysis assesses the probable costs of implementing various activities of the World Health Organization's (WHO's) global strategy of "health for all by the year 2000" and the likelihood that developing countries will be able to afford these costs, either on their own or with the assistance of developed countries. If this policy is to be transformed into concrete results, there must be a plan complete with budgetary requirements, planned activities, and expected results specified in adequate detail. The overall costs of the activities proposed by the global strategy would amount to approximately 5% of the gross national product of most developing countries, with water supplies and primary health care comprising the most expensive activities. Although there is a good match between estimated resource requirements and planned activities, the desired outcomes are often unlikely to result from the activities proposed. At present, all 25 industrial market and nonmarket industrial developed countries have already achieved the outcome goals of the global strategy; however, these countries account for only 25% of the world's population. Of the 63 middle-income countries, 54 have already achieved a gross national product per capita of over US$500, but only 22 have an infant mortality rate better than 50/1000. Very few low-income countries are close to reaching their targets for income, infant mortality, life expectancy, or literacy. On the basis of current trends, 25-33% of countries are considered unlikely to achieve the outcome goals by the year 2000. In general, it appears that expenditure targets are too low to cover the needed health services activities. Further research on the costs of health promoting activities such as immunization and primary health care should be given high priority.
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