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[Sanaa], Yemen, Ministry of Youth and Sports, 1998 Nov.  p.This policy discusses the National Strategy for Integrating Youth into Development for the Republic of Yemen. It states previous strategy goals and addresses the issues and problems with those and formulates suggested strategic actions that combat those issues.
Arlington, Virginia, JSI, DELIVER, .  p. (Policy Brief)Driven by the increasing demand for and popularity of family planning, increasing population size, and changing demographics with more couples entering their fertile years, the financing requirement for contraceptives has become increasingly onerous. Strategies to finance contraceptives include expansion of the donor base; increased use of cost recovery, including revolving drug funds; greater use of the private sector; and direct government financing of contraceptive procurement. None of these is mutually exclusive, and to ensure contraceptive security, most countries are likely to use some or all of these approaches, and many others. Evidence suggests that many governments are beginning to finance contraceptive procurement using national resources, but limited data are publicly available regarding the global extent of this financing. This brief details the findings of a survey of the extent to which national governments of developing countries are using national resources to finance contraceptive procurement. The brief examines the different types of financing used, some of the benefits of this type of financing, and some of the issues it raises. Hopefully, this study can be repeated to track spending and will spur more rigorous efforts to measure this practice. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., United States Department of State, Office of the United States Global AIDS Coordinator, 2005 Jun. 184 p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No. PC-AAB-508)This June FY 2005 Operational Plan serves as an update of the February 2005 Operational Plan. The FY 2005 Operational Plan follows "The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief -- U.S. Five-Year Global HIV/AIDS Strategy" and sets out a course to have an immediate impact on people and strengthen the capacity of governments and NGOs to expand programs quickly over the next several years. By the end of FY 2005 the Emergency Plan will provide direct and indirect care and support for approximately 3,500,000 individuals, and will facilitate access to antiretroviral therapy for at least 550,000 individuals. Section III of this document provides information on each country's contribution to the total number of individuals to be receiving care and support and antiretroviral therapy by the end of FY 2005. The country-specific target tables also provide the FY 2008 care and treatment targets for each country. The FY 2008 targets were set at the beginning of the Emergency Plan. The sum of all countries' FY 2008 care/support targets equals the Emergency Plan's goal of ten million individuals receiving care and support by the end of year five. The sum of all countries' FY 2008 treatment targets equals the Emergency Plan's goal of two million people on treatment at the end of year five. (excerpt)
Revista de Saude Publica / Journal of Public Health. 2006 Apr; 40 Suppl:80-87.The paper critically analyzes, from the gender standpoint, official results presented in the Brazilian government report to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/ AIDS (UNAIDS). Specifically, the fulfillment of 2003 targets set forth in the United Nations Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS, under the category of Human Rights and Reduction of the Economic and Social Impact of AIDS, are evaluated. Key concepts are highlighted, including indicators and strategies that may help civilian society better monitor these targets until 2010. (author's)
Nairobi, Kenya, Ministry of Health, 2004 Jun.  p. (IUCD Method Briefs Update)The World Health Organization (WHO) recently revised the guidelines for IUCD use as part of an update of its Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (MEC). These revisions will improve quality of care and reduce medical barriers for women who are considering an IUCD as a contraceptive method. Based on the latest clinical and epidemiological research, the revisions are particularly significant for women at risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, and women living with HIV or AIDS. Research has shown that while some conditions restrict IUCD initiation, they do not necessarily affect the safety of continued use. Under the new guidelines, for example, a client who has gonorrhea or chlamydial infection is considered a Category 4 for IUCD initiation and should be advised to choose another method. However, if an IUCD user develops an STI, she can be treated with antibiotics without the IUCD being removed (Category 2). In addition, the client should be counseled about partner notification and treatment, and condom use. (excerpt)
Poverty, infectious disease, and environmental degradation as threats to collective security: a UN Panel Report.
Population and Development Review. 2005 Sep; 31(3):595-600.Among the documents to be considered at the 2005 World Summit at the UN General Assembly in September is the report of the Secretary-General’s High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change. The Panel, chaired by Anand Panyarachun, former Prime Minister of Thailand, brought together 16 prominent individuals to assess current threats to peace and security and the institutional capacity, especially within the UN, to respond to them. Its report, A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility, was issued in December 2004. Most of the publicity surrounding the report focused on its recommendations for UN reform, especially its proposals for expansion of the Security Council. The first two-thirds of the document, however, is concerned with the substance of collective security issues and prevention strategies. Defining a threat to international security as “any event or process that leads to large-scale death or lessening of life chances and undermines States as the basic unit of the international system,” the Panel identified six clusters of existing or anticipated threats: Economic and social threats (in particular, poverty, infectious disease, and environmental degradation); inter-State conflict; internal conflict (civil war, genocide, other large-scale atrocities); nuclear, radiological, chemical, and biological weapons; terrorism; and transnational organized crime. The section of the report (paragraphs 44–73) treating economic and social threats, titled “Poverty, infectious disease and environmental degradation,” is reproduced below. Paragraph numbers have been omitted. (author's)
Population and Development Review. 2005 Jun; 31(2):389-398.The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, an elaborate international project set up in 2001 under UN auspices, aims “to assess the consequences of ecosystem change for human wellbeing and to establish the scientific basis for actions needed to enhance the conservation and sustainable use of ecosystems and their contributions to human well-being.” It involves over 1,000 experts as panel and working group members, authors, and reviewers. Numerous reports are planned, covering the global and regional situations, scenarios of the future, and options for sustainable management. The first of these, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Synthesis Report, was issued in March 2005. The Report is organized around four main findings. The first two concern the past: what has happened and what it has meant for human welfare. The other two concern the future: what may happen and what might be done to improve matters. The time frame is the last 50 years and the next 50. Ecological change is assessed in terms of ecosystem services— the benefits humans receive from ecosystems. These include: provisioning services (supplying food, fresh water, timber, etc.); regulating services (climate regulation, erosion control, pollination); cultural services (recreation, aesthetic enjoyment); and supporting services (soil formation, photosynthesis, nutrient cycling). Of 24 services examined in the assessment, 15 are determined to be in decline or are being drawn on at an unsustainable rate. The welfare costs of these changes are disproportionately borne by the poor. Four world scenarios are developed to explore plausible ecological futures, varying in degrees of regionalism and economic liberalization and in approaches to ecosystem management. Under all of them the outlook is for continued pressure on consumption of ecosystem services and continued loss of biodiversity. In particular, ecosystem degradation “is already a significant barrier to achieving the Millennium Development Goals agreed to by the international community in September 2000 and the harmful consequences of this degradation could grow significantly worse in the next 50 years.” Remedy will be demanding: “An effective set of responses to ensure the sustainable management of ecosystems requires substantial changes in institutions and governance, economic policies and incentives, social and behavior factors, technology, and knowledge.” Such changes “are not currently under way.” The excerpt below, covering Findings #1 and #2 of the Assessment, is taken from the section of the report titled Summary for Decision-makers. Most of the charts are omitted. Parenthetical levels of certainty correspond to the following probabilities: very certain, = 98%; high certainty, 85–98%; medium, 65–85%; low, 52–65%. (author's)
Santiago, Chile, United Nations, Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, 2004 May. 348 p.The 2002–2003 edition of the Social panorama of Latin America explores issues related to many of the Millennium Development Goals. Three of the five chapters (on poverty, hunger and gender inequality) assess how likely it is that the countries of the region will succeed in meeting the targets in these areas agreed upon by the States Members of the United Nations for 2015. One of the chapters that refers to the Millennium Development Goals deals with hunger and food insecurity. This chapter, which was produced in collaboration with the World Food Programme, provides information on the scale, trends and main causes of child malnutrition and undernourishment in 24 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The chapter on poverty includes figures for Latin American countries in 2001 and 2002, together with estimates for the region as a whole for 2003. This chapter points out that the poverty reduction process has been at a standstill since 1997, but it also notes that many countries may still manage to halve their extreme poverty rates by 2015. The chapter on gender indicates that poverty in Latin America is more widespread among women than men and that most indigent households are headed by women. Moreover, if it were not for the financial contribution made by women, poverty would increase by at least 10 percentage points in most of the countries. The discussion also deals with other disadvantages suffered by women, such as those linked to the lack of social recognition, unpaid domestic work, the slow pace of progress in their involvement in politics (particularly in decision–making positions), higher rates of unemployment and wage discrimination. The chapter on social expenditure furnishes information on 18 Latin American countries and analyses trends in social spending over the last decade. The impact on social expenditure of the economic slowdown that began in 1998 is discussed, and the point is made that the higher priority assigned to public social expenditure (measured as a percentage of GDP) avoided what could have been a greater reduction of per capita GDP. The final chapter examines labour policy and singles out some interesting initiatives aimed at combating unemployment, poor job quality and underemployment. Information supplied by the countries’ ministries of labour serves as a basis for an analysis of cross–country differences in terms of legal working age, minimum wage levels, types of contracts and the right to form labour unions and to strike. It is further noted that, despite some progress in labour legislation, there are still serious problems with the enforcement of existing laws and regulations. The section on the international social agenda summarizes the main points agreed upon at the World Summit on Sustainable Development, known informally as Rio+10. (author's)
The level of effort in the national response to HIV / AIDS: the AIDS Program Effort Index (API), 2003 round.
Washington, D.C., USAID, 2003 Dec.  p.The success of HIV/AIDS programs can be affected by many factors, including political commitment, program effort, socio-cultural context, political systems, economic development, extent and duration of the epidemic , and resources available. Many programs track low-level inputs (e.g., training workshops conducted, condoms distributed) or outcomes (e.g., percentage of acts protected by condom use). Measures of program effort are generally confined to the existence or lack of major program elements (e.g., condom social marketing, counseling and testing). To assist countries in such evaluation efforts, several guides have been developed by the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and other organizations (see, for example, “Meeting the Behavioural Data Collection Needs of National HIV/AIDS and STD Programmes” and “National AIDS Programs: A Guide to Monitoring and Evaluation of HIV/AIDS Programs”). However, information about the policy environment, level of political support, and other contextual issues affecting the success and failure of national AIDS programs has not been addressed previously. (excerpt)
Towards putting farmers in control: a second case study of the rural communication system for development in Mexico's tropical wetlands. [Agricultores a las riendas: un segundo estudio de casos del sistema de comunicación rural para el desarrollo en los pantanos tropicales mexicanos]
Rome, Italy, FAO, 1990. v, 58 p. (Development Communication Case Study No. 9)This is the second Case Study of the Rural Communication System for Development in Mexico's Tropical Wetlands. The first was written in late 1985 and published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in early 1987. The important changes that have taken place in Mexico since 1985, in particular as they relate to development in the tropical wetlands and the communication system working in that context, now warrant a second Case Study. To set the present Case Study in its proper context, it should, ideally, be read in conjunction with the earlier one, but since this may not be possible for all readers, the salient information provided in the earlier study will be given in the Background section, below. The first part of this Study will set the scene and describe the approach and the work being carried out, while the last section will attempt to examine the situation from various perspectives and offer some views regarding its future prospects. It should be noted, however, that this Study is not an evaluation. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division, 2003 Apr. 18 p. (Statistical Papers Series A, Vol. LV, No. 2; ST/ESA/STAT/Ser.A/225)This issue of the Population and Vital Statistics Report presents 2001 and 2002 estimates of world and continental population, as well as corresponding 2001 estimates for 235 countries or areas of the world, which are listed separately in the Report. Also shown for each country or area are the results of the latest nation-wide census of population (total, male and female) and, wherever possible, nationally representative statistics of live births, deaths and infant deaths (deaths under one year of age) for the most recent year available. If a nation-wide population census has never been taken, but a sample survey has, the survey results are shown in the "Latest population census" column until census data become available and are footnoted accordingly. (excerpt)
A global strategy for reproductive health commodity security. Background paper for the UNFPA consultative meeting on reproductive health commodity security, 22 September 2000.
[New York, New York], UNFPA, 2000. , 27 p.UNFPA, in response to the growing need in developing countries to ensure the security of their reproductive health commodity supplies and based upon the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), has developed "A Global Strategy for Reproductive Health Commodity Security." Specifically, the RHCS strategy aims to help Governments strengthen their capacity to "ensure that by 2015 all primary health-care and family planning facilities are able to provide, directly or through referral, the widest achievable range of safe and effective family planning and contraceptive methods; essential obstetric care; prevention and management of reproductive tract infections, including sexually transmitted diseases; and barriermethods, such as male and female condoms and microbicides if available, to prevent infection." (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNDP, 2002. 17 p.This document gives an overview of the United Nations Development Programme’s current activities in the area of HIV/AIDS. It focuses on results achieved in supporting countries in their efforts to effectively respond to the complex challenge of reversing the spread of the epidemic. (author's)
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2002 Jul. 48 p.This report contains important new data about why young people are key to defeating the global HIV/AIDS epidemic, including results from more than 60 new national surveys. It reaffirms that we must accord top priority to making investments in the well-being of young people and to engaging them in the fight against HIV/AIDS. (author's)
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2002. 19 p.To capture some of the lessons learned in India, UNICEF commissioned an independent evaluation of its WES programme in India over the past 30 years. The evaluation, which took place in 1998 and 1999, was conducted by a team of independent sector specialists, using literature reviews, interviews, surveys and other methods. The conclusions were published in a report. This publication, which presents the team’s findings in a format accessible to a wider audience, explores lessons learned that can help other nations in their efforts to provide universal WES coverage for their citizens. (author's)
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2002 Mar.  p.The world is experiencing vaccine shortages serious enough to jeopardize immunization programmes for children. This situation is especially grave for the world’s poorest countries and poses a threat to the lives and well-being of children and families. The shortages affect virtually every category of traditional vaccines given to children in poor countries: diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis (DTP); tuberculosis (BCG); oral polio vaccine (OPV); tetanus toxoid (TT); measles; yellow fever; and meningitis. UNICEF, which meets around 40 per cent of the global demand for children’s vaccines and is the key supplier of vaccines to the world’s poorest countries, is seeking urgent global responses to prevent what could become a crisis. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2002 Apr. 15 p.Basic education is the right of every girl and boy. UNICEF is especially concerned about including children who are excluded from learning: those who are out of school, and those who are excluded while in school. Providing all children with access to schooling was the primary focus of the early drive towards Education For All (EFA) following the World Conference on Education For All in Jomtien, Thailand, in 1990. Progress has been made towards this goal. Primary-school enrolments have increased in all regions. However, of an estimated 700 million primary-school-aged children, roughly 120 million are still out of school today and the majority of these are girls. Ensuring access alone is not enough. The quality of education is also a significant issue, closely linked to the state of girls’ education. At the 2000 World Education Forum in Dakar, Senegal, 164 countries agreed to work for elimination of the gender gap in enrolment (gender parity) by the year 2005, and gender equality by 2015. We are nowhere near these goals. (author's)
New York, New York, United Nations, 2003. ix, 101 p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/218)The primary objective of the present report is to examine the levels and trends of population migration to selected countries in Asia using available statistics as a guide, and focusing primarily on changes that have occurred since 1970. The report discusses the burgeoning of labour migration during the past decades, in response to the development of strong economies in Eastern, Southeastern and Western Asia. It also touches on permanent settlement of people and refugee flows that have characterized several countries in Asia. (excerpt)
HIV-infected women and their families: psychosocial support and related issues. A literature review.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2003. vi, 57 p. (Occasional Paper; WHO/RHR/03.07; WHO/HIV/2003.07)This review is divided into three sections. Section one provides a synthesis of the reviewed literature on prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, voluntary HIV testing and counselling (VCT), and other issues that impact on the care, psychosocial support and counselling needs of HIV-infected women and their families in the perinatal period. Section two provides examples from around the world of projects that focus on the care and support of women and families, with a focus on MTCT. The fi nal section contains recommendations on psychosocial support and counselling for HIV-infected women and families. (excerpt)
Where there's a will there's a way. Nursing and midwifery champions in HIV / AIDS care in Southern Africa.
Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2003. 65 p. (Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS/03.19E)The report describes some of the many ‘champions’ of the profession—individuals who, with singular commitment and resourcefulness, are delivering good-quality care to people with HIV/AIDS, or who are otherwise helping families and communities to understand the epidemic, to come to terms with their own fears and prejudices, and to protect themselves from infection. However, this is not some kind of league of heroines and heroes of the epidemic. The champions featured here are just a few of the ordinary nurses and midwives who are simply doing their job well, under difficult circumstances. There are, without doubt, very many more of them. In describing the work of a few, the intention is to pay tribute to all who are doing a caring, committed job in the face of great odds, and to share as widely as possible the valuable lessons they have learned from experience. The report was commissioned by the SADC AIDS Network of Nurses and Midwives (SANNAM) in collaboration with UNAIDS. It involved original investigation in the field by a consultant who, over the course of one month, visited five countries in Southern Africa—namely, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Zambia—to link up with the national nursing associations and speak to a wide range of people. In addition to nurses and midwives, these included some of the people they work with in communities, such as volunteer caregivers, members of youth groups, and PLWHA and their families, as well as people working within ministries of health, and relevant United Nations agencies and nongovernmental organiza-tions. Besides being aimed at nurses and midwives themselves, the report is addressed at all those with an interest in improving the quality of care and support of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), especially those responsible for training, managing and supervising nursing and midwifery staff, and policy-makers within the health services. (excerpt)
Victoria, Canada, Communication Initiative, 2002 Dec 19. 2 p.Implemented in 2001 by UNICEF-Peru as part of a five-year initiative, this programme addresses the issue of children's, adolescents', and women's rights by bolstering interpersonal communication skills among public services workers, intermediaries between supply and demand (community agents, teachers, and community leaders), and families and individuals. The programme, which includes remote communities of the Andes and Amazon in its reach, draws on the use of culturally relevant and non-threatening messages to increase the participation of communities and families so they can demand that their rights be respected. Other features of the project include providing technical assistance to improve communication among those who provide basic services, and revamping the manner in which the media treats issues related to children and women's rights. (author's)
Vaccines and biologicals. Ensuring the quality of vaccines at country level. Guidelines for health staff.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Vaccines and Biologicals, 2002. viii, 40 p. (WHO/V&B/02.16)The present guidelines have been prepared specifically for countries procuring their vaccines through UNICEF, and are aimed at all programme and regulatory authority personnel at country level, UNICEF and WHO country staff as well as staff of partner and support agencies, and all who handle, store and use vaccines. They describe the procedures necessary for ensuring vaccine quality from the moment when production starts until the time of administration. Some of the procedures described can be applied to any country, wherever they obtain their vaccines, while others are specific to UNICEF vaccine supply procedures. Part 1 describes the procedures for ensuring that vaccine production is maintained at a high standard. This is mainly the role of WHO, working closely with manufacturers and regulatory authorities. Part 2 describes the procedures for ensuring safe and efficient shipping to the country of destination. This is mainly the role of UNICEF, working with airline agencies and forwarding agents. Part 3 describes both the control mechanisms needed by receiving countries so that only high-quality shipments are accepted, and the systems of storage, handling, reconstitution and administration needed to ensure that the quality of vaccines is maintained until the moment of use. This is mainly the role of health ministries and immunization service staff. (excerpt)
Information note on the 10th anniversary of the International Conference on Population and Development - ICPD. Update 30 May 2003.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2003 May 30. 3 p.As we approach the 10th Anniversary of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), the mid-point of its 20-year Programme of Action, there is much to celebrate and to look forward to. Many countries have been able to translate the commitments they made in Cairo into policies and action programmes designed to transform the lives of women. But much remains to be done. At this point in time, most member states, UNFPA, and other partners believe that the best way to commemorate ICPD is by doing a pragmatic and constructive country-by-country analysis of achievements, of constraints, of lessons learned and to feed back the results so as to enrich and accelerate the implementation of the ICPD PoA. The 10th Anniversary is also an opportunity to reflect on the ICPD goals, and demonstrate how achieving them will contribute to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Several activities are already planned at the national, regional and global levels. Here is a summary of those activities. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2003. 46, 6 p. (UNFPA Programme Advisory Note)This document is intended to help UNFPA country staff plan national programmes, develop strategies and projects, review progress made, and assess the soundness of their strategies. It illustrates how one can increase men’s involvement in reproductive health issues through research, advocacy, behaviour change communication and education, policy dialogues and well-tailored and innovative reproductive health services. It starts by defining partnering with men and providing a rationale for this approach from the standpoint of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). A framework for selecting essential elements of such a programme is then described. Examples are provided of ways in which UNFPA has supported a partnering approach, followed by a summary of lessons learned. A matrix of sample outputs and their indicators provides options for defining and measuring results. Additional resources are also provided for information on gender, masculinities, adolescent boys, education, services, working with special populations, and research on partnering with men. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2003. 6 p.Emergency obstetric care is the cornerstone of UNFPA's efforts to improve pregnancy outcomes. This six-panel checklist is designed to help programme planners and managers monitor elements that are critical to providing a high quality of emergency obstetric care. (author's)